The impact of Tai Chi exercise on coronary heart disease: A systematic review

University of Nevada, Las Vegas, School of Nursing, Las Vegas, Nevada 89154, USA.
Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners (Impact Factor: 1.02). 07/2011; 23(7):376-81. DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-7599.2011.00597.x
Source: PubMed


(a) To explore current studies on Tai Chi and its impact on coronary heart disease (CHD), (b) provide critique of existing studies, and (c) provide recommendations for clinical practice and future research.
Comprehensive review of literature.
Tai Chi is a safe alternative exercise for patients who are at risk of CHD or with existing CHD. Implementing Tai Chi exercise may improve serum lipids, blood pressure, and heart rate.
Nurse practitioners (NPs) are in an ideal position to facilitate health promotion and disease prevention. NPs may prescribe Tai Chi as an alternative exercise therapy for their patients who are at risk for developing CHD and even for those with existing CHD. Tai Chi exercise may help prevent and even reverse the progression of cardiac disease.

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Available from: Alona D. Angosta, Jan 28, 2015
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    • "It has become an effective mean of secondary prevention of CVDs. It is found that Tai Chi could not only contribute to lowing BP smoothly, recovering the heart function, reversing cardiovascular risk factors, but also improving symptoms and quality of life (QOL) [55–57]. Although there are 2 SRs about Tai Chi on lowering resting blood pressure (including hypertension, acute myocardial infarction, older people with chronic conditions, healthy elderly men, middle-aged women, and other diseases) [52, 57], the role of Tai Chi for EH is still unknown due to different inclusion criteria and search strategies. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. To assess the current clinical evidence of Tai Chi for essential hypertension (EH). Search Strategy. 7 electronic databases were searched until 20 April, 2013. Inclusion Criteria. We included randomized trials testing Tai Chi versus routine care or antihypertensive drugs. Trials testing Tai Chi combined with antihypertensive drugs versus antihypertensive drugs were also included. Data Extraction and Analyses. Study selection, data extraction, quality assessment, and data analyses were conducted according to the Cochrane standards. Results. 18 trials were included. Methodological quality of the trials was low. 14 trials compared Tai Chi with routine care. 1 trial compared Tai Chi with antihypertensive drugs. Meta-analysis all showed significant effect of TaiChi in lowering blood pressure (BP). 3 trials compared Tai Chi plus antihypertensive drugs with antihypertensive drugs. Positive results in BP were found in the other 2 combination groups. Most of the trials did not report adverse events, and the safety of Tai Chi is still uncertain. Conclusions. There is some encouraging evidence of Tai Chi for EH. However, due to poor methodological quality of included studies, the evidence remains weak. Rigorously designed trials are needed to confirm the evidence.
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    ABSTRACT: Analysis of extensive data has shown that exercise training provides significant impact on prevention and modification of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. In general, exercise recommendations for patients with cardiovascular diseases are based on individual aerobic capacity and comorbidities. Patients with acute syndromes benefit from participating in a cardiac rehabilitation program, whereas patients with chronic syndromes benefit from a life-long home-based program. In general, exercise prescription should involve aerobic activities in combination with resistance, flexibility, and balance exercises. This review will discuss an exercise prescription for patients with coronary artery disease, heart failure, and after heart transplantation. Detailed precautions for particular groups of patients will be discussed.
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    ABSTRACT: Background Regular exercise is beneficial for adults with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CVD risk factors. Tai Ji Quan is popular among older adults and may offer additional exercise options. The present article aims to review the scientific literature published within the past decade on Tai Ji Quan as an exercise modality to prevent and manage CVD. Methods An electronic literature search of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and AMED) was conducted from April 2003 through March 2013. Studies that examined Tai Ji Quan, were published in English, and specified a target study population of participants with a known CVD condition (e.g., coronary artery disease, chronic heart failure, or stroke) or studies conducted among participants with a CVD risk factor (e.g., hypertension, dyslipidemia, or impaired glucose metabolism) were included. Results A total of 20 studies met the inclusion criteria: 11 randomized clinical trials, seven quasi-experimental studies and two cross-sectional studies. The effect of Tai Ji Quan was examined on more than 20 different study variables among persons with coronary artery disease (n = 5 studies), chronic heart failure (n = 5 studies), stroke (n = 4 studies), and CVD risk factors (n = 6 studies). These studies were conducted primarily in Asia (n = 9, 45%) or the United States (n = 8, 40%). Overall, participants enrolled in Tai Ji Quan had better outcomes, though mixed results were reported. Conclusion Collectively, these studies indicate that Tai Ji Quan is a safe form of exercise to prevent and manage CVD. Further research is needed with more rigorous study designs, larger sample sizes, adequate Tai Ji Quan exercise doses, and carefully chosen outcome measures that assess the mechanisms as well as the effects of Tai Ji Quan, before widespread recommendations can be made.
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