Article

Temporal Trends in the Prevalence of Diabetic Kidney Disease in the United States

Kidney Research Institute and Division of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
JAMA The Journal of the American Medical Association (Impact Factor: 35.29). 06/2011; 305(24):2532-9. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2011.861
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Diabetes is the leading cause of kidney disease in the developed world. Over time, the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) may increase due to the expanding size of the diabetes population or decrease due to the implementation of diabetes therapies.
To define temporal changes in DKD prevalence in the United States.
Cross-sectional analyses of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) from 1988-1994 (N = 15,073), NHANES 1999-2004 (N = 13,045), and NHANES 2005-2008 (N = 9588). Participants with diabetes were defined by levels of hemoglobin A(1c) of 6.5% or greater, use of glucose-lowering medications, or both (n = 1431 in NHANES III; n = 1443 in NHANES 1999-2004; n = 1280 in NHANES 2005-2008).
Diabetic kidney disease was defined as diabetes with albuminuria (ratio of urine albumin to creatinine ≥30 mg/g), impaired glomerular filtration rate (<60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration formula), or both. Prevalence of albuminuria was adjusted to estimate persistent albuminuria.
The prevalence of DKD in the US population was 2.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8%-2.6%) in NHANES III, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.4%-3.1%) in NHANES 1999-2004, and 3.3% (95% CI, 2.8%-3.7%) in NHANES 2005-2008 (P <.001 for trend). The prevalence of DKD increased in direct proportion to the prevalence of diabetes, without a change in the prevalence of DKD among those with diabetes. Among persons with diabetes, use of glucose-lowering medications increased from 56.2% (95% CI, 52.1%-60.4%) in NHANES III to 74.2% (95% CI, 70.4%-78.0%) in NHANES 2005-2008 (P <.001); use of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors increased from 11.2% (95% CI, 9.0%-13.4%) to 40.6% (95% CI, 37.2%-43.9%), respectively (P <.001); the prevalence of impaired glomerular filtration rate increased from 14.9% (95% CI, 12.1%-17.8%) to 17.7% (95% CI, 15.2%-20.2%), respectively (P = .03); and the prevalence of albuminuria decreased from 27.3% (95% CI, 22.0%-32.7%) to 23.7% (95% CI, 19.3%-28.0%), respectively, but this was not statistically significant (P = .07).
Prevalence of DKD in the United States increased from 1988 to 2008 in proportion to the prevalence of diabetes. Among persons with diabetes, prevalence of DKD was stable despite increased use of glucose-lowering medications and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors.

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    • "We used TF binding site (TFBSs) data from the JASPAR database [27] on 65 known WNT pathway genes to identify common transcriptional regulatory mechanisms associated with the WNT pathway. Although current therapeutic options have been shown to reduce proteinuria and retard DN progression, recent studies highlight that, despite improved care, the higher risks of cardiovascular disease, ESRD, and mortality associated with DN persist [28]. As such, identification of genetic factors that may influence susceptibility to and development of DN can help identify novel pathophysiologic mechanisms as potential therapeutic targets to improve the adverse clinical outcomes that currently exist in diabetic patients. "
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    • "Studies from the USA show that the prevalence of CKD is increasing over time. De Boer et al reported that the prevalence of diabetic kidney disease increased from 2.2 % of the US population in 1988 to 3.3 % in 2008 (p < 0.001) in proportion to the reported increase in the prevalence of diabetes [6], while Kramer and Molitch [7] reported a fourfold increase in prevalence of CKD in the last three decades in US Medicare patients with hypertension and diabetes. However, CKD often goes undetected, so the actual prevalence of the disease may be even higher than reported. "
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