Article

The Quiet Revolution: Breastfeeding Transformed With the Use of Breast Pumps

Division of Nutritional Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
American Journal of Public Health (Impact Factor: 4.55). 06/2011; 101(8):1356-9. DOI: 10.2105/AJPH.2011.300136
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A quiet revolution has been taking place in the feeding of US infants in the form of women using electric breast pumps. This revolution in milk expression may be a boon for both mothers and infants if more infants are fed human milk or if they receive human milk for a longer period. Milk expression may also be problematic for mothers, and it may be particularly problematic for infants if they are fed too much, fed milk of an inappropriate composition, or fed milk that is contaminated. As a result, the time has come to determine the prevalence of exclusive and periodic breast milk expression and the consequences of these behaviors for the health of mothers and their infants.

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Available from: Kathleen M Rasmussen
    • "This assumption is demonstrated by the absence of any differentiation between breast feeding at the breast and feeding EBM in much of the infant feeding literature (Hector, 2011; Geraghty and Rasmussen , 2010). While giving EBM appears to have become common (Binns et al., 2006; Hornbeak et al., 2010; Labiner-Wolfe et al., 2008; Johns et al., 2013a), the related use of breast pumps has been called a 'quiet revolution'(Rasmussen and Geraghty, 2011). A need for clear definitions of infant feeding practices is apparent (Geraghty et al., 2013), especially when there is evidence that giving breast milk other than directly from the breast is associated with a shorter duration of breast feeding (Geraghty et al., 2005; Schwartz et al., 2002;Forster et al., 2015); compromised milk quality (Geraghty and Rasmussen, 2010); decreased infant ability to self-regulate intake (Li et al., 2010); increased risk of childhood obesity (Li et al., 2012); increased risk of dental caries (Harris et al., 2004); orthodontic problems associated with bottle feeding (Emerich and Wojtaszek-Slominska, 2010); and adverse reactions related to pump use (Brown et al., 2005; Clemons and Amir, 2010; Fujimoto et al., 2006; Qi et al., 2014). "

    No preview · Article · Dec 2015 · Women and Birth
    • "This assumption is demonstrated by the absence of any differentiation between breast feeding at the breast and feeding EBM in much of the infant feeding literature (Hector, 2011; Geraghty and Rasmussen , 2010). While giving EBM appears to have become common (Binns et al., 2006; Hornbeak et al., 2010; Labiner-Wolfe et al., 2008; Johns et al., 2013a), the related use of breast pumps has been called a 'quiet revolution'(Rasmussen and Geraghty, 2011). A need for clear definitions of infant feeding practices is apparent (Geraghty et al., 2013), especially when there is evidence that giving breast milk other than directly from the breast is associated with a shorter duration of breast feeding (Geraghty et al., 2005; Schwartz et al., 2002;Forster et al., 2015); compromised milk quality (Geraghty and Rasmussen, 2010); decreased infant ability to self-regulate intake (Li et al., 2010); increased risk of childhood obesity (Li et al., 2012); increased risk of dental caries (Harris et al., 2004); orthodontic problems associated with bottle feeding (Emerich and Wojtaszek-Slominska, 2010); and adverse reactions related to pump use (Brown et al., 2005; Clemons and Amir, 2010; Fujimoto et al., 2006; Qi et al., 2014). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective: this paper describes the use of breast pumps amongst a group of mothers of healthy term infants in Melbourne, Australia, between birth and six months post partum. Design: a prospective cohort study; data were collected using structured questionnaires. Participants: 1003 postpartum women who had given birth to healthy infants at term were recruited from three Melbourne maternity hospitals between July 2009 and April 2011. Data were collected by face-to-face interview at recruitment and by telephone interview three and six months later. Findings: at recruitment (24 to 48 hours post partum), 60% (605/1003) of women already had a breast pump. At two weeks post partum expressing was common; 62% (290/466) of women had expressed by this time, with 40% (186/466) doing so several times a day. By six months post partum 83% (754/911) of the women had a breast pump and 40% (288/715) were expressing, although most just occasionally. The most common reasons for any expressing in the first six months were 'to be able to go out and leave the baby' (35%; 268/772); milk supply 'not enough'(27%; 207/772); and having 'too much' milk (19%; 147/772). The increasing popularity of expressing breast milk to feed infants is not driven by women returning to the workforce, as only 10% of women (80/772) expressed because they had returned to paid employment. Key conclusions and implications for practice: health professionals should be aware that in some settings breast pump use is common in the first six months, and this is not always related to maternal workforce participation.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Midwifery
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    • "The use of breast pumps was associated with mastitis, although this fact may be a consequence rather than a cause, since pumping is frequently recommended to reduce breast pressure and diminish bacterial load inside the mammary ducts during mastitis [14]. Too much expression may also result in pain from breast overstretching while improper use of an electric pump can lead to mastitis, trauma, and nipple wounds [1,54]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background The purpose of this study was to identify potential predisposing factors associated with human infectious mastitis. Methods We conducted a case–control study among breastfeeding women, with 368 cases (women with mastitis) and 148 controls. Data were collected by a questionnaire designed to obtain retrospective information about several factors related to medical history of mother and infant, different aspects of pregnancy, delivery and postpartum, and breastfeeding practices that could be involved in mastitis. Bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression model were used to examine the relationship between mastitis and these factors. Results The variables significantly- and independently-associated with mastitis were cracked nipples (P < 0.0001), oral antibiotics during breastfeeding (P < 0.0001), breast pumps (P < 0.0001), topical antifungal medication during breastfeeding (P = 0.0009), mastitis in previous lactations (P = 0.0014), breast milk coming in later than 24 h postpartum (P = 0.0016), history of mastitis in the family (P = 0.0028), mother-infant separation longer than 24 h (P = 0.0027), cream on nipples (P = 0.0228) and throat infection (P = 0.0224). Conclusions Valuable factors related to an increased risk of infectious mastitis have been identified. This knowledge will allow practitioners to provide appropriate management advice about modifiable risk factors, such as the use of pumps or inappropriate medication. They also could identify before delivery those women at an increased risk of developing mastitis, such as those having a familial history of mastitis, and thus develop strategies to prevent this condition.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
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