Paediatric Intensive Care Unit, Paediatric Critical Care Medicine and Paediatric Palliative Care Service, University of Michigan Medical Center, Mott Children's Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-0243, USA.
Objective To describe the washout effect after stopping a prevention checklist for ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).
Methods VAP rates were prospectively monitored for special cause variation over 42 months in a paediatric intensive care unit. A VAP prevention bundle was implemented, consisting of head of bed elevation, oral care, suctioning device management, ventilator tubing care, and standard infection control precautions. Key practices of the bundle were implemented with a checklist and subsequently incorporated into the nursing and respiratory care bedside flow sheets to achieve long-term sustainability. Compliance with the VAP bundle was monitored throughout. The timeline for the project was retrospectively categorised into the benchmark phase, the checklist phase (implementation), the checklist washout phase, and the flowsheet phase (cues in the flowsheet).
Results During the checklist phase (12 months), VAP bundle compliance rose from <50% to >75% and the VAP rate fell from 4.2 to 0.7 infections per 1000 ventilator days (p<0.059). Unsolicited qualitative feedback from frontline staff described overburdensome documentation requirements, form fatigue, and checklist burnout. During the checklist washout phase (4 months), VAP rates rose to 4.8 infections per 1000 ventilator days (p<0.042). In the flowsheet phase, the VAP rate dropped to 0.8 infections per 1000 ventilator days (p<0.047).
Conclusions Salient cues to drive provider behaviour towards best practice are helpful to sustain process improvement, and cessation of such cues should be approached warily. Initial education, year-long habit formation, and effective early implementation demonstrated no appreciable effect on the VAP rate during the checklist washout period.
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"Facility-external measurements can be performed for instance by government offices, the medical service of health insurers (MDK), patients, network auditors, and subsequent facilities along the patient pathway. Checklists such as those commonly used in QM audits are recommended for all three measurements , , . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the care of patients, the prevention of nosocomial infections is crucial. For it to be successful, cross-sectoral, interface-oriented hygiene quality management is necessary. The goal is to apply the HACCP (Hazard Assessment and Critical Control Points) concept to hospital hygiene, in order to create a multi-dimensional hygiene control system based on hygiene indicators that will overcome the limitations of a procedurally non-integrated and non-cross-sectoral view of hygiene.
Three critical risk dimensions can be identified for the implementation of three-dimensional quality control of hygiene in clinical routine: the constitution of the person concerned, the surrounding physical structures and technical equipment, and the medical procedures. In these dimensions, the establishment of indicators and threshold values enables a comprehensive assessment of hygiene quality. Thus, the cross-sectoral evaluation of the quality of structure, processes and results is decisive for the success of integrated infection prophylaxis.
This study lays the foundation for hygiene indicator requirements and develops initial concepts for evaluating quality management in hygiene.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing number of hospitals reporting ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates at or close to zero begs the question of whether zero should become the national benchmark for VAP. This article explores the significance of very low VAP rates, reviews differences in surveillance and clinical rates, proposes reasons for their discrepancies, and suggests possible objective alternatives for surveillance.
Surveillance rates of VAP are decreasing, whereas clinical diagnoses and antibiotic prescribing remain prevalent. This growing discrepancy reflects the lack of objective and definitive signs to diagnose VAP. External reporting pressures may be encouraging stricter interpretation of subjective signs and other surveillance initiatives that can artifactually lower rates. It is impossible to disentangle the relative contribution of care improvements versus surveillance effects to currently observed low VAP rates.
The increasing mismatch between surveillance rates and clinical diagnoses limits the utility of official VAP rates to estimate disease burden and guide quality improvement. Advocates are advised to consider objective alternatives such as average duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay, mortality, and antibiotic prescribing. Emerging surveillance definitions that use more objective criteria may better reflect and inform future clinical practice.
Preview · Article · Apr 2012 · Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Proper performance of hand hygiene at key moments during patient care is the most important means of preventing health care-associated infections (HAIs). With increasing awareness of the cost and societal impact caused by HAIs has come the realization that hand hygiene improvement initiatives are crucial to reducing the burden of HAIs. Multimodal strategies have emerged as the best approach to improving hand hygiene compliance. These strategies use a variety of intervention components intended to address obstacles to complying with good hand hygiene practices, and to reinforce behavioral change. Although research has substantiated the effectiveness of the multimodal design, challenges remain in promoting widespread adoption and implementation of a coordinated approach. This article reviews elements of a multimodal approach to improve hand hygiene and advocates the use of a "bundled" strategy. Eight key components of this bundle are proposed as a cohesive program to enable the deployment of synergistic, coordinated efforts to promote good hand hygiene practice. A consistent, bundled methodology implemented at multiple study centers would standardize processes and allow comparison of outcomes, validation of the methodology, and benchmarking. Most important, a bundled approach can lead to sustained infection reduction.
No preview · Article · May 2012 · American journal of infection control