Cholinergic microvillous cells in the mouse main olfactory epithelium and effect of acetylcholine on olfactory sensory neurons and supporting cells

ArticleinJournal of Neurophysiology 106(3):1274-87 · June 2011with23 Reads
DOI: 10.1152/jn.00186.2011 · Source: PubMed
Abstract
The mammalian olfactory epithelium is made up of ciliated olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs), supporting cells, basal cells, and microvillous cells. Previously, we reported that a population of nonneuronal microvillous cells expresses transient receptor potential channel M5 (TRPM5). Using transgenic mice and immunocytochemical labeling, we identify that these cells are cholinergic, expressing the signature markers of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and the vesicular acetylcholine transporter. This result suggests that acetylcholine (ACh) can be synthesized and released locally to modulate activities of neighboring supporting cells and OSNs. In Ca(2+) imaging experiments, ACh induced increases in intracellular Ca(2+) levels in 78% of isolated supporting cells tested in a concentration-dependent manner. Atropine, a muscarinic ACh receptor (mAChR) antagonist suppressed the ACh responses. In contrast, ACh did not induce or potentiate Ca(2+) increases in OSNs. Instead ACh suppressed the Ca(2+) increases induced by the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in some OSNs. Supporting these results, we found differential expression of mAChR subtypes in supporting cells and OSNs using subtype-specific antibodies against M(1) through M(5) mAChRs. Furthermore, we found that various chemicals, bacterial lysate, and cold saline induced Ca(2+) increases in TRPM5/ChAT-expressing microvillous cells. Taken together, our data suggest that TRPM5/ChAT-expressing microvillous cells react to certain chemical or thermal stimuli and release ACh to modulate activities of neighboring supporting cells and OSNs via mAChRs. Our studies reveal an intrinsic and potentially potent mechanism linking external stimulation to cholinergic modulation of activities in the olfactory epithelium.
    • "These cells may represent a population of stem cells [46,47]. Non-neuronal ACh released in their vicinity might modulate their activity as it was shown for cells of the olfactory epithelium [48]. Meyrick et al. [31] "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Specialized epithelial cells in the respiratory tract such as solitary chemosensory cells and brush cells sense the luminal content and initiate protective reflexes in response to the detection of potentially harmful substances. The majority of these cells are cholinergic and utilize the canonical taste signal transduction cascade to detect "bitter" substances such as bacterial quorum sensing molecules. Utilizing two different mouse strains reporting expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), the synthesizing enzyme of acetylcholine (ACh), we detected cholinergic cells in the submucosal glands of the murine larynx and trachea. These cells were localized in the ciliated glandular ducts and were neither found in the collecting ducts nor in alveolar or tubular segments of the glands. ChAT expression in tracheal gland ducts was confirmed by in situ hybridization. The cholinergic duct cells expressed the brush cell marker proteins, villin and cytokeratin-18, and were immunoreactive for components of the taste signal transduction cascade (Gα-gustducin, transient receptor potential melastatin-like subtype 5 channel=TRPM5, phospholipase Cβ2), but not for carbonic anhydrase IV. Furthermore, these cells expressed the bitter taste receptor Tas2r131, as demonstrated utilizing an appropriate reporter mouse strain. Our study identified a previously unrecognized presumptive chemosensory cell type in the duct of the airway submucosal glands that likely utilizes ACh for paracrine signaling. We propose that these cells participate in infection-sensing mechanisms and initiate responses assisting bacterial clearance from the lower airways. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Article · May 2015
    • "Intracellular Ca 2+ levels of OSNs were monitored using Ca 2+ sensitive dye Fura-2 as described in our previous publication (Ogura et al., 1997Ogura et al., , 2010Ogura et al., , 2011). Briefly, cells were loaded with 2 μM Fura-2 AM (Molecular Probes) for 20–25 min. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipase C (PLC) and internal Ca(2+) stores are involved in a variety of cellular functions. However, our understanding of PLC in mammalian olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) is generally limited to its controversial role in odor transduction. Here we employed single-cell Ca(2+) imaging and molecular approaches to investigate PLC-mediated Ca(2+) responses and its isozyme gene transcript expression. We found that the pan-PLC activator m-3M3FBS (25 μM) induces intracellular Ca(2+) increases in vast majority of isolated mouse OSNs tested. Both the response amplitude and percent responding cells depend on m-3M3FBS concentrations. In contrast, the inactive analog o-3M3FBS fails to induce Ca(2+) responses. The m-3M3FBS-induced Ca(2+) increase is blocked by the PLC inhibitor U73122, while its inactive analog U73433 has no effect. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) does not change significantly the m-3M3FBS-induced Ca(2+) response amplitude. Additionally, in the absence of external Ca(2+), we found that a subset of OSNs respond to an odorant mixture with small Ca(2+) increases, which are significantly suppressed by U73122. Furthermore, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we found that multiple PLC isozyme gene transcripts are expressed in olfactory turbinate tissue in various levels. Using RNA in situ hybridization analysis, we further show expression of β4, γ1, γ2 gene transcripts in OSNs. Taken together, our results establish that PLC isozymes are potent enzymes for mobilizing intracellular Ca(2+) in mouse OSNs and provide molecular insight for PLC isozymes-mediated complex cell signaling and regulation in the peripheral olfactory epithelium.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
    • "It has been suggested that secondary sensory and/or non-neuronal microvillous cells, possibly in co-operation with ciliated neurons, are involved in chemosensation. Various subtypes and possible roles have been identified to date in multiple publications, often with conflicting conclusions (Rowley et al., 1989; Asan and Drenckhahn, 2005; Elsaesser et al., 2005; Elsaesser and Paysan, 2007; Hansen and Finger, 2008; Lin et al., 2008; Hegg et al., 2010; Ogura et al., 2011 ). As such, more work is required to determine comprehensively how many subtypes of microvillous cells exist in the mammalian olfactory epithelium, whether any of these have direct neuronal sensory roles, and what proportion have secondary sensory properties as opposed to solely supporting roles. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: For both the intricate morphogenetic layout of the sensory cells in the ear and the elegantly radial arrangement of the sensory neurons in the nose, numerous signaling molecules and genetic determinants are required in concert to generate these specialized neuronal populations that help connect us to our environment. In this review, we outline many of the proteins and pathways that play essential roles in the differentiation of otic and olfactory neurons and their integration into their non-neuronal support structures. In both cases, well-known signaling pathways together with region-specific factors transform thickened ectodermal placodes into complex sense organs containing numerous, diverse neuronal subtypes. Olfactory and otic placodes, in combination with migratory neural crest stem cells, generate highly specialized subtypes of neuronal cells that sense sound, position and movement in space, odors and pheromones throughout our lives.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014
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