Sleep, emotional and behavioral difficulties in children and adolescents

Department of Psychology, Goldsmiths, University of London, UK.
Sleep Medicine Reviews (Impact Factor: 8.51). 06/2011; 16(2):129-36. DOI: 10.1016/j.smrv.2011.03.007
Source: PubMed


Links between sleep and psychopathology are complex and likely bidirectional. Sleep problems and alteration of normal sleep patterns have been identified in major forms of child psychopathology including anxiety, depression and attention disorders as well as symptoms of difficulties in the full range. This review summarizes some key findings with regard to the links between sleep and associated difficulties in childhood and adolescence. It then proposes a selection of possible mechanisms underlying some of these associations. Suggestions for future research include the need to 1) use multi-methods to assess sleep; 2) measure sleep in large-scale studies; 3) conduct controlled experiments to further establish the effects of sleep variations on emotional and behavioral difficulties; 4) take an interdisciplinary approach to further understand the links between sleep and associated difficulties.

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Available from: Alice M Gregory, Mar 19, 2014
    • "Continued sleep problems are associated with psychiatric disorders (Chorney, Detweiler, Morris, & Kuhn, 2008; Gregory & Sadeh, 2012; Ivanenko & Johnson, 2008). In anxiety disorders and depression , sleep problems are especially common (Alfano, Beidel, Turner, & Lewin, 2006; Alfano, Ginsburg, & Kingery, 2007; Charuvastra & Cloitre, 2009; Chase & Pincus, 2011; Hudson, Gradisar, Gamble, "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To investigate the presence of sleep problems and their reaction to CBT in pediatric obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). Moreover, we investigated whether sleep problems predict the outcome of CBT on OCD-symptoms. Methods 269 children and adolescents, age 7–17 years, with DSM-IV primary OCD that took part in the first step of a stepwise treatment trial, were assessed with regard to both individual sleep problems and a sleep composite score (SCS) using the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL). Their OCD symptoms were rated using the Children Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (CY-BOCS). Results We found elevated symptoms of sleep deprivation and nightmares before treatment. However most sleep problems (e.g. nightmares (p = .03), too little sleep (p < .001), trouble sleeping (p < .001) and parasomnias p = .03)) as well as being over-tired (p < .001) reduced during CBT treatment. Co-morbidities had no effect on the reduction of SCS. Moreover, elevated levels of sleep problems using the SCS (p < .001), as well as any sleep problem at baseline (p < .001) predicted less effect of CBT on the OCD symptoms. Conclusion Sleep problems in paediatric OCD are frequent and interfere with treatment outcome. They need to be assessed using better methods in future trials. Moreover, lack of resolution of sleep problems need to be recognized and treated as it seems probable that continued sleep problems may have a negative impact on CBT efficacy.
    No preview · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Anxiety Disorders
    • "Sleep has also been shown to significantly affect a child's resilience , that is, the ability to recover normal functioning following stressful situations. The greater the sleep disturbance, the more resilience was reduced and increased problematic behaviour (both internalising and externalising), depression and anxiety were noted [9]. Therefore, maintaining a normal sleep pattern in situations of stress, such as those associated with cancer is of vital importance for improving a child's long-term QOL. "
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    ABSTRACT: Cancer in children has detrimental effects on sleep patterns and sleep quality, which in turn impacts on the perception of, and the ability to cope with, the emotional and physical challenges associated with both the disease and its treatment. This places an added burden on their quality of life that can last many years beyond diagnosis and treatment. In addition to the effect of the cancer itself, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can all contribute both short and long term to sleep disruption. Sleep disorders have also been associated with pain, fatigue, medication and hospitalisation in children suffering from cancer. This review will explore the relationship between childhood cancer and associated sleep disorders, in the acute stage of diagnosis, during treatment and in the years following. We will discuss the possible causes and the current treatment modalities used to treat sleep disorders in children with cancer, and in childhood cancer survivors. It has been estimated that the recent advances in treatment have improved the overall five year survival rate for all childhood cancers to over 80%, with some cancers achieving a near 100% cure rate such as early stage Wilms' tumour. Thus, recognition and appropriate treatment of associated sleep disorders is essential to optimise long term quality of life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Jan 2015 · Sleep Medicine Reviews
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    • "For personal use only. sleep supports cognitive-academic achievement (Curcio et al. 2006; Stickgold 2013), emotional and behavioural performance (Yoo et al. 2007; Talbot et al. 2010; Gregory and Sadeh 2012) and impulse control (Peach and Gaultney 2013). Furthermore, both the above-mentioned neurobehavioural functions and sleep pattern mature from early childhood to adolescence (Kurth et al. 2010, 2012; Brand and Kirov 2011; Colrain and Baker 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We tested the hypothesis that sleep training would improve emotional, social and behavioural functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to children with ADHD without such intervention and to healthy controls. Methods. Forty children with ADHD were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Parents of 20 children with ADHD were instructed and thoroughly supervised in improving their children's sleep schedules and sleep behaviour. Parents of the other 20 children with ADHD and parents of 20 healthy children received general information about sleep hygiene. At baseline and 12 weeks later, parents and children completed questionnaires related to children's sleep and psychological functioning. Results. Relative to the control groups, children in the intervention group improved sleep quantitatively and qualitatively (F values < 3.33, P values < 0.05). The intervention group children reported improvements in mood, emotions, and relationships (F values < 2.99, P values < 0.05). Parents reported that their children improved in physical and psychological wellbeing, mood, emotions, relationships, and social acceptance (F values < 3.02, P values < 0.05). Conclusions. Training and monitoring parents of children with ADHD in regulating and supervising children's sleep schedules leads to positive changes in the emotions, behaviour and social lives of these children.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
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