Dynamics of Rabbit Brain Edema in Focal Lesion and Perilesion Area after Traumatic Brain Injury: A MRI Study
Department of Radiology, The Sixth Affiliated People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University , School of Medicine, Shanghai, China . Journal of neurotrauma
(Impact Factor: 3.71).
06/2011; 29(14):2413-20. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2010.1510
Abstract To understand the dynamics of brain edema in different areas after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rabbit, we used dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to monitor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cytotoxic brain edema after weight drop-induced TBI in rabbit. The dynamics of BBB permeability and brain edema were quantified using K(trans) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the focal and perifocal lesion areas, as well as the area contralateral to the lesion. In the focal lesion area, K(trans) began to increase at 3 h post-TBI, peaked at 3 days, and decreased gradually while remaining higher than sham injury animals at 7 and 30 days. ADC was more variable, increased slightly at 3 h, decreased to its lowest value at 7 days, then increased to a peak at 30 days. In the perifocal lesion area, K(trans) began to increase at 1 day, peaked at 3-7 days, and returned to control level by 30 days. ADC showed a trend to increase at 1 day, followed by a continuous increase thereafter. In the contralateral area, no changes in K(trans) and ADC were observed at any time-point. These data demonstrate that different types of brain edema predominate in the focal and perifocal lesion areas. Specifically cytotoxic edema was predominant in the focal lesion area while vasogenic edema predominated in the perifocal area in acute phase. Furthermore, secondary opening of the BBB after TBI may appear if secondary injury is not controlled. BBB damage may be a driving force for cytotoxic brain edema and could be a new target for TBI intervention.
Available from: Philippa Ann Smith
- "Recently, preclinical investigators using MRI with diffusion weighted imaging technology have been able to identify temporal and regional differences in edema after TBI in rabbits. The authors were able to differentiate between vasogenic and cytotoxic edema based on higher or lower apparent diffusion coefficients , respectively . Newcombe et al.  applied diffusion tensor MRI to at-risk contusions in acute post-TBI patients and found a pattern of concentric regions of varying diffusion similar to our Alexa Fluor findings. "
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Blood brain barrier (BBB) compromise is a key pathophysiological component of secondary traumatic brain injury characterized by edema and neuroinflammation in a previously immune-privileged environment. Current assays for BBB permeability are limited by working size, harsh extraction processes, suboptimal detection via absorbance, and wide excitation fluorescence spectra. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of Alexa Fluor 680, a far-red dye bioconjugated to dextran, as an alternative assay to improve resolution and sensitivity.
Alexa Fluor was introduced intravenously on the day of sacrifice to three groups: sham, controlled cortical impact (CCI), and CCI treated with a cell based therapy known to reduce BBB permeability. The brains were sectioned coronally and imaged using an infrared laser scanner to generate intensity plot profiles as well as signal threshold images to distinguish regions with varying degrees of permeability.
Linear plot profile analysis demonstrated greater signal intensity from CCI than treated rats at corresponding injury depths. Threshold analysis identified rims of signal at low + narrow threshold ranges. The integrated signals from a treatment group known to preserve the BBB were significantly less than the groups with CCI injury alone. There was no significant difference at high + wide signal intensity threshold ranges.
Alexa Fluor 680 infrared photodetection and image analysis can aid in detecting differential degrees of BBB permeability after traumatic brain injury and maybe particularly useful in demonstrating BBB preservation of at-risk regions in response to therapeutic agents.
Available from: Rick M Dijkhuizen
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ABSTRACT: Traumatic brain injury is a heterogeneous and multifaceted neurological disorder that involves diverse pathophysiological pathways and mechanisms. Thorough characterization and monitoring of the brain's status after neurotrauma is therefore highly complicated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a versatile tool for in vivo spatiotemporal assessment of various aspects of central nervous system injury, such as edema formation, perfusion disturbances and structural tissue damage. Moreover, recent advances in MRI methods that make use of contrast agents have opened up additional opportunities for measurement of events at the level of the cerebrovasculature, such as blood-brain barrier permeability, leukocyte infiltration, cell adhesion molecule upregulation and vascular remodeling. It is becoming increasingly clear that these cerebrovascular alterations play a significant role in the progression of post-traumatic brain injury as well as in the process of post-traumatic brain repair. Application of advanced multiparametric MRI strategies in experimental, preclinical studies may significantly aid in the elucidation of pathomechanisms, monitoring of treatment effects, and identification of predictive markers after traumatic brain injury.
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ABSTRACT: To use DCE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging to evaluate the hyperbaric oxygen efficacy (HBO) in experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty-two rabbits were randomly divided into four groups: TBI, TBI + HBO, sham group, sham + HBO. The TBI + HBO and sham + HBO received a total of 10 HBO treatments within 7 days following TBI, and MRI was performed within a month after TBI. Functional assessments were performed pre-TBI, and at 1 and 30 days. In focal lesion area, K(trans) in TBI + HBO group was lower than TBI group at both acute and subacute phase (p < 0.05). ADC was higher in TBI + HBO group than TBI group at acute phase (p < 0.01), but lower at subacute phase (p < 0.05). In perifocal area, K(trans) were lower in TBI + HBO group than TBI group at acute phase (p < 0.01) after TBI. ADC was lower in the TBI + HBO group than in the TBI group at both acute and subacute phase (p < 0.01).The VCS was higher in TBI + HBO group than TBI group at 30 days (p < 0.05). HBO could improve the impaired BBB and cytotoxic edema after TBI and promote the recovery of neurofunction.
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