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Withania Somnifera Dunal know as Ashwagandha belong Solanaceae family. It is extensively used in most of the Indian herbal pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. The current study, evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity in 50% ethanol extract of root, stem and leaves of Withania Somnifera against five human cancer cell lines of four different tissues i.e. PC-3, DU-145 (prostrate), HCT-15 (colon), A-549 (lung) and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma). Root, stem and leaves extracts showed cytotoxicity activity ranging 0-98% depending on the cell lines but maximum activity was found in 50% ethanol extract of leaves of Withania Somnifera. Ethanol extract of leaves obtained from treatments T2, T3, T4 and T5 showed strong activity against PC-3 and HCT-15 with 80-98% growth inhibition, while the 50% ethanol extract of leaves from T1 treatment showed a minimum of 39% and T3 treatment showed a maximum of 98% growth inhibition against HCT-15. This investigation is the first report of the anticancer activity in various parts of Withania Somnifera cultivated in fly ash amended soil.
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Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 659September - October 2010
Accepted 29 September 2010
Revised 16 June 2010
Received 7 January 2010
Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2010, 72 (5): 657-659
essential oil from whole fruits (0.8%) were tested
for antimicrobial potential. Table 1 shows the zone
of inhibition in mm of methanol extracts of rind
and fruits and essential oil of A. subulatum against
microorganisms used.
Methanol extract of rind of A. subulatum showed
remarkable antimicrobial activity against E. coli.
When compared with ciprofloxacin, it was found
equivalent in potency against S. aureus, whereas slight
inferior against remaining bacterial stains. Methanol
extract of fruits of A. subulatum was found to be
effective against S. aureus. It was found equivalent to
standard drug against B. pumilus and P. aerugenosa.
Essential oil isolated from whole fruits showed good
results against B. pumilus. It was found equivalent
to the standard used against S. epidermidis, P.
aerugenosa and S. cerevisiae. It was found that
methanol extracts of fruit and rind as well as essential
oil all possesses antifungal activity but less than
standard drug used.
It can be seen from the results obtained for MIC that
rind extract of A. subulatum is having lower values as
compared to fruit extract of A. subulatum in majority
of microorganisms. Methanol extract of rind was
showing exceptionally lower MIC in case of S. aureus
(10 μg/disc).
The results obtained in the present study revealed that
methanolic extracts of fruit and rind of A. subulatum
possessed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity. The
essential oil isolated from the whole fruits shows
good antimicrobial activity against microorganisms
used in the study.
Authors are grateful to Prof. (Dr.) S. S. Agrawal,
Director, Delhi Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences
and Research, New Delhi for providing necessary
facilities to carry out the present study. Also, thanks
are due to Dr. K. C. Bhatt, National Bureau of Plant
and Genomic Research (NBPGR), New Delhi for
identifying and authenticating the herb.
1. Anonymous, Wealth of India, Raw Materials, New Delhi: Publications
and Information Directorate; 1985. p. 227-9.
2. Kaskoos RA, Mir SR, Kapoor R, Ali M. Essential oil composition
of fruits of Amomum subulatum Roxb. J Essential Oil Bearing Plants
3. Gurudutt KN, Naik JP, Srinivas P, Ravindranath B. Volatile constituents
of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb). Flav Fragr J
4. Adegoke GO, Rao LJM, Shankaracharya NB, Jagmohan RL. A
comparison of the essential oils of Afromum daniellii and Amomum
subulatum. Flav Fragr J 1998;13:345-52.
5. Rout PK, Sahoo D, Jena KS, Rao YR. Analysis of the oil of large
cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) growing in Sikkim. J Essent
Oil Res 2003;15:265-6.
6. Gilani SR, Shahid I, Javed M, Mehmud S, Ahmed R. Antimicrobial
activities and physico-chemical properties of the essential oil from
Amomum subulatum. Int J Appl Chem 2006;2:81-6.
7. Sabulal B, Dan M, Pradeep NS, Valsamn RK, George V. Composition
and antimicrobial activity of essential oil from fruits of Amomum
subulatum. Acta Pharm 2006;56:473-80.
8. Kumar GP, Chaturvedi A. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal
plants of Euphorbiaceae. Indian Drugs 2006;43:156-9.
9. Singh M, Govindarajan R, Nath V, Rawat A, Mehrotra S.
Antimicrobial, wound healing and antioxidant activity of Plagiochasma
appendiculatum Lehm. Et Lind. J Ethnopharmacol 2006;107:67-72.
In Vitro
Anticancer Activity of the Root, Stem and Leaves
Withania Somnifera
against Various Human Cancer
Cell Lines
Advanced Materials and Processes Research Institute (CSIR), Bhopal-462 026, 1Botany Department, Motilal Vigyan
Mahavidhalaya, Bhopal-462 016, 2Indian Institute of Integrative Medicine (CSIR), Jammu Tawi-180 001, India
*Address for correspondence
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences660 September - October 2010
Cancer is one of the major human diseases and
causes large suffering and economic loss world-wide.
Chemotherapy is one of the methods of treating
cancer. However the chemotherapeutic drugs are
highly toxic and have devastating side effects. Various
new strategies are being developed to control and
treat several human cancers[1]. Over 60% of anticancer
drugs available in the market are of natural origin.
Natural products are also the lead molecules for
many of the drugs that are in use[2]. Therefore, the
phytochemicals present in several herbal products and
plants may have the potential to act as preventive or
therapeutic agents against various human cancer[1].
The increased popularity of herbal remedies for
cancer therapy perhaps can be attributed to the
belief that herbal drugs provide bene t over that of
allopathy medicines while being less toxic[3]. Since the
conventional therapies have devastating side effects,
there is a continuous need for search of new herbal
cures of cancer[4].
Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha) is
extensively used in most of the Indian herbal
pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals[5]. It is an annual
herb growing in dry and arid soil as a wild plant[6]
and well described in Ayurveda, the ancient Indian
system of plant medicine for immunomodulation and
antiageing[7-8]. Thus, Withania somnifera also have
antiinflammatory[9] antitumour and radiosensitizing
actions[10-11] and analgesic activity[12]. However no
work was reported on in vitro studies of Withania
somnifera cultivated in different concentration of
y ash amended soil. The present investigation was
taken up for evaluating the antiproliferative potential
possessed by the 50% ethanol extract of root, stem
and leaves of Withania somnifera against various
human cancer cell lines.
Ethanol GR Merck grade, RPMI-1640, fetal calf
serum, trypsin, PBS, tryphan blue, penicillin,
streptomycin, gentamycin, DMSO, sulphorhodamine,
paclitaxel (taxol), 5- uorouracil, were obtained from
Sigma Chemical Co. USA and rest of the chemicals
were of high purity and obtained locally. Tissue
culture flasks and 96-Well cell culture plates were
obtained from NUNC, Germany.
The Withania somnifera Dunal plant was cultivated
in different concentration of fly ash amended soil
at Advanced Materials and Processes Research
Institute (CSIR), Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India. The
experiments were designed to have ve treatments,
T1- control, T2- 5% fly ash, T3- 10% fly ash, T4-
15% y ash and T5- 20% y ash. After completion of
cropping root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera
were collected separately for each treatment and then
air dried.
The dried roots stem and leaves samples of Withania
somnifera Dunal were powdered separately and about
50 g of each powder was extracted with 50% ethyl
alcohol in 1:10 w/v ratio for 24 h. by separating
funnel. After many cycles, the desired compound
was extracted in ask. This extract was concentrated
using a Heidolph Rota Evaporator (Laboratra 4001,
Germany) and concentrate was oven dried at 500. The
root, stem and leaves crude extract were utilized as
test materials for in vitro anticancer activity testing.
Human cancer cell lines were procured from National
Cancer Institute, Frederick, USA. Cells were grown
in tissue culture asks in complete growth medium
(RPMI-1640 medium with 2 mM glutamine, pH 7.4,
supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum, 100 μg/ml
Yadav, et al.: In Vitro Anticancer Activity of Withania Somnifera
Withania somnifera Dunal know as Ashwagandha belong Solanaceae family. It is extensively used in most of the
Indian herbal pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals. The current study, evaluate in vitro cytotoxicity in 50% ethanol
extract of root, stem and leaves of Withania somnifera against fi ve human cancer cell lines of four different tissues
i.e. PC-3, DU-145 (prostrate), HCT-15 (colon), A-549 (lung) and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma). Root, stem and leaves
extracts showed cytotoxicity activity ranging 0-98% depending on the cell lines but maximum activity was found
in 50% ethanol extract of leaves of Withania somnifera. Ethanol extract of leaves obtained from treatments T2,
T3, T4 and T5 showed strong activity against PC-3 and HCT-15 with 80-98% growth inhibition, while the 50%
ethanol extract of leaves from T1 treatment showed a minimum of 39% and T3 treatment showed a maximum of
98% growth inhibition against HCT-15. This investigation is the fi rst report of the anticancer activity in various
parts of Withania somnifera cultivated in fl y ash amended soil.
Key words: Anticancer, cytotoxicity, fl y ash, PC-3, HCT-15, prostrate, Withania somnifera
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 661September - October 2010
streptomycin and 100 units/ml penicillin) in a carbon
dioxide incubator (37°, 5% CO2, 90% RH). The cells
at sub con uent stage were harvested from the ask
by treatment with trypsin (0.05% in PBS (pH 7.4)
containing 0.02% EDTA). Cells with viability of more
than 98% as determined by trypan blue exclusion
were used for determination of cytotoxicity. The
cell suspension of 1×105 cells/ml was prepared in
complete growth medium. Stock solutions (2×10-2 M)
of compounds were prepared in DMSO. The stock
solutions were serially diluted with complete growth
medium containing 50 μg/ml of gentamycin to obtain
working test solutions of required concentrations.
In vitro cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell
lines was determined[13] using 96-well tissue culture
plates. One hundred microlitres of cell suspension
was added to each well of the 96-well tissue culture
plate. The cells were allowed to grow in a carbon
dioxide incubator (37°, 5% CO2, 90% RH) for 24
h. Test materials in complete growth medium (100
μl) were added after 24 h of incubation to the wells
containing cell suspension. The plates were further
incubated for 48 h. The cell growth was stopped
by gently layering trichloroacetic acid (50%, 50 μl)
on top of the medium in all the wells. The plates
were incubated at 4o for one hour to fix the cells
attached to the bottom of the wells. The liquid of all
the wells was gently pipetted out and discarded. The
plates were washed five times with distilled water
to remove trichloroacetic acid, growth medium low
molecular weight metabolites and serum proteins
and then air-dried. The plates were stained with
sulphorhodamine B dye (0.4 % in 1% acetic acid,
100 μl) for 30 min. The plates were washed five
times with 1% acetic acid and then air-dried[14]. The
adsorbed dye was dissolved in Tris-HCl Buffer (100
l, 0.01M, pH 10.4) and plates were gently stirred for
10 min on a mechanical stirrer. The optical density
(OD) was recorded on ELISA reader at 540 nm. The
cell growth was determined by subtracting mean OD
value of respective blank from the mean OD value
of experimental set. Percent growth in presence of
test material was calculated considering the growth
in absence of any test material as 100% and in turn
percent growth inhibition in presence of test material
was statistically calculated.
Samples were evaluated against five cell lines
representing four different tissues. These were PC-3
and DU-145 from prostrate, HCT-15 from colon,
A-549 from lung and IMR-32 of neuroblastoma
origin. All root samples showed cytotoxicity ranging
between 0-46% depending on the cell lines but
maximum cytotoxicity activity was found in T3 and
T5, which showed more than 46% and 32% growth
inhibition in A-549 and DU-145 (Table 1). Stem
samples showed cytotoxicity ranging between 4-64%.
Maximum cytotoxicity was found in T5 treatment
i.e. more than 71% growth inhibition against HCT-15
(colon). Stem extract of Withania somnifera grown in
y ash-treated plot showed all most similar growth
inhibition against all cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145,
HCT-15, A-549 and IMR 032 (Table 2). The extract
of leaves showed cytotoxicity ranging between 27-
98%, which depended on the cell lines but maximum
cytotoxicity activity was found in T3 and T2 i.e.
more than 98% and 94% growth inhibition in HCT-15
(colon). Similarly the T4 and T5 treatments showed
greater growth inhibition against PC-3 and HCT-15,
while minimum cytotoxicity activity was found from
T1 treatment. Almost remarkable growth inhibition
was obtained from T3 treatment against all cell lines
studied (Table 3). The anticancer activity has been
previously reported in the Withania somnifera Dunal
against various human cell lines, but according to the
Samples Concentration
Cell line type
Prostrate Colon Lung Neuroblastoma
PC-3 DU-145 HCT-15 A-549 IMR-32
Root - T1 100 16 3 16 18 13
Root - T2 100 12 9 4 22 10
Root - T3 100 11 12 13 46 19
Root - T4 100 20 14 9 0 10
Root - T5 100 0 32 10 0 13
5- Fluorouracil 2 x 10-5M- - 55 - -
Adraimycin 1 x 10-5M- - - - -
Paclitaxel 1 x 10-5M52 60 - - -
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences662 September - October 2010
literature anticancer activity in root, stem and leaves
of Withania somnifera cultivated in y ash amended
soil has been reported probably for the rst time.
In this study, growth inhibitory activity of root, stem
and leaves of Withania somnifera using anticancer
drugs paclitaxel, adriamycin and 5- uorouracil (5-Fu)
as positive controls was investigated against five
cell lines representing four different tissues, PC-3,
DU-145, HCT-15, A-549 and IMR-32. Although its
root is well known for its importance in Ayurveda but
reports on the medicinal activities of stem and leaves
are very few. Thus this study revealed the enormous
medicinal potential of stem and leaves of this plant.
This study gives support that Withania somnifera 50%
ethanol extract were highly cytotoxic to the human
cell lines studied.
Earlier studies indicated that only the root extract
of Withania somnifera as a potential source of new
molecules that can curtail cancer growth[15]. Withania
somnifera leaves have also been shown to inhibit
the growth of human cancer cell lines comparable
to that produced by adriamycin. The leaf extract
produced antiproliferative activity on NCI-H460
(lung), HCT-116 (colon), SF-268 (central nervous
system) and MCF-7 (breast) human tumor cell lines.
The inhibitory concentrations obtained was 25.1±0.91
against colon cell line HCT-116[11], but in this study
leaf extracts from T2, T3, T4 and T5 treatments of
Withania somnifera cultivated in y ash containing
soil had shown more than 80% inhibition against
PC-3 and HCT-15 cell lines. Further more this study
has reported growth inhibitory importance in Withania
somnifera against various human cancer cell lines i.e.
PC-3, DU-145, HCT-15, A-549 and IMR-32. Hence,
this study has revealed remarkable anticancer potential
in the leaves of Withania somnifera.
The authors thank Dr. Navin Chandra, Acting
Director, Advanced Materials and Processes Research
Institute (CSIR), Bhopal, India for the support and
permission to publish this paper. They also wish to
thank Ms. Monika Verma, IIIM, Jammu for samples
1. Modha J, Modha N. Role of Ayurveda in the Management of Cancer.
International Centre for Ayurveda Studies, Gujarat Ayurveda University,
Samples Conc. g/ml Cell line type
Prostrate Colon Lung Neuroblastoma
PC-3 DU-145 HCT-15 A-549 IMR-32
Stem - T1 100 17 63 62 55 36
Stem - T2 100 22 29 54 14 38
Stem - T3 100 26 29 33 4 35
Stem - T4 100 28 48 71 58 52
Stem - T5 100 29 33 54 64 40
5- Fluorouracil 2 x 10-5M- - 55 - -
Adraimycin 1 x 10-5M- - - - -
Paclitaxel 1 x 10-5M52 60 - - -
Samples Conc. g/ml Cell line type
Prostrate Colon Lung Neuroblastoma
PC-3 DU-145 HCT-15 A-549 IMR-32
Leaves - T1 100 32 28 39 49 50
Leaves - T2 100 88 70 94 53 77
Leaves - T3 100 80 70 98 47 87
Leaves - T4 100 85 70 86 42 77
Leaves - T5 100 86 27 83 54 74
5- Fluorouracil 2 x 10-5M- - 55 - -
Adraimycin 1 x 10-5M- - - - -
Paclitaxel 1 x 10-5M52 60 - - -
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 663September - October 2010
Jamnagar, Gujarat, India; 2007.
2. Cragg GM, Newman DJ, Snader KM. Natural products in drug
discovery and development. J Nat Prod 1997;60:52-60.
3. Gupta S, Zhang D, Yi J, Shao J. Anticancer activities of Oldelandia
diffusa. J Herb Pharmacother 2004;4:21-33.
4. Aquil F, Ahmad I, Mehmood Z. Antioxidant and free radical
scavenging properties of twelve traditionally used Indian medicinal
plants. Truk J Biol 2006;30:177-83.
5. Sangwan RS, Chaurasiya ND, Misra LN, Lal P, Uniyal GC, Sharma
R, et al. Phytochemical variability in commercial herbal products
and preparations of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha). Curr Sci
6. Singh S, Kumar S. Withania somnifera: The Indian Ginseng
Ashwagandha. Lucknow, India, Central Institute of Medicinal and
Aromatic Plants (CIMAP), 1998.
7. Anonymous. Indian Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Joint Publication of Indian
Drug Manufacturer’s Association, Mumbai and Regional Research
Laboratory, Jammu-Tawi; 1998. p. 65-73.
8. Ray AB, Gupta M. Withasteroids, a growing group of naturally
occurring steroidal lactones. In: Herz W, Kirby GW, Moore RE,
Steglich W, Tamm C, editors. Progress in the Chemistry of Organic
Natural Products, Vol. 63. Wien, New York; Springer Verlag; 1994.
p. 1-106.
9. Al-Hindawi MK, Al-Khafaji SH, Abdul-Nabi MH. Anti-granuloma
activity of Iraqi Withania somnifera. J Ethnopharmacol 1992;37:113-6.
10. Devi PU. Withania somnifera Dunal (Ashwagandha): Potential
plant source of a promising drug for cancer chemotherapy and
radiosensitization. Indian J Exp Biol 1996;34:927-32.
11. Jayaprakasam B, Zhang Y, Seeram NP, Nair MG. Growth inhibition
of human tumor cell lines by withanolides from Withania somnifera
leaves. Life Sci 2003;74:125-32.
12. Twaij HA, Elisha EE, Khalid RM. Analgesic studies on some Iraqi
medicinal plants. Int. J Crude Res 1989;27:109-12.
13. Monks A, Scudiero D, Skehan P, Shoemaker R, Paull K, Vistica
D, et al. Feasibility of a high-flux anticancer drug screen using a
diverse panel of cultured human tumor cell lines. J Natl Cancer Inst
14. Skehan P, Storeng R, Scudiero D, Monks A, Mc Mohan J, Vistica D,
et al. New colorimetric cytotoxic assay for anticancer-drug screening.
J Natl Cancer Inst 1990;82:1107-12.
15. Dredge K, Dalgleish AG, Marriott JB. Angiogenesis inhibitors in cancer
therapy. Curr Opin Investig Drugs 2003;4:667-74.
Accepted 30 September 2010
Revised 21 June 2010
Received 20 November 2009
Indian J. Pharm. Sci., 2010, 72 (5): 659-663
Design, Synthesis and Evaluation of Novel 1-(Substituted
Piperidines as Antitumor Agents and Farnesyl Protein
Transferase Inhibitors
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Bombay College of Pharmacy, Kalina, Santacruz, Mumbai-400 098,
1Anticancer Drug Screening Facility (ACDSF), Tata Memorial Centre, Advanced Center for Treatment Research and
Education in Cancer (ACTREC), Kharghar, Navi Mumbai-410 210, India
Gatne, et al.: Dihydro-11H-Benzo[5,6]Cyclohepta[1,2-B]Pyridine-11-Ylidene)Piperidines as Antitumor Agents
Eight novel 1-(substituted acetyl)-4-(10-bromo-8-chloro-5,6-dihydro-11H-benzo[5,6] cyclohepta [1,2-b] pyridine-
11-ylidene)piperidines were designed by incorporating zinc binding groups to enhance activity. The designed
molecules were synthesized and were evaluated for antitumor activity in vitro in fi ve cell lines and for farnesyl
protein transferase inhibition. Test compounds (6a-h) exhibited antitumor activity in most of the cell lines but were
less potent than adriamycin. Compound 6e was most active with IC50 values of <15 µM in two cell lines tested.
Test compounds also exhibited potent FPT inhibitory activity and 6c was most potent with IC50 value of <30 µM.
Key words: Anticancer agents, benzocycloheptapyridines, farnesyl protein transferase inhibitors
*Address for correspondence
... Moreover, in certain studies, the extracts prepared from the leaves have found to possess a superior activity when compared to the roots of Withania somnifera. To exemplify, a 50% ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves and stems of Withania somnifera have been reported to possess a superior in-vitro cytotoxic activity against several human cancer cell lines when compared to a similar extract prepared from the roots 26 . Clinical investigations have also been conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of Withania somnifera formulations including the leaves. ...
... The specific extracts of the berries of Withania somnifera are known to possess anti-oxidant 6 , and anti-cancer activities 29 . The Withania somnifera stem extracts are also known to possess anti-cancer activity 26 . ...
Full-text available
Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal (Ashwagandha) is widely used in Ayurveda, Unani and Siddha systems of medicines due to its therapeutic application in numerous ailments. Traditionally, the medications prepared from the plant employ only its roots and based on the currently available scientific literature, their efficacy and safety is well established. Apart from the roots, the aerial parts also contain bioactive components and correspondingly certain marketed preparations also employ the leaves of the plant. Accordingly, Ministry of Ayush, Government of India has lately issued an advisory emphasizing the need for extensive efficacy and safety profiling of leaf-based products. Consequently, we have conducted the present GLP-driven study, in which the non-clinical safety of a hydromethanolic extract of the whole plant of Withania somnifera (WSWPE) has been assessed according to OECD guideline 407. In this study Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were orally administered with WSWPE for 28-consecutive days at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg/day. The study also included a satellite group of animals that received WSWPE for 28-days followed by a 14-days recovery period. Withania somnifera Whole Plant Extract was found to be safe up to the dose level of 1000 mg/kg/day as no toxicologically relevant findings could be detected.
... Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the leaves of Withaniasomnifera can suppress the proliferation of human cancer cell lines in a manner similar to adriamycin. The leaf extract of W.somnifera exhibited antiproliferative action against lung, intestinal, and breast tumor cell lines [29]. ...
Introduction: Cancer, one of the most researched diseases worldwide, researches is being done to develop new technology and more effective treatments. Still, there are many gaps in the cancer treatments that are now on the market that have a negative impact on patients' health in the form of side effects. A better approach to treat this awful disease is to use herbal drugs made from medicinal plants. Since ancient times, different illnesses have been treated with the well-known Ayurvedic medicinal plant Withania somnifera L. Dunal (Solanaceae).The aim of this study is to analyze the anti-cancer activity of With aniasomnifera against human liver cancer cells.Materials and methods: Withania somnifera root powder was extracted as viscous mass by undergoing soxhlet extraction and then rotary evaporation. After culturing of HepG2 cells and treatment with the extract, it was subjected to MTT assay and Real time PCR to identify the anti-cancer activity.Results: MTT assay showed that as the concentration of treated W.somnifera ethanolic extract increases, the cancer cell viability decreases. As the concentration of the extract increased, the cell viability decreased. The W.sominifera performed by altering the expression of the apoptotic signaling molecules Bcl 2 and BclXl to suppress the growth of cancer cells.Conclusion: The ethanolic extract of Withaniasomnifera down regulating the expression of Bcl 2 and Bcl XL mRNA on human liver cancer cells and induced apoptosis of the cells. The most effective anticancer substances are found in W.somnifera, which also induces apoptosis without causing any negative side effects.
... Earlier studies indicated that only the root extract of W. Somnifera is a potential source of new molecules that can curtail cancer growth (Dredge et al., 2003). W. Somnifera leaves have also been shown to inhibit the growth of human cancer cell lines comparared to that produced by Adriamycin (Yadav et al., 2010). In this study, growth inhibitory activity of root of W. somnifera was investigated against four cell lines representing four different tissues, HepG 2 , A549, MCF7, and CaCo 2 . ...
Full-text available
Withania somnifera is a wild plant that shows great activity and safety against several human diseases. The current research explored the plant's chemical composition and allelopathic effects on Rumex dentatus (recipient plant). Moreover, anticancer activity is also tested against four types of human cancer cell lines. Chemical analysis of W. somnifera showed a high percentage of saponins and tannins, while glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids occurred in the second order. Results of the allelopathic experiments revealed significant inhibition of the R. dentatus plumule and radicle lengths as well as their relative dry weights. In addition, significant reductions in some primary metabolites of R. dentatus, like non-reducing and total sugar as well as soluble proteins, were determined. Cytotoxic potentiality of W. somnifera was also proved against four different cancer lines, namely; human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2), human non-small cell lung cancer cell line (A549), human breast cancer cell line (MCF7), and colon cancer cell line (CaCo2) with IC50 value of about 38, 19, 27, and 24 𝜇g/ml, respectively.
... Several other anticancer agents, such as campothecin derivatives, homoharringtonine, vinca alkaloids, podophyllotoxin derivatives, and taxanes have been isolated from medicinal plants [21][22][23]. Some other medicinal plants reported for the treatment of cancer ( Figure 2) include Allium sativum (Allicin) [24,25], Camellia sinensis [26,27], Achyranthes aspera [28,29], Apis mellifera [30,31], Andrographis paniculate [32], Cannabis sativa [33,34], Astralagus hedysarum [35,36], Bidens Pilosa [37,38], Bolbostemma paniculatum [39,40], Centaurea ainetensis [41,42], Gossypium hirustum or Gossypium herbaceumalso [43][44][45], Hydrocotyle [46][47][48], Salvia miltiorrhiza [49,50], Hypericin perforatum [51], Annona muricata [52,53], Daphne mezereum [54,55], Picrorrhiza kurroa [56,57], Mangifera indica [58,59], Nervelia fordii [10,36,60], Rubia cordifolia [61][62][63], Silybum marianum [64,65], Scutellaria [66][67][68], Oroxylum indicum [69,70], Smilax china [71], Strychnos nuxvomica [72][73][74], Terminalia chebula [75,76], Vernonia amygdalina [77][78][79], Taraxacum officinale [80,81], Withania somnifera (Withanolides) [82,83], Brugmansia suaveolens [84] Zingiber Major types of cancer treatment methods used by physicians and oncologists depending on the cancer type, stage, and severity. The targeted therapeutic method is using of drugs which identify and attack a specific type of cancer cell in the body. ...
Full-text available
Cancer is a serious and significantly progressive disease. Next to cardiovascular disease, cancer has become the most common cause of mortality in the entire world. Several factors, such as environmental factors, habitual activities, genetic factors, etc., are responsible for cancer. Many cancer patients seek alternative and/or complementary treatments because of the high death rate linked with cancer and the adverse side effects of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Traditional medicine has a long history that begins with the hunt for botanicals to heal various diseases, including cancer. In the traditional medicinal system, several plants used to treat diseases have many bioactive compounds with curative capability, thereby also helping in disease prevention. Plants also significantly contributed to the modern pharmaceutical industry throughout the world. In the present review, we have listed 33 medicinal plants with active and significant anticancer activity, as well as their anticancer compounds. This article will provide a basic set of information for researchers interested in developing a safe and nontoxic active medicinal plant-based treatment for cancer. The research will give a scientific foundation for the traditional usage of these medicinal herbs to treat cancer.
... In vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated for Withania somnifera extract (Root, leaves, and stem) against four human cancer cell lines, and found a significant anticancer effect of Withania somnifera [24,65]. ...
The plants Acorus calamus, Withania somnifera, Clitoria ternatea, Centella asiatica, Wedillia chinensis, Cissus quadrenqularis are the commonly used plants in South India in day-today life as part of food as well as to treat many diseases as traditional medicine, Cassytha filiformis is a parasite herb which is used in many parts of the world for traditional medicine. Like food, these are consumed for immunity, energy, vitamin and mineral sources as well ashome remedies for certain health conditions. As a medicine, these plants have many Phytochemical constituents which are the reason for their biological activity. Various secondary metabolites were found from these plants including Alkaloids, Terpenoids, Saponins, Tannins, Flavonoids, etc and multiple biological activities were established by in-vivo and in vitro studies so far. In the future also, studies needto be carried out to bring effective medicines to cure various new diseases in humans.
... Withaferin A, Withanolide D, and E exhibited significant antitumor activity in vitro against cell derived from human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx (KB) and in vivo against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma, sarcoma 180, sarcoma black (BL), and EO771 mammary adenocarcinoma in mice in disease of 10, 12, 15 mg/kg body weight. Withaferin A has been shown to possess growth inhibitory and radio-sensitizing effects on experimental mouse tumors (Yadav et al., 2010). ...
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This chapter is about the Medicinal plant Ashwagandha.
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Human beings are affected by different diseases and suffer to different extents. Cancer is one of the major human disease and millions of people suffered from cancer and end their lives every year. Peoples are dependent on herbal medicines since prehistoric time especially from developing countries. It is very common to have different side effects of modern synthetic medicines; hence now-a-days importance of herbal medicines due to no or least side effects increases all parts of the world. But the major problems of using herbal medicines are that plants can produce very limited amount of medicinally important bioactive metabolites and they have very long growth periods. Therefore endophytes are the excellent alternative of plant derived metabolites. Endophytic microbes can synthesize exactly same type of metabolites as the plant produces. North East India is a treasure of plant resources; various types of medicinal plants are present in this region. Different types of indigenous tribes are inhabited in this region who used different plants in traditional system for treating various disease. But with increasing demand it is sometimes not sufficient to manage the demand of medicines, therefore for massive production endophytic study is crucial. In spite of having huge plant resources very limited endophytic studies are observed in this region. In this review, we studied different plants with their endophytes of NE India showing anticancer properties.
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Background: Controlling and managing the side effects of chemotherapy is one of the most serious challenges that patients with gastrointestinal cancer encounter. A promising technique to overcome these challenges is using informative mobile-based applications. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a mobile-based application to help patients with gastrointestinal cancer to manage the possible side effects caused by chemotherapy. Methods: This descriptive-applied study was performed in 2 stages. In the first stage, a needs assessment was performed where the opinions of 4 oncologists and 27 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were obtained by use of a researcher-designed questionnaire. In the second stage of the study, based on the identified needs from the first stage, an application prototype was designed and later evaluated. Participants were asked to use the application for 1 week to evaluate the usability of the application. The Questionnaire for User Interaction Satisfaction Version 5.5 was used for evaluation. The results of the study were analyzed using descriptive statistics and SPSS software Version 22. Results: Of the 34 data elements obtained in the first step, 30 gained a mean above 3.75 and were considered in designing the application. The following features were included in the application: demographic data, history, clinical data, managing psychological and psychiatric challenges, lifestyle information, management of side effects, communication possibility, and other application features. Also, the evaluation results showed that the users gave a mean of 7.12 to the application and believed its usability was good. Conclusion: This application and its capabilities can help patients with gastrointestinal cancer undergoing chemotherapy to better perform self-care processes, improve their health status, and reduce the side effects of chemotherapy. Keywords: Gastrointestinal Neoplasm, Chemotherapy, Adverse Effects, Mobile Applications, Self-Care
Medicinal phytochemical-based plants have been used initially in human cultivation, including mostly evident from in the ancient era as well as herbal-based phytochemicals in traditional ways. The use of plants as therapeutics, clinical treatment, and pharmaceuticals-based interest not on phyto herbal plants studies as compared to the artificial, celluloid drugs. Most of the time, the lack of information related to herbal medicine in the clinical therapeutics uses is responsible to draw the research-oriented observation of scientists to contemplate throughout the herbal hits for the acts like potential drugs for various diseases, such as cancers and tumors. In this review, we will cover all about the terms related to a scientific perspective based on successful clinically approach phytochemical like anti-tumors, anticancer drugs. Furthermore, to enhance this research-oriented data space between botanists, oncological researchers, and clinical biologists, we also add the synthetic chemistry analysis to spot the target of the genome, proteome-based study, and efficient drug conveyance framework has made it simpler for the researcher to build up phytochemicals as an efficient anticancer medication in future purposes.KeywordsPhytochemicalsMedicinal plantsTherapeutics usesAnticancer
In the early 1900s, multiple significant studies showed high incidences of cancer. During this period, study with infectious agents produced only modest results which looked irrelevant to people. Then, in the 1980s, groundbreaking evidence that a number of viruses can cause cancer in people began to emerge. Machine learning and deep learning techniques have been widely employed in cancer detection and classification that include support vector machines (SVMs), artificial neural networks (ANNs), and conventional neural networks (CNNs). The recurrence of cancer is also an important issue that needs to be predicted with significant accuracy. This chapter reviews current state-of-the-art of ANNs model in the prediction of cancer recurrence.
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The methanolic crude extracts of 12 traditionally used Indian medicinal plants were screened for their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties using α-tocopherol and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) as standard antioxidants. Antioxidant activity was measured by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) assay and compared with the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) method. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using diphenyl picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. The overall antioxidant activity of Lawsonia inermis was the strongest, followed in descending order by Ocimum sanctum, Cichorium intybus, Piper cubeba, Punica granatum, Allium sativum, Delonix regia, Terminalia chebula, Terminalia bellerica, Mangifera indica, Camellia sinensis, and Trigonella foenum-graecum. Seven plants, namely Terminalia chebula, Mangifera indica, Terminalia bellerica, Punica granatum, Ocimum sanctum, Cichorium intybus, and Camellia sinensis, showed strong free radical scavenging activity with the DPPH method. Phytochemical analysis of plant extracts indicated the presence of major phytocompounds, including phenolics, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and tannins. The phenolic concentrations in the above plants ranged from 28.66 to 169.67 mg/g of dry plant extract. A fair correlation between antioxidant/free radical scavenging activity and phenolic content was observed among 9 plants; however, in 3 plants (Piper cubeba, Lawsonia inermis and Trigonella foenum-graecum), no such relationship was observed. The tested plant extracts showed promising antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity, thus justifying their traditional use.
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Hydrodistillation of Amomum subulatum (Large cardamom) yielded 1.1% essential oil. Gas chromatographic analysis revealed that the essential oil contained 1,8-cineol (55.37%), terpinyl acetate (11.66%), and limonene (6.05%) as major components. Its antibacterial and antifungal activity against various pathogenic fungi (Aspergillus oryzae, A. niger, A. flavus, Candida utilus and C. albicans) and bacteria (E. coli, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Micrococus letues) was observed.
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Withania somnifera (Hindi - Ashwagandha, English - winter cherry) is used in Ayurvedic formulations for a variety of health-promoting effects. Several mono- and poly-herbal products commercially available in the Indian market were quantitatively analysed for a number of chemical constituents. The results revealed wide variations in the content of all seven constituents tested. More than 70-fold variation in the daily intake of withaferin A (the main active constituent of Ashwagandha) was found in the products. The study thus emphasizes the need for stringent phytochemical standardization of herbal products.
Hydro-distilled essential oil obtained from fruits of Amomum subulatum was characterized by a high proportion of monoterpenes (ca 90 %). The main monoterpenes were 1,8-cineole (77.4 %), β-myrcene (5.0 %), α-terpineol (4.9 %) and terpinen-4-ol (2.3 %). Sesquiterpenic constituents amounting to only 2.7 % were represented by t-caryophyllene (2.3 %) and its oxide (0.4 %). A high proportion 1,8-cineole present in the oil lends it a harsh eucalyptol smell and warrants its use as substitute of true cardamon.
Oils obtained by hydrodistillation of the seeds of green, freshly dried and those available in the local market of large cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.) were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 33 components were identified by mass spectra and relative retention indices. The major component of the oil was 1,8-cineole (81.5–86%).
A screening program of some Iraqi medicinal plants for analgesic activity has been started. This evaluation was based on the use of some plants in the traditional medicine. The extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Pimpinella anisum exhibited significant analgesic activity versus benzoquinone-induced writing and in thermal tests. The extracts of Achillea santolina, Jasminum officinale and Anthemis cotula did not elicit a significant effect in either test. © 1987 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.
Abstract It was found that the extracts of Myrtus communis, Peganum harmala and Withania somnifera exhibited significant activities in either the hot-plate test or in benzoquinone and/or acetic acid-induced writhing in mice. The extracts of Artemisia herba-alba. Anchusa italica. Vicoo pentanema and Quercus infectoria failed to produce significant effects in either test at the doses used.
Ayurvedic medicines prepared in India consist of Withania somnifera roots as one of the main ingredients. It is consumed as a dietary supplement around the world. The leaves of W. somnifera were used in the treatment of tumors and inflammation in several Asian countries. We have isolated twelve withanolides such as withaferin A (1), sitoindoside IX (2), 4-(1-hydroxy-2, 2-dimethylcyclpropanone)-2, 3-dihydrowithaferin A (3), 2, 3-dihydrowithaferin A (4), 24, 25-dihydro-27-desoxywithaferin A (5), physagulin D (1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl- (1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (6), 27-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylphysagulin D (7), physagulin D (8), withanoside IV (9), and 27-O-beta-D-glucopyranosylviscosalactone B (10), 4, 16-dihydroxy-5beta, 6beta-epoxyphysagulin D (11), viscosalactone B (12) from the leaves of this species. Compounds 1-12 and diacetylwithaferin A (13) were tested for their antiproliferative activity on NCI-H460 (Lung), HCT-116 (Colon), SF-268 (Central Nervous System; CNS and MCF-7 (Breast) human tumor cell lines. The inhibitory concentration to afford 50% cell viability (IC50) for these compounds was determined by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. Withaferin A and its derivatives exhibited inhibitory concentrations (50%) ranging from 0.24 +/- 0.01 to 11.6 +/- 1.9 microg/mL. Viscosalactone B (12) showed the 50% inhibition at concentrations ranging from 0.32 +/- 0.05 to 0.47 +/- 0.15 microg/mL whereas its 27-O-glucoside derivative (10) exhibited IC50 between 7.9 +/- 2.9 and 17.3 +/- 3.9 microg/ml. However, Physagulin D type withanolides showed either weak or no activity at 30 microg/mL. Therefore, incorporation of withanolides in the diet may prevent or decrease the growth of tumors in human.
The essential oil isolated from the seeds of Aframomum daniellii (Hook. f.) K. Schum. (from Nigeria) by hydrodistillation was analysed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil contained 41 constituents, of which 29 were identified for the first time, and the major constituents of the oil were 1,8-cineole (59.8%), β-pinene (13.2%), α-terpineol (9.3%), α-pinene (4.3%) and α-terpinyl acetate (3.2%). Although the essential oil of Aframomum daniellii was similar in chemical composition to that of Amomum subulatum Roxb. (from India), it had a better aroma. © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.