Soluble Interleukin-2 Receptor a Activation in a Children's Oncology Group Randomized Trial of Interleukin-2 Therapy for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer (Impact Factor: 2.39). 09/2011; 57(3):398-405. DOI: 10.1002/pbc.22966
Source: PubMed


To assess associations of soluble IL-2 receptor alpha (sIL-2rα) concentration with outcomes in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in a phase 3 trial of IL-2 therapy.
We randomized 289 children with AML in first remission after intensive chemotherapy to receive IL-2 infused on days 0-3 and 8-17 (IL-2 group) or no further therapy (AML control group). We measured sequential serum sIL-2rα concentrations in both groups before, during and after therapy in both groups and in reference controls without AML.
Before treatment, mean sIL-2rα concentrations were similar in the IL-2 group and AML controls, but significantly higher than in reference controls. Both AML groups experienced reduction in sIL-2rα concentration after chemotherapy. Thereafter in the IL-2 group, mean sIL-2rα concentration increased from 2,669 pg/ml before IL-2 to 15,534 pg/ml on day 4 (P < 0.001) and 10,585 pg/ml on day 18 (P < 0.001). In the control group sIL-2rα concentration did not change after 28 days of follow-up. Five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 51% in the IL-2 group and 58% in the controls (P = 0.489) and overall survival was 70% and 73%, respectively (P = 0.727).
SIL-2rα concentration was elevated in AML at diagnosis and tended to normalize after chemotherapy. IL-2 infusion significantly increased sIL-2rα concentration, but did not improve DFS or survival in pediatric AML. Furthermore, sIL-2rα concentration was not predictive of outcome before, during or after treatment for AML.

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