Racial and Sexual Identity-Related Maltreatment Among Minority YMSM: Prevalence, Perceptions, and the Association with Emotional Distress

University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, USA.
AIDS patient care and STDs (Impact Factor: 3.5). 06/2011; 25 Suppl 1(S1):S39-45. DOI: 10.1089/apc.2011.9877
Source: PubMed


Bullying is a form of violence characterized as an aggressive behavior that is unprovoked and intended to cause harm. Prior studies have found that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) youth experience high levels of bullying related to their sexuality and this harassment can lead to engagement in risk behaviors, depression, and suicide. Ethnic/racial minority young men who have sex with men (YMSM) may experience dual levels of stigma and maltreatment due to both their sexuality and their race. The aim of the current study was to assess the prevalence and perceptions of racial and sexual identity-based abuse among a sample of minority YMSM, and whether this maltreatment plays a role in the emotional distress of these youth. We found that overall 36% and 85% of participants experienced racial and sexuality-related bullying, respectively. There was a significant association between experiencing a high level of sexuality-related bullying and depressive symptomatology (p=0.03), having attempted suicide (p=0.03), and reporting parental abuse (p=0.05). We found no association between racial bullying and suicide attempts. In a multivariable logistic regression model, experiencing any racial bullying and high sexuality-related bullying were significant predictors of having a CES-D score ≥16; adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.83 and 2.29, respectively. These findings contribute to the existing literature regarding the negative experiences and daily stressors facing LGBT youth with regard to both their minority status and LGBT identities. Future interventions for racial/ethnic minority YMSM should provide assistance to achieve a positive view of self that encompasses both their racial and sexual identities.

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Available from: Angulique Outlaw, Jan 09, 2016
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    • "Depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), a 20-item measure of depressive symptoms experienced over the past week that has been used with diverse populations, including racial and sexual minority samples (Cochran & Mays, 1994; Dibble et al., 2012; Hightow-Weidman et al., 2011; Mimiaga et al., 2010). Sample items include ''During the past week you felt depressed'' and ''During the past week you were bothered by things that don't usually bother you.'' "
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    • "Eligible index participants undergo consent/assent and complete the baseline assessment within 30 days of being screened for eligibility. The baseline assessment includes survey modules on demographics [45], social support [25], substance use [52], mental health [53], dyadic closeness [54–56], stigma [57], self-efficacy [58,59], strain/abuse [60–62], sexual behaviors, social network characterization [51], and the constructs in Figures 1 [40,63] and 2 [19]. YBMSMT (and SC members recruited later in the experimental condition) are provided with $25 for completion of measures at baseline, 3 months and 12 months. "
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