Comparison of Drug-Eluting Versus Bare Metal Stents in Cardiac Allograft Vasculopathy
Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, California, USA. The American journal of cardiology
(Impact Factor: 3.28).
06/2011; 108(5):665-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjcard.2011.04.014
Although not a definitive treatment, percutaneous coronary intervention offers a palliative benefit to patients with cardiac allograft vasculopathy. Given the superior outcomes with drug-eluting stents (DESs) over bare metal stents (BMSs) in native coronary artery disease, similar improvements might be expected in transplant patients; however, the results have been mixed. Consecutive cardiac transplantation recipients at a single center receiving a stent for de novo cardiac allograft vasculopathy from 1997 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed according to receipt of a DES versus a BMS. The angiographic and clinical outcomes were subsequently evaluated at 1 year. The baseline clinical and procedural characteristics were similar among those receiving DESs (n = 18) and BMSs (n = 16). Quantitative coronary angiography revealed no difference in the reference diameter, lesion length, or pre-/postprocedural minimal luminal diameter. At the 12-month angiographic follow-up visit, the mean lumen loss was significantly lower in the DES group than in the BMS group (0.19 ± 0.73 mm vs 0.76 ± 0.97 mm, p = 0.02). The DES group also had a lower rate of in-stent restenosis (12.5% vs 33%, p = 0.18), as well as a significantly lower rate of target lesion revascularization (0% vs 19%, p = 0.03). At 1 year, DESs were associated with a lower composite rate of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction (12% vs 38%, p = 0.04). In conclusion, DESs are safe and effective in the suppression of neointimal hyperplasia after percutaneous coronary intervention for cardiac allograft vasculopathy, resulting in significantly lower rates of late lumen loss and target lesion revascularization, as well as a reduced combined rate of cardiac death and nonfatal myocardial infarction.
Available from: Daniel Peckham
- "A recent retrospective nonrandomised study involving 34 patients receiving a total of 46 stents (27 DES vs 19 BMS) is the first to suggest a clinical benefit (reduced rates of nonfatal MI and cardiac death) with DES compared to BMS in the treatment of CTV . Randomised controlled trials are required to confirm the superiority of DES over BES in the treatment of CTV especially in improving survival or reducing major adverse cardiac events . "
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ABSTRACT: We present a case of myocardial infarction in a 19 year old female with cystic fibrosis who had a heart and lung transplant performed at the age of four years old. She presented atypically with a one day history of severe, intermittent, central, sharp chest pain, radiating to her back and down her left arm. A coronary angiogram showed proximal stenosis of the left anterior descending artery and right coronary artery. She was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention, involving drug eluting stents to the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and the right coronary artery (RCA). In this study we discuss the pathophysiology, investigations and treatment of cardiac transplant vasculopathy. Although complete reversal of LAD and RCA stenosis was achieved, routine follow-up with coronary angiography and careful control of cardiac risk factors will be important to identify and reduce future restenosis and adverse cardiac events.
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ABSTRACT: Cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is still one of the major causes of death following heart transplantation. Here, we review the recent advances in its prevention and treatment.
Preventive measures comprise control of classical risk factors, prophylaxis against cytomegalovirus, avoidance of graft endothelial damage during heart transplantation, and prevention of acute rejection. These measures can be effective if begun early. The treatment options for established CAV are limited, percutaneous revascularization and coronary artery bypass graft only being viable for a minority of patients because of the diffuse nature of CAV. Retransplantation is the only definitive therapy for CAV and may be considered for suitable patients with advanced CAV and allograft dysfunction. One of the most promising developments in the recent years is the use of mTOR inhibitors, which can now be regarded as effective in preventing CAV in de novo patients; their role in the treatment of established CAV is still uncertain despite some encouraging recent findings.
The implementation of measures and lifestyles that help prevent CAV should be a priority of postheart transplantation management. Research should urgently evaluate mTOR inhibitors for the treatment of established CAV.
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