Article

Cultural Variations in the Sexual Marketplace: Gender Equality Correlates With More Sexual Activity

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Abstract

Sexual economics theory assumes that heterosexual communities can be analyzed as marketplaces in which men offer women resources such as love, respect, money, and commitment in exchange for sex. In response to economic, political, and other disadvantages, women collectively restrict their sexuality to maintain a low supply relative to male demand, thereby ensuring a high price. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that sexual norms and practices would be more restrictive in countries marked by gender inequality than in countries where the genders were more equal. An international online sex survey (N>317,000) yielded four measures of sexual activity, and 37 nations' means on all four measures were correlated with independent (World Economic Forum) ratings of gender equality. Consistent with predictions, relatively high gender equality was associated with more casual sex, more sex partners per capita, younger ages for first sex, and greater tolerance/approval of premarital sex.

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... A specific form of casual sex are so-called one-night stands, that is, single spontaneous sexual encounters between strangers or casual acquaintances without intimate self-disclosure (Wentland & Reissing, 2014). In western societies, one-night stands are widespread among adults (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011) and college students (Claxton & van Dulmen, 2013). Studies highlighted that the engagement in casual sex such as one-night stands is partly determined by individual differences in personality such as extraversion or sensation seeking (Jonason, Hatfield, & Boler, 2015;Nguyen et al., 2012). ...
... A limitation of previous research in this area is its focus on members of a single society. Given pronounced cross-cultural differences in personality (Schmitt, Allik, McCrae, & Benet-Martínez, 2007) and evidence indicating different prevalence rates of one-night stands across cultures (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011), it might be speculated that individual differences affect the likelihood of engaging in one-night-stands differently across countries. Therefore, the present study integrates these two lines of research and examines the joint influence of personality and culture on the engagement in one-night stands in Germany and Spain. ...
... An increasing body of research is devoted to the understanding of predictors of sexual behaviors. This study focused on an increasingly prevalent (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011) form of sexual activities, one-night stands. To deepen our understanding of casual sex, we examined the role of personality traits for the engagement in casual sex across two culturally diverse countries. ...
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Casual sex such as spontaneous sexual interactions with strangers (i.e., one-night stands) represents a common sexual experience for many young adults. Previous research focused either on individual differences or on cross-cultural effects that predict the engagement in one-night stands. This study integrates both lines of research and examines the effects of four personality traits (extraversion, neuroticism, sensation seeking, and the need for affect) on the number of one-night stands in two countries (Germany and Spain). A web-based study on N = 913 adults (759 women) showed that extraversion and sensation seeking are the strongest predictors of engagement in one-night stands. These results were replicated for participants from both countries indicating universal personality effects across cultures. The study highlights the importance of adopting an individual difference perspective in sex research.
... Empirical studies looking at factors explaining between country variations in sexual behavior are very rare. The only study found by the present authors that explicitly compares several countries was performed by Baumeister and Mendoza (2011). Using an online survey conducted by the condom maker Durex with over 300,000 adult respondents (convenience selection), they compared data from the global gender gap report at the country level with reported sexual activity from 37 countries, finding that increased levels of sexual activity correlate with more egalitarian societies (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011). ...
... The only study found by the present authors that explicitly compares several countries was performed by Baumeister and Mendoza (2011). Using an online survey conducted by the condom maker Durex with over 300,000 adult respondents (convenience selection), they compared data from the global gender gap report at the country level with reported sexual activity from 37 countries, finding that increased levels of sexual activity correlate with more egalitarian societies (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011). Given the probably skewed sample in this study of individuals going online to find information about sex (individuals that are online as well as interested in sexual issues), there is a need to replicate this work using more randomized selections. ...
... From a sex positive framework perspective, sexual activity, as studied by Baumeister and Mendoza (2011) and De Meyer et al. (2014), is an important indicator of sexual health. However, Baumeister and Mendoza (2011) do not measure several important aspects of sexual health, such as control and consent as well as safe sex, and in the De Meyer et al. (2014) study the clustered data are not treated as such. ...
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Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between country level egalitarian values (broadly speaking emancipatory values/structural gender equality) and sexual behavior among youth. Methods: Comparative individual level data on sexual activity and condom use were collected from the Global School-based Student Health Survey, resulting in a final sample of 23 countries, analyzed utilizing multilevel logistic regression analysis. Results: Egalitarian values were significantly associated with sexual activity and condom use. Conclusions: Egalitarian values have a relationship with adolescents’ sexual activity and condom use, and thus contribute to sexual health and well-being in Africa, South America and Asia.
... Even though the political beliefs of adults are relatively stable and often resistant to political propaganda, advertising, or other external stimuli (Mercier 2017), evidence suggests that evolutionarily relevant cues in an individual's environment can affect some of the individual's socio-political attitudes. These cues include the Adult Sex Ratio (e.g., Guttentag and Secord 1983), degrees of environmental harshness (e.g., Pazhoohi et al. 2017), and degrees of gender inequality (e.g., Baumeister and Mendoza 2011). Here, we investigated the influence that mating competitor quality (i.e., the quality of individuals that men and women compete with to attract the best available partners in the mating market) might have on socio-political orientation. ...
... Socio-political attitudes are not only predicted by sociosexuality but are also responsive to cues in the local environment, such as cues of gender inequality. Individuals who live in areas where women are economically dependent on their male partners report more opposition to promiscuity (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011;Price et al. 2014) and, especially women, more support for traditional gender roles (Baxter and Kane 1995), than individuals who live in more equitable areas. Women who depend on their partners condemn promiscuity and endorse traditional gender roles to avoid losing commitment and valuable resources to sexual rivals (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011;Baxter and Kane 1995). ...
... Individuals who live in areas where women are economically dependent on their male partners report more opposition to promiscuity (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011;Price et al. 2014) and, especially women, more support for traditional gender roles (Baxter and Kane 1995), than individuals who live in more equitable areas. Women who depend on their partners condemn promiscuity and endorse traditional gender roles to avoid losing commitment and valuable resources to sexual rivals (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011;Baxter and Kane 1995). Similarly, when men are heavily investing in their partners and offspring, men condemn promiscuity to ensure paternity certainty (Price et al. 2014). ...
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Objectives Individual differences in socio-political attitudes can reflect mating interests, and attitudes can also shift in response to mating market cues, including mating competitor quality. In four experiments, we tested whether competitors’ attractiveness (Experiments 1F&1M) and income (Experiments 2F&2M) would influence socio-political attitudes (participants’ self-reported attitudes towards promiscuity and sexual liberalism, traditional gender roles, and the minimum wage and healthcare). Methods We collected data from American participants online through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk (total N = 787). In all experiments, each participant was randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatments in a between-subjects design (three levels of mating competitor quality and a control group), and to one of five stimuli within each treatment. Results Overall, the experimental treatments largely did not predict participants’ socio-political attitudes. The fifteen unique experimental stimuli, however, did significantly affect participants’ perception of their competitors’ quality. That perception, in turn, affected some socio-political attitudes. Namely, individuals who perceived their competitors to be of high mate-value were more supportive of traditional gender roles and, only for men in Experiment 2M, more opposed to promiscuity and sexual liberalism than individuals who perceived competitors to be of low mate-value. These results only applied to sexually unrestricted, but not restricted, women. Perceived mating competition did not affect attitudes towards the minimum wage and healthcare. Conclusions Experimental cues of mating competition shifted participants’ perceptions of their competitors’ mating quality and these perceptions in turn shifted some socio-political attitudes. We interpret these results considering broader arguments about plasticity in socio-political attitudes.
... As a regional organisation, The Association Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a culturally, economically and politically diverse group of nation-states that comprise 11 countries namely the Philippines, Vietnam, Thailand, Singapore, Myanmar, Brunei, Cambodia, Timor Leste, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia. The cases of illegal abortion, pre-marital sex, early sexual debut, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV amongst adolescents are becoming more prevalent in these countries [7][8][9][10][11][12]. While a number of studies has explained the link between sexual attitudes and sexually risky behaviours with variables such as peer in uences, familial and extra-familial in uences system, exposure to media containing sexual content, gender scripts, gender equality of a country and social class [7][8][9][10][11][12], there exists a paucity in a systematic review of psycho-social association with sexual deviance of adolescent within the ASEAN context. ...
... The cases of illegal abortion, pre-marital sex, early sexual debut, teen pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV amongst adolescents are becoming more prevalent in these countries [7][8][9][10][11][12]. While a number of studies has explained the link between sexual attitudes and sexually risky behaviours with variables such as peer in uences, familial and extra-familial in uences system, exposure to media containing sexual content, gender scripts, gender equality of a country and social class [7][8][9][10][11][12], there exists a paucity in a systematic review of psycho-social association with sexual deviance of adolescent within the ASEAN context. ...
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Background: Risky sexual behaviours amongst adolescents are associated with detrimental impact on their personal growth, influenced by psychosocial factors including subjective cultural norms. This systematic review aimed to examine the evidence on ASEAN countries’ adolescents risky sexual behaviour defined as sexual deviance with its associated psychosocial factors. Methods: A systematic literature review was guided by PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) for a search through four electronic databases for articles published within the time frame of 2010 and 2020 resulting in 20 articles that meet the inclusion criteria. Results: Adolescent sexual deviance in ASEAN is associated with salient psychosocial factors such as cultural norm, self-esteem, parental support/monitoring, substance abuse (alcohol/drugs/smoking), spirituality and religion. Intention, attitude and motivation of sexual transgression appear to be recurrent factors as well. Most studies are cross-sectional and quantitatively designed. The diverse and nuanced psychosocial factors of sexually deviant behaviour affirm the sexual dimension and values of absolutism, hedonism and relativism. Conclusions: Strategies for reducing risky sexual behaviours among ASEAN adolescents should take regard of subjective culture norms and psychosocial needs to achieve the goal of progress as per the ASEAN Youth Development Index. More qualitative and longitudinal approaches in future research are also recommended for more in-depth insights for appropriate intervention or rehabilitative measures.
... For example, Mediterranean men report more sexual partners and more condom use than Mediterranean women (Bajos & Marquet, 2000). Furthermore, compared to countries from northern Europe, countries from south and central Europe seem to be less gender-egalitarian, and less permissive with respect to sexual behavior (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;World Economic Forum, 2017). ...
... Summing up, this study investigated predictors of sexual intercourse activity among partnered adults from a cross-cultural perspective. Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal were selected because of their geographical location, indicating differences in gender roles and sexual cultures (Bajos & Marquet, 2000;Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Bozon & Kontula, 1998;Haavio-Mannila & Kontula, 2003;Lewin, 2008;Traeen, 2008;World Economic Forum, 2017). Although the results suggest some differences between the four European countries, the more important conclusion seems to be the similarities between the countries, which we initially did not expect. ...
Article
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To investigate factors that predict partnered sexual activity in men and women aged 60–75 years from Norway, Denmark, Belgium, and Portugal. A cross-sectional study including national representative samples of people aged 60–75 years from Norway (676 men, 594 women), Denmark (530 men, 515 women), Belgium (318 men, 672 women), and Portugal (236 men, 273 women). Data were collected by means of anonymous questionnaires. Generally, across countries, the two most important predictors of partnered sexual activity were positive attitudes toward “Sex for well-being,” and sexual problems in the partner. Other important predictors of partnered sexual activity included positive attitudes toward sexual changes due to aging, previous sexual activity, and relationship happiness. The sexual function of the partner and people's own sexual attitudes were highly predictive of partnered sexual activity.
... These cultural differences in the sexual sphere may mould older people's sexual expression and behaviour (Sandfort, Hubert, Bajos & Bos, 1998). We have comparative studies which demonstrate differences between countries and regions in terms of permissiveness related to sexual behaviour (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Haavio-Mannila & Kontula, 2003) which lead us to hypothesise the impact of the sociocultural environment on sexuality (Fischer, Traen, & Martin, 2018). Because of that, the place of origin may be an explanatory variable for older people's sexual attitudes and behaviour. ...
... Culture is no doubt an important framework for the understanding of sexuality (Agocha, Asencio & Decena, 2014) and while there are various studies that have looked at differences in permissiveness and acceptance of sexuality between countries and regions (e.g., Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Haavio-Mannila & Kontula, 2003), they are susceptible to change in currently highly globalised societies. In this respect, despite expecting to find substantial differences between older people form the North, centre, and South of Europe, a recent study by Fischer et al. (2018) did not find origin to be a predictor variable of sexual activity in malefemale couples aged between 60 and 75 in Norway, Denmark, Belgium and Portugal. ...
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Extensive research in recent decades has noted the importance of sexual activity to older people’s health, well-being and quality of life. This study aims to understand the factors that potentially explain sexual inactivity in older populations. In addition to the sociodemographic factors that have traditionally been associated with sexual activity, we examined the explanatory potential and sensitivity of the perception of health and attitudes towards sexuality in the estimation of sexual inactivity in the previous year in a sample of 200 subjects between 62 and 91 years old (M = 71.30, SD = 5.48). The results suggest significant percentages of variance explained by the regression model which included variables such as having a partner, age and place of origin (R2 = .295). Our results also point to the fact that both perception and concern for sexual health, and opinions about sex before marriage or sex without love, would explain sexual inactivity in the elderly. These results suggest the potential of interventions centred on stereotypes and attitudes towards sexuality.
... The GGGI was chosen for several reasons. First, countries' GGGI scores are highly correlated with their population's likelihood of impersonal sexual behavior (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011), and the argument that pornography's unrestricted approach to sex will resonate more in progressive countries assumes that progressiveness is related to openness to impersonal sexuality (Doornwaard, Bickham, et al., 2015;van Oosten et al., 2017;Stulhofer et al., 2012). Second, the GGGI is superior to the United Nations' Gender Empowerment Measure because it assesses gender equality rather than levels of available resources (Zentner & Mitura, 2012). ...
... social scientific research (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Bleidorn et al., 2016;Yip, Yousuf, Chan, Yung, & Wu, 2015;Zentner & Mitura, 2012). Consistent with previous work, studies amalgamating data across decades into a single effect size were excluded from year-based analyses . ...
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This paper presents meta-analytic findings on pornography consumption and impersonal sexual attitudes and behaviors. Results were based on more than 70 reports spanning over 40 years of research. Data from 13 countries were located, with attitudinal results from more than 45,000 participants and behavioral results from over 60,000 participants. Pornography consumption was associated with an impersonal approach to sex among both men and women; among both adolescents and adults; and across countries, time, and methods. Mediation results were consistent with the sexual script theory hypothesis that viewing pornography leads to more impersonal sexual attitudes, which in turn increase the likelihood of engaging in impersonal sexual behavior. Confounding analysis did not support the libertarian theory of pornography's hypothesis that the only reason why pornography consumption correlates with impersonal sexual behavior is because people who are already impersonal in their approach to sex are more likely to consume pornography and engage in impersonal sexual acts.
... A key implication of these findings is the need to recognise the foundational role of the local ecology and circumstances for whether female control or male control is more dominant or whether they are equivalent for the actual shaping of a woman's sexual behaviour at a given point in time. This is not a new observation, and speaks to a wider finding that ecological factors shape sexual suppression (Price et al., 2014;Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Schacht & Bell, 2016). Blake et al. (2018b,a) recently highlighted how aspects of the local mating ecology can shape both men and women's endorsement of female sexual suppression. ...
... There is some evidence that sexual suppression is moderated via contextual factors, such as local levels of gender equality (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011) and women's economic reliance on men (Price et al., 2014;Stanik & Ellsworth, 2010). In a recent paper, Blake et al. (2018b) found plasticity in sexual suppression, such that support of the Islamic veil is higher among men, as well as women with a higher number of sons relative to daughters. ...
Article
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Across human societies, female sexuality is suppressed by gendered double standards, slut shaming, sexist rape laws, and honour killings. The question of what motivates societies to punish promiscuous women, however, has been contested. Although some have argued that men suppress female sexuality to increase paternity certainty, others maintain that this is an example of intrasexual competition. Here we show that both sexes are averse to overt displays of female sexuality, but that motivation is sex-specific. In all studies, participants played an economic game with a female partner whose photograph either signalled that she was sexually-accessible or sexually-restricted. In study 1, we found that men and women are less altruistic in a Dictator Game (DG) when partnered with a woman signalling sexual-accessibility. Both sexes were less trusting of sexually-accessible women in a Trust Game (TG) (study 2); women (but not men), however, inflicted costly punishment on a sexually-accessible woman in an Ultimatum Game (UG) (study 3). Our results demonstrate that both sexes are averse to overt sexuality in women, whilst highlighting potential differences in motivation.
... SET also predicts that people regulate the "price" of sex they desire according to the specific circumstances of their mating market. For example, support for promiscuity decreases when women's economic dependence on their partners is high (Price et al. 2014) and increases alongside greater gender equality (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011). Perhaps when men invest heavily in their partners, promiscuity is discouraged to assure men of paternity and women of ongoing paternal investment. ...
... Our results partly supported our prediction: Younger people were more likely to support and engage in casual sex, oppose benevolent sexism, and support nonconforming behaviors than older people, regardless of sex. Generational differences and personality traits may explain this pattern: Since at least the 1950s, gender equality has increased consistently in the United States, and people are more supportive of liberal sexuality in places with greater gender equality (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011;Price et al. 2014). Also, younger people have more liberal attitudes toward sex than older people because they are more open to experience and they have less of a need for closure (Cornelis et al. 2009). ...
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Sociopolitical attitudes are often the root cause of conflicts between individuals, groups, and even nations, but little is known about the origin of individual differences in sociopolitical orientation. We test a combination of economic and evolutionary ideas about the degree to which the mating market, sex, age, and income affect sociopolitical orientation. We collected data online through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk from 1108 US participants who were between 18 and 60, fluent in English, and single. While ostensibly testing a new online dating website, participants created an online dating profile and described people they would like to date. We manipulated the participants’ popularity in the mating market and the size of the market (i.e., the number of ideal partners in the market) and then measured participants’ sociopolitical attitudes. The sociopolitical attitudes were reduced to five dimensions via Principal Components Analysis (Sociosexuality, Benevolent Sexism, Wealth Redistribution, Nonconforming Behaviors, and Traditional Family Values). Both manipulations affected attitudes toward wealth redistribution but were largely not significant predictors of the other dimensions. Men reported more unrestricted sociosexual attitudes, and more support for benevolent sexism and traditional family values, than women did, and women supported wealth redistribution more than men did. There was no sex difference in accepting nonconforming behaviors. Younger people and people with lower incomes were more liberal than older people and people with higher incomes, respectively, regardless of sex. Overall, effects were largely not interactive, suggesting that individual differences in sociopolitical orientation may reflect strategic self-interest and be more straightforward than previously predicted.
... We have already seen that sexually restricted individuals are less opposed to same-sex rights if led to believe gay men are not promiscuous (Pinsof & Haselton, 2017a). Another example is that when women economically depend on their male partners, people are strongly opposed to sexual promiscuity (i.e., a cheap "value" of sex; Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Price et al., 2014). Sexual promiscuity signals that sex is cheap and common. ...
... Sexual promiscuity signals that sex is cheap and common. Women who are economically dependent on their husbands likely oppose promiscuity because they want to avoid losing paternal investment (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011). Similarly, men who economically provide for their partners likely oppose promiscuity to ensure paternity certainty (Price et al., 2014). ...
Article
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Attitudes toward sexual relationships can have evolutionary underpinnings because these attitudes often serve, or at least reflect, the attitude holder’s mating self-interest. Sexually restricted individuals, for example, hold conservative attitudes toward same-sex and opposite-sex sexual relationships because conservative attitudes benefit their mating strategies (e.g., monogamy). Certain mating market cues, however, can shift attitudes. In two experiments recruiting Americans and Australians (total N = 1298), we took a data-driven approach to test whether experimental manipulations of (1) promiscuity among either homosexuals (gays and lesbians) or heterosexuals and (2) the financial amount that either homosexuals (gays and lesbians) or heterosexuals invest in weddings would shift attitudes toward same-sex marriage, dating, and romantic spending. In Experiment 1, we did not replicate previous findings that homosexual promiscuity affects attitudes to same-sex marriage, nor did we find any effects of priming heterosexual promiscuity. However, priming participants with the notion that either homosexuals or heterosexuals were highly promiscuous increased support for traditional relationship norms among sexually restricted Australian (but not American) men. This effect was smaller when we controlled for participant sexual orientation, because primes of high homosexual or heterosexual promiscuity increased support for these traditional norms in exclusively heterosexual Australians, but decreased support in non-heterosexual Australians. Experiment 2 found that American and Australian men’s opposition to same-sex marriage increased when they were led to believe that either homosexual or heterosexual weddings were cheap, even when controlling for participant sexual orientation. Overall, results provide some support for the argument that mating market cues affect attitudes toward sexual relationships.
... Women appear to have realized collectively that sex was the main thing they had to offer men in order to get a piece of society's wealth, and so they restricted sexual access as much as they could, to maintain a high price. Recent work has found that across a large sample of countries today, the economic and political liberation of women is positively correlated with greater availability of sex (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011). Thus, men's access to sex has turned out to be maximized not by keeping women in an economically disadvantaged and dependent condition, but instead by letting them have abundant access and opportunity. ...
Article
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Across the late 20th century, ideas about sex came from two main sources. One was evolutionary theory, based on the field of biology. The other was feminist and social constructionist theory, based in the field of political science. Though important insights have come from both sources, there was a growing body of evidence that did not easily fit either of those. We therefore turned to another field to develop a new theory. The field was economics, and we labeled our theory “sexual economics” (Baumeister and Vohs 2004). At first, our theory was constructed to fit what was already known, making it an exercise in hindsight. It is therefore highly revealing to see how the theory has fared in Regnerus and
... Finally, previous research has found the prevalence of short-term mating attitudes and behaviours varies widely across cultures (Schmitt et al., 2003;Schmitt & Fuller, 2015). Some research suggests the relationship between short-term mating and self-esteem may fluctuate with local socioecological factors (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Gangestad & Simpson, 2000) and social climate (Perlman, 1974;Stratton & Spitzer, 1967;Walsh, 1991). For instance, in some world regions (e.g., Middle East) there are relatively strict rules regarding sexual behaviour and, therefore, men and women may be relatively constrained in their ability to have many short-term mating partners. ...
Article
According to an evolutionary-adaptive version of sociometer theory, because men, more than women, have faced the adaptive problem of obtaining large numbers of willing short-term mating partners, positive associations between self-esteem and number of past sexual partners should be stronger among men than women. We correlated self-esteem with number of past sexual partners in a sample of more than 16,000 people across 10 major regions of the world. Results largely supported our prediction. This amply powered research investigation provided a limited, but revealing, test of an evolutionary-adaptive sociometer theory of self-esteem. For men, successfully accessing more sexual partners, regardless of personal desire or the mores of wider culture, was generally associated with higher self-esteem. For women, the links between numbers of sexual partners and self-esteem were much more dependent on culture.
... The second literature gap is that there have not been many researches in Indonesia that link premarital sexual attitudes and behaviour with individual's personalities. A number of studies in the world explain the link between premarital sexual attitudes and behaviour with psychosocial variables such as peer influences, familial and extrafamilial influences system, exposure to media containing sexual content, gender scripts, gender equality of a country, and social class (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Izugbara, 2008;Li & Boulay 2010;Reiss,1965;Situmorang, 2011;Wong et al., 2009;Zhang, Miller, & Harrison, 2008). Meanwhile, a number of studies explain the link between premarital sexual attitudes and behaviour with personal variables such as self-rated health, smoking and drinking, self-esteem, religiosity, cognitive moral development, sex guilt, personal control and self-efficacy in sexual negotiation (Chiao & Yi, 2011;Jurich & Jurich, 1974;Mendelsohn & Mosher, 1979;Opayemi, 2011;Pearson, 2006;Reynolds, 1994). ...
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A number of empirical researches and literature reviews indicate that personality can predict personal values, and then person's behaviour can be predicted from the personal values adhered to that person. However, researches those relate these variables in the field of sexual behaviour—and more specifically on premarital sexual behaviour—has not been found in Indonesia. This study is the first that places the degree of psychopathic personality as a predictor variable to the degree of sexual values dimensions (absolutism, hedonism, relativism), and degree of sexual values dimensions as predictor variables to the degree of premarital sexual behaviour in its hypothetical models. Predictive correlational design was used in this study. Study sample consisted of 267 unmarried urban adolescents (97 males, 170 females; M = 20.50 years old, SD = 1.37 years old) taken conveniently from five campuses in Indonesia's capital Jakarta and its surrounding areas. The results showed that the hypotheses were supported by empirical data. In addition, psychopathy had a direct effect on premarital sexual behaviour.
... The phrase sexual economics can be traced to the work of psychologist Roy Baumeister (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004;Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011), who argues that sex can be analysed in the same terms as markets. Many of his arguments, such as the idea that sex is used by females as a tradable resource, fit with the thinking of men's rights groups. ...
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Recent high-profile events such as the disturbances in Charlottesville have pushed identitarian populist movements such as the Alt-Right to the fore. Their exclusionary rhetoric towards minority groups is accompanied by misogynistic attitudes and an opposition to feminism, which has led to harassment campaigns and attempts to undermine modern notions of consent. A common explanation for the increasing prevalence of these groups is economic anxiety and a general discontent with the prevailing social and economic system. By analysing the discourse prevalent in on-line forums dedicated to anti-feminism, as well as the literature produced in support of their ideas, it is clear that these groups are attempting to reassert a narrowly defined and heavily mythologised vision of masculinity. It is a vision which stands opposed to modern feminist thought and gender non-conformity. What is unclear is how economic concerns drive this an-ti-feminist aspect of right-wing populism in a developed economy such as America. This paper will examine the linkage between far-right populism and anti-feminism through the rhetoric and actions of these groups, suggesting that economic changes such as globalisation and increasingly insecure working conditions are fuelling "neo-masculinity" and anti-feminism. However, by looking in depth at the notion of "Sexual Economics" as es-poused by online anti-feminist communities it is possible to see the language and the logic of neoliberalism applied directly to the sexual sphere, despite this movement being associated with disenchantment under the neoliberal paradigm. Drawing on Mark Fisher's ideas concerning capitalist realism and a range of feminist literature linking post-Fordism and sexual commodification, this paper will argue that this movement represents the transference of anxieties arising from the neoliberal economic system onto women and sexual minorities in a way which mirrors the commodifying tendencies of this economic system itself.
... Our data did not show a correlation of positive attitudes toward gender equality with the number of sexual partners, or with a mutual initiative to engage in the most recent sexual experience or with feeling pressure to have sexual intercourse. Former research conducted in 37 countries concluded that individuals living in highly egalitarian countries are more likely to have more sexual partners, compared to someone living in a country where women's status is significantly inferior to the status of men (44). It might be that we could not find a correlation between adolescents' individual gender attitudes and their number of sexual partners due to the impact of gender at societal level. ...
... Our data did not show a correlation of positive attitudes toward gender equality with the number of sexual partners, or with a mutual initiative to engage in the most recent sexual experience or with feeling pressure to have sexual intercourse. Former research conducted in 37 countries concluded that individuals living in highly egalitarian countries are more likely to have more sexual partners, compared to someone living in a country where women's status is significantly inferior to the status of men (44). It might be that we could not find a correlation between adolescents' individual gender attitudes and their number of sexual partners due to the impact of gender at societal level. ...
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It is widely agreed upon that gender is a key aspect of sexuality however, questions remain on how gender exactly influences adolescents' sexual health. Objective: The aim of this research was to study correlations between gender equality attitudes and sexual behavior, sexual experiences and communication about sex among sexually active and non-sexually active adolescents in 2 Latin American countries. Design: In 2011, a cross-sectional study was carried out among 5,913 adolescents aged 14 18 in 20 secondary schools in Cochabamba (Bolivia) and 6 secondary schools in Cuenca (Ecuador). Models were built using logistic regressions to assess the predictive value of attitudes toward gender equality on adolescents' sexual behavior, on experiences and on communication. Results: The analysis shows that sexually active adolescents who consider gender equality as important report higher current use of contraceptives within the couple. They are more likely to describe their last sexual intercourse as a positive experience and consider it easier to talk with their partner about sexuality than sexually experienced adolescents who are less positively inclined toward gender equality. These correlations remained consistent whether the respondent was a boy or a girl. Non-sexually active adolescents, who consider gender equality to be important, are more likely to think that sexual intercourse is a positive experience. They consider it less necessary to have sexual intercourse to maintain a relationship and find it easier to communicate with their girlfriend or boyfriend than sexually non-active adolescents who consider gender equality to be less important. Comparable results were found for boys and girls. Conclusions: Our results suggest that gender equality attitudes have a positive impact on adolescents' sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and wellbeing. Further research is necessary to better understand the relationship between gender attitudes and specific SRH outcomes such as unwanted teenage pregnancies and sexual pleasure among adolescents worldwide.
... One expression of sexual double standards can be seen in the lies people tell about their sexual histories. Studies that ask subjects to report aspects of their sexual history or desire, including their numbers of sex partners to date, age on sexual debut, and ideal number of lifetime sex partners, reveal moderate sex differences (Baumeister and Mendoza 2011;Buss and Schmitt 1993;Oliver and Hyde 1993;Peplau 2003;Petersen and Hyde 2010;Simpson and Gangestad 1991). Some studies have suggested that sex differences in actual and ideal numbers of sex partners may be due to men's greater proclivity to pursue short-term mating opportunities relative to women, on average (Buss 1994;Buss and Schmitt 1993. ...
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The suppression of sexuality is culturally widespread, and women’s sexual promiscuity, activity, and enjoyment are almost always judged and punished more harshly than men’s. It remains disputed, however, to what end people suppress sexuality, and who benefits from the suppression of female sexuality. Different theories predict that women in general, men in general, women’s intimate partners, or parents benefit most. Here we use the lies women and men tell—or imagine telling—about their sexual histories as an indirect measure of who is most involved in the suppression of sexuality. We asked men and women what they would reply if asked questions by their mother, father, current partner, attractive confederate, and various same- or opposite-sex friends and colleagues about their number of previous sex partners, age at first romantic kiss, age at first consensual sex, and cheating on a previous partner or spouse. By comparing the size and direction of the lies that subjects told, we tested competing predictions of several cultural and evolutionary theories concerning why female sexuality is suppressed and who is driving its suppression. We found that men and women told larger and more frequent lies to their parents, with women telling the largest and most frequent lies of all to their fathers. Additionally, the majority of lies by both men and women were in sexually conservative directions. Our findings suggest that mothers, and especially fathers, restrict female sexuality.
... Women's sexuality is suppressed more intensely and through more varied means than men's. From associations of female virginity with purity (Manalastas & David, 2018;Valenti, 2009) to cultural practices such as female genital cutting (Berg & Denison, 2013;Howard & Gibson, 2019) and mandatory religious veiling (Blake et al., 2018), women in a wide variety of societies are stifled in their ability to enjoy, express and control their own sexuality both physically and psychologically (Baumeister & Mendoza, 2011;Valenti, 2009). Social norms dictate that women should regulate their sexual behavior and, from a young age, women are communicated messages of sexual restriction (see Baumeister & Twenge, 2002). ...
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Women are more likely than men to be sexualized, objectified and dehumanized. Female sex workers experience stigma and violence associated with these judgements at far higher rates than other women. Here, we use a pre-registered experimental design to consider which aspects of sex work – the level of sexual activity, earned income, or perceived autonomy of the work – drive dehumanization. A first group of participants (N = 217) rated 80 vignettes of women varying by full-time employment, hobbies and interests on humanness. These ratings were subtracted from the ratings of a second group of participants (N = 774) who rated these same vignettes which additionally described a part-time job, hobby or activity that varied in sexual activity, income earned and autonomy over one’s actions. We find that women and especially men dehumanize women they believe are engaging in penetrative sex. We also find that women’s autonomy of, but not their income from, their sexual activity increases dehumanization. Our findings suggest that opposition to women’s ability to pursue casual sex and generalizations about the exploitative conditions of sex work may drive the harshest negative prejudice towards female sex workers and, by similar mechanisms, women’s sexuality in general.
... Dessa delar har han hämtat från Baumeisters (2010) evolutionärpsykologiska teorier. Billing nämner dock inte att samma teoribygge innefattar att ökad jämställdhet mellan könen korrelerar med att kvinnor har mer sex, vilket skulle betyda att kvinnors sexuella makt minskar i jämställda samhällen (Baumeister & Mendoza 2011). Likt andra antifeminister som åberopar evolutionära förklaringar tycks Billing omedveten om att forskare drar olika slutsatser om vår arts evolution. ...
Thesis
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The overarching aim of the thesis is to describe and analyze men’s pro- and antifeminist engagement. Men’s approach to feminism is assumed to be created in the interaction of men’s intentions and a sociocultural structure that conditions human action. Men want something that they perceive that feminism enables or constrains, after which they engage for or against it. The men’s views on feminism were extracted from interviews, social media, books, and newspaper articles. A host of philosophical assumptions, general analytical theories, and specific analytical tools were used in processing the empirical data. In the first part of the findings, profeminist men are understood to view feminism as a force that enables them to accomplish important projects in their lives. They express a wish to improve both women’s and men’s lives through the practice of changing men and masculinity. Above all, their efforts focus on changing themselves. In the second part of the findings, antifeminist men are understood to experience feminism as a force that constrains them in their lives. They oppose feminism on several issues: women’s subordinated position in the gender order, the social construction of gender, and men’s violence towards women. They fear that state feminism is pushing a hatred of men that threatens individual men, nuclear families, and Western civilization. The third part of the findings consists of a model of men’s approach to feminism. In the model, men’s differing approaches hinges on whether they believe that feminism enables or constrains them and other people in their quest to satisfy basic human needs. Their understandings of if and how the needs are being met are central to how men approach feminism. In this understanding, the men are influenced by their respective ideological beliefs on how the gender order should be organized. The thesis ends with two methodological musings. The first revolves around the author’s development of a deeper understanding of the antifeminist worldview and how that came to rub against his profeminist way of viewing the world. The second reflects on researchers’ understandable but counterproductive tendency of trying to protect their research from all criticism.
... Our data did not show a correlation of positive attitudes toward gender equality with the number of sexual partners, or with a mutual initiative to engage in the most recent sexual experience or with feeling pressure to have sexual intercourse. Former research conducted in 37 countries concluded that individuals living in highly egalitarian countries are more likely to have more sexual partners, compared to someone living in a country where women's status is significantly inferior to the status of men (44). It might be that we could not find a correlation between adolescents' individual gender attitudes and their number of sexual partners due to the impact of gender at societal level. ...
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This article examines the question of what men win or lose by increased gender equality, in terms of well-being and health, combining a new macro data set with existing studies. A database was created for examining gender equality variables and potential health effects, using a sample of eighty-one European countries and the United States. The results indicate more positive effects for men than usually assumed. They also imply that men's contribution to gender equality has been underestimated. Some patterns, like fertility, differ between Europe and the United States, and this article discusses different gender equality models. Also, the effects of gender equality differ for different groups of men, and this article discusses men who feel they lose out. Although the data concern associations, questions of causality are also raised, and the last part of this article presents a tentative explanatory model that includes structural factors as well as men and masculinity changes.
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We were disappointed to read Rudman and Fetterolf’s (2014) misrepresentation of sexual economics theory (SET). We were also puzzled: Their empirical findings seem to support the theory, contrary to their claims to have refuted it. Rudman and Fetterolf relied on quasiparaphrase to attribute tenets to our theory. We encourage readers to read our own presentation of our theory (Baumeister & Vohs, 2004) and then read Rudman and Fetterolf’s interpretation to see for themselves. Rudman and Fetterolf’s investigation was based on a fundamental mistake: “SET’s central tenet is that women are more invested in sexual exchange than men are” (p. 1438). This interpretation is wrong: Whether men or women have a greater desire to make the exchange can be predicted by the principle of least interest. As the basis for SET, this principle holds that whoever wants the outcome more will be correspondingly more willing to sacrifice in the hopes of getting the exchange to take place (Waller & Hill, 1938/1951). Moreover, crucially, a basic lesson of economics is that exchanges take place mainly when both parties benefit (Smith, 1776/1937). According to our theory and much evidence, men want sex and women want men’s resources, and that creates the basis for a mutually beneficial exchange.... Language: en
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Background: Depressive symptoms may affect female mid-life sexuality, whereas sexual problems tend to aggravate depression. Despite this, data assessing this association drawn from mid-aged Paraguayan women are scarce. Objective: This study aimed to assess the association between depressed mood and the risk of sexual dysfunction during female mid-life. Methods: Sexually active urban-living women from Asunción, Paraguay (n = 193, aged 40–60 years) were surveyed with the 6-item Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6), the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), and a general questionnaire containing personal and partner information. Depressed mood was defined as a total CESD-10 score of 10 or more, and an increased risk for sexual dysfunction as an FSFI-6 total score of 19 or less. The association of depressed mood and an increased risk of sexual dysfunction was evaluated with multivariable Poisson regression. Results: The mean age (±standard deviation) of surveyed woman was 48.3 ± 6.0 years and 61.1% (n = 118) were perimenopausal and postmenopausal. A total of 21.8% (n = 42) had depressed mood and 28.5% (n = 55) had an increased risk of sexual dysfunction. The final adjusted regression model determined that women with depressed mood were twice as likely to have an increased risk of sexual dysfunction, compared to women with normal mood (adjusted prevalence ratio = 2.14, 95% confidence interval 1.26–3.60). On the other hand, depressed mood was associated with a mean total FSFI-6 score that was 20% lower than that observed among women with normal mood (adjusted incidence rate ratio = 0.80, 95% confidence interval 0.68–0.93). Conclusion: In this mid-aged Paraguayan female sample there was a significant association between depressed mood and an increased risk of sexual dysfunction.
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This study draws on differences between men and women's attitudes about sex, either as an end in itself (men) or as inextricably linked to relationship commitment (women) to understand attitudes toward the gratuitous use of sex in advertising. In line with predictions, four experiments showed that women's spontaneous dislike of sexual ads softened when the ad could be interpreted in terms of commitment- related resources being offered by men to women. In contrast, men's positive attitudes toward sexual ads were relatively unaffected by the salience of relationship commitment cues. These results not only offer insights into consumer reactions to sexual advertising but also inform theories on how men and women conceptualize sexual behaviors and relationships.
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Given the heavy reliance on self‐report measures, volunteer bias due to patterns of nonresponse is an important issue in sex research. In the present study, rates of nonresponse to self‐administered sexual experience questions posed to individuals in a national probability sample (NORC data; Davis & Smith, 1990) of English‐speaking adult households (N = 3,646) were analyzed as a function of demographic characteristics. Differences between responders and nonresponders in reported sexual experience on other items were also investigated. In general, rates of response to most of the sexuality items were quite high. With regard to three of the four sexual experience questions considered, men were more likely than women to respond. Among both men and women, nonresponders to each of the four sexuality items were generally older and reported less income and educational attainment than did responders. There were no differences in likelihood of responding to the sexuality items as a function of religious affiliation or size of city in which the participant resided. Self‐reported religious attendance and marital status were related in limited ways to likelihood of responding. Ethnicity was unrelated to likelihood of response to the sexual experience items for men, but was related for women with regard to two of the items. In general, when there were differences, nonresponders to one or more sexuality items reported having less sexual experience than did responders. Implications of the findings for survey research in human sexuality are discussed, as are related issues in need of further research.
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Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adult female sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men suppress female sexuality received hardly any support and is flatly contradicted by some findings. Instead, the evidence favors the view that women have worked to stifle each other's sexuality because sex is a limited resource that women use to negotiate with men, and scarcity gives women an advantage. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A heterosexual community can be analyzed as a marketplace in which men seek to acquire sex from women by offering other resources in exchange. Societies will therefore define gender roles as if women are sellers and men buyers of sex. Societies will endow female sexuality, but not male sexuality, with value (as in virginity, fidelity, chastity). The sexual activities of different couples are loosely interrelated by a marketplace, instead of being fully separate or private, and each couple's decisions may be influenced by market conditions. Economic principles suggest that the price of sex will depend on supply and demand, competition among sellers, variations in product, collusion among sellers, and other factors. Research findings show gender asymmetries (reflecting the complementary economic roles) in prostitution, courtship, infidelity and divorce, female competition, the sexual revolution and changing norms, unequal status between partners, cultural suppression of female sexuality, abusive relationships, rape, and sexual attitudes.
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Four theories about cultural suppression of female sexuality are evaluated. Data are reviewed on cross-cultural differences in power and sex ratios, reactions to the sexual revolution, direct restraining influences on adolescent and adult female sexuality, double standard patterns of sexual morality, female genital surgery, legal and religious restrictions on sex, prostitution and pornography, and sexual deception. The view that men suppress female sexuality received hardly any support and is flatly contradicted by some findings. Instead, the evidence favors the view that women have worked to stifle each other's sexuality because sex is a limited resource that women use to negotiate with men, and scarcity gives women an advantage.
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The status of any area of science can be gauged by an examination of its scientific theory. The opening article in this issue presents a metatheoretical perspective of scientific theory, including a definition of theory and related terms, description of the components of theory, brief review of recent criticisms of what has come to be known as the positivist tradition of science, and set of criteria for evaluating theories. There is also a review of the use of scientific theory in sexuality research. Twenty‐five classic examples of sexual theory are identified. Finally, comparisons are drawn between the use of theory in sexuality research and other areas of scientific investigation. This framework provided a basis for the selection of the theories included in this issue and a set of guidelines for the authors.
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Social Exchange Theory is one of the social science theories that have been applied to the study of human sexuality. This theoretical perspective is of particular relevance for understanding sexuality as it is negotiated between two people who have a relationship with each other. In this article, I describe three specific social exchange models with particular relevance to sexuality: equity theory (e.g., Walster, Walster, & Berscheid, 1978), the Investment Model (Rusbult, 1980, 1983), and the Interpersonal Model of Sexual Satisfaction (Lawrance & Byers, 1992, 1995). Then, I discuss how the general social exchange perspective or one of the more specific exchange models/theories has been applied to five topics that focus on sexuality within a relational context: (a) partner selection, (b) onset of sexual activity, (c) sexual satisfaction, (d) sexual initiation and refusal, and (e) extradyadic sexual behavior.
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In this complete revision of Waller's book first published in 1938 (see 14: 2546), Hill has added 8 new chapters and substantially modified 7 of the remaining 17. After considering the parental family and its imposed relationships, the processes of mate finding, marriage, parenthood, and family disorganization are treated in detail. The final chapter proposes "changes in family designs" while the appendix "concerns the control activities served by habits in the stabilization and intergration of personality." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The Social Organization of Sexuality reports the complete results of the nation's most comprehensive representative survey of sexual practices in the general adult population of the United States. This highly detailed portrait of sex in America and its social context and implications has established a new and original scientific orientation to the study of sexual behavior. "The most comprehensive U.S. sex survey ever." —USA Today "The findings from this survey, the first in decades to provide detailed insights about the sexual behavior of a representative sample of Americans, will have a profound impact on how policy makers tackle a number of pressing health problems." —Alison Bass, The Boston Globe "A fat, sophisticated, and sperm-freezingly serious volume. . . . This book is not in the business of giving us a good time. It is in the business of asking three thousand four hundred and thirty-two other people whether they had a good time, and exactly what they did to make it so good." —Anthony Lane, The New Yorker New York Times Book Review Notable Book of the Year
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This paper derives a model of participation in what is commonly known as ‘adultery’. Arguably the best sex survey in the world is used to produce estimates of participation functions. The results show a great deal of support for bioeconomic models and reveal some interesting similarities and differences between the male and female equations. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2002
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In an experimental study involving power differences between groups, the effects of legitimate and illegitimate explanations for power were investigated on measures of affect, stereotyping, and memory. We found that powerless groups reported more positive affect (relative to negative affect) when explanations were provided for their powerlessness, whether these explanations were legitimate or illegitimate. In addition, members of powerless groups attributed greater intelligence and responsibility to the outgroup when it was in a position of high power rather than equal power; again, these effects on stereotyping were enhanced when explanations for the power differences were provided. Finally, research participants tended to mis-remember the reasons given for the power differences as more legitimate than they actually were. These results support a system justification theory of intergroup behavior (Jost & Banaji, 1994) in that people seem to imbue placebic explanations with legitimacy, use stereotypes to rationalize power differences, and exhibit biases in memory such that the status quo is increasingly legitimized over time.
The Global Sex Survey Retrieved from http://www.durex.com/cm/gss 2005result New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis
  • Durex
Durex. (2005). The Global Sex Survey 2005. Retrieved from http://www.durex.com/cm/gss 2005result.pdf Freud, S. (1965). New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (J. Strachey, Trans.). New York, NY: Norton. (Original work published 1933).
Measure DHS Program Retrieved from http://www.measuredhs.com Vohs, Love sex, and gifts: Sexual economics on Valentine's Day
  • Usaid K D Dahl
  • D Sengupta
USAID. (2007). Measure DHS Program. Retrieved from http://www.measuredhs.com Vohs, K. D., Dahl, D., & Sengupta, J. (in preparation). Love sex, and gifts: Sexual economics on Valentine's Day. Manuscript in preparation, University of Minnesota.
Sex and sexuality Attitudes toward sexual permissiveness: Trends, correlates, and behav-ioral connections
  • R Mcanulty
  • Burnette
McAnulty, R., & Burnette, M. (Eds.) (2006). Sex and sexuality. Westport, CT: Praeger. Smith, T. (1994). Attitudes toward sexual permissiveness: Trends, correlates, and behav-ioral connections. In A. Rosse (Ed.), Sexuality across the life course (pp. 63–97).
Theories of sexuality
  • R F Baumeister
  • J K Maner
  • C N Dewall
Baumeister, R. F., Maner, J. K., & DeWall, C. N. (2006). Theories of sexuality. In R. McAnulty & M. Burnette (Eds.), Sex and sexuality (Vol. 1, pp. 17–34.