Are Current Law Enforcement Strategies Associated with a Lower Risk of Repeat Speeding Citations and Crash Involvement? A Longitudinal Study of Speeding Maryland Drivers

National Study Center for Trauma & EMS, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.
Annals of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 2). 06/2011; 21(9):641-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.03.014
Source: PubMed


To determine whether traffic court appearances and different court verdicts were associated with risk of subsequent speeding citations and crashes.
A cohort of 29,754 Maryland drivers ticketed for speeding who either went to court or paid fines by mail in May/June 2003 was followed for 3 years. Drivers appearing in court were categorized by verdicts: 1) not guilty, 2) suspension of prosecution/no prosecution (STET/NP), 3) case dismissed, 4) probation before judgment (PBJ) and fines, or 5) fines and demerit points. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (AHR).
Court appearances were associated with lower risk of subsequent speeding citations (AHR = 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.88-0.96), but higher risk of crashes (AHR = 1.25; 95% CI, 1.16-1.35). PBJ was associated with significantly lower repeat speeding tickets (AHR = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.91) and a non-significant decrease in crashes (AHR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.75-1.02). Both repeat speeding tickets and subsequent crashes were significantly lower in the STET/NP group.
PBJ and STET/NP may reduce speeding and crashes, but neither verdict eliminated excess crash risk among drivers who choose court appearances. Randomized, controlled evaluations of speeding countermeasures are needed to inform traffic safety policies.

Download full-text


Available from: Gordon Stephen Smith, Oct 06, 2014
  • Source
    • "ess in reducing speeding and crashes (Li, Amr, Braver, Langenberg, Zhan, Smith and Dischinger, 2011). They add that, " reviews of studies addressing the effectiveness of countermeasures on traffic violations have concluded that receiving an occasional fine for speeding is merely an inconvenience rather than an effective deterrent for some drivers (Li 2011, p. 645). " Whatever the effectiveness of traffic citations on citizen behavior the United States still prides itself on the promotion of personal freedom. Any curtailment of that freedom might create a certain level of dissatisfaction. The imposition of a speed limit is an example. If the goal is to prevent injury to others than limiti"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: States and municipalities across the country are struggling to match revenues with expenditures. Sometimes these governments use traffic fines and fees to help balance the budget more so at the city level than at the state level. This article explores the rationale for the issuance of traffic tickets and provides a state-level analysis on the occurrence of tickets and its relation with budget or public safety factors. Utilizing a cross-sectional multiple regression with lags, it was found that public safety concerns as evident in fatal crashes data has a significant and larger negative effect on the issuance of traffic tickets than budget concerns as measured by state credit ratings, unemployment rates, and housing prices.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Administration & Society
  • Source
    • "To combat the problem of speed-related crashes, Cambodia may consider focusing road-safety efforts around motorcycle speed control. This might be accomplished through a combination of road smoothing/traffic calming (Grundy et al., 2009), increased enforcement (Li et al., 2011), and setting speeds that are appropriate for the roadway (Elvik, Vaa, Erke, & Sorensen, 2009) – all shown to be promising interventions. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study examines the risk characteristics of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia over a 5-year period (2007-2011). Secondary data analyses were conducted using the Cambodia Road Crash and Victim Information System, the only comprehensive and integrated road crash surveillance system in the country. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Handicap International found that (1) males are dying in motorcycle crashes roughly seven times more frequently than females; (2) motorcyclist fatalities increased by about 30% from 2007 to 2011; (3) the motorcyclist death rates per 100,000 population increased from 7.4 to 8.7 deaths from 2007 to 2011; and (4) speed-related crashes and not wearing motorcycle helmet were commonly reported for motorcyclist fatalities at approximately 50% and over 80% through the study years, respectively. Additionally, this study highlights that Cambodia has the highest motorcycle death rate in South-East Asia, far surpassing Thailand, Malaysia, and Myanmar. By recognising the patterns of fatal motorcycle crashes in Cambodia, local road-safety champions and stakeholders can design targeted interventions and preventative measures to improve road safety among motorcyclists.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Elevated gravitational force event rates are associated with the likelihood of a crash or near crash and provide an objective measure of risky driving. The purpose of this research is to examine the patterns over time of kinematic measures of risky driving among novice teenage drivers. Methods: Driving data were collected from 42 newly licensed teenage drivers during the first 18 months of licensure. Data recording systems installed in participants' vehicles provided information on driving performance and driver characteristics. Latent class and logistic regression models were used to analyze trajectories of elevated gravitational-force (g-force) event rates, called kinematic risky driving, with respect to risk groups and associated factors. Results: Kinematic risky driving over the 18-month study period was best characterized as two classes, a higher-risk and a lower-risk class. The rate of kinematic risky driving during the first 6 months generally maintained over 18 months. Indeed, of those classified by latent class analysis as higher risk, 88.9%, 94.4% and 94.4% had average event rates above the median in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd 6-month periods, respectively, indicating substantial tracking over time. Friends' risky driving, friends' risky behavior, self-reported risky driving, and perceptions about risky driving and driving privileges were associated with trip-level rates of kinematic risky driving. However, none of these factors was associated with trip-level rates after stratifying by overall risk in a latent class model, although friend's risky driving was marginally significant. Conclusion: Kinematic risky driving tended to track over time within the lower and higher risky driving groups. Self-reported risky driving and having risky friends were predictors of kinematic risky driving rates, but these variables did not explain the heterogeneity within higher and lower classes of risky drivers.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2012 · Accident; analysis and prevention
Show more