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Effect of Nigella Sativa seeds on the glycemic control of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

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Unlabelled: Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting millions of people world wide. Standard treatment is failing to achieve required correction of blood glucose in many patients. Therefore, there is a need for investigating potential hypoglycemic drugs or herbs to improve glycemic control in diabetic patients. Nigella sativa seeds were used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 added to their anti-diabetic medications. A total of 94 patient were recruited and divided randomly into three dose groups. Capsules containing Nigella sativa were administered orally in a dose of 1, 2 and 3 gm/day for three months. The effect of Nigella sativa on the glycemic control was assessed through measurement of fasting blood glucose (FBG), blood glucose level 2 hours postprandially (2 hPG), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum C-peptide and changes in body weight were also measured. Insulin resistance and beta-cell function were calculated usin the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2). Nigella sativa at a dose of 2 gm/day caused significant reductions in FBG, 2hPG, and HbA1 without significant change in body weight. Fasting blood glucose was reduced by an average of 45, 62 and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8 and 12 weeks respectively. HbAlC was reduced by 1.52% at the end of the 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.0001). Insulin resistance calculated by HOMA2 was reduced significantly (P<0.01), while B-cell function was increased (P<0.02) at 12 weeks of treatment. The use of Nigella sativa in a dose of 1 gm/day also showed trends in improvement in all the measured parameters but it was not statistically significant from the baseline. However, no further increment in the beneficial response was observed with the 3 gm/day dose. The three doses of Nigella sativa used in the study did not adversely affect either renal functions or hepatic functions of the diabetic patients throughout the study period. In conclusion: the results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/ day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic agents in type 2 diabetic patients.
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344 Bamosa et al Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4)
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54 (4) : 344–354
EFFECT OF NIGELLA SATIVA SEEDS ON THE GLYCEMIC CONTROL
OF PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS
ABDULLAH O. BAMOSAa,*, HUDA KAATABIa, FATMA M. LEBDAa,
ABDUL-MUHSSEN AL ELQb AND ALI AL-SULTANb
aDepartment of Physiology,
College of Medicine,
King Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia
and
bDepartment of Internal Medicine,
College of Medicine, King Faisal University,
Dammam, Saudi Arabia
( Received on October 5, 2009 )
Abstract : Diabetes mellitus is a common chronic disease affecting millions
of people world wide. Standard treatment is failing to achieve required
correction of blood glucose in many patients. Therefore, there is a need for
investigating potential hypoglycemic drugs or herbs to improve glycemic
control in diabetic patients.
Nigella sativa seeds were used as an adjuvant therapy in patients with
diabetes mellitus type 2 added to their anti-diabetic medications. A total of
94 patient were recruited and divided randomly into three dose groups.
Capsules containing Nigella sativa were administered orally in a dose of
1, 2 and 3 gm/day for three months. The effect of Nigella sativa on the
glycemic control was assessed through measurement of fasting blood glucose
(FBG), blood glucose level 2 hours postprandially (2 hPG), and glycosylated
hemoglobin (HbA1c). Serum C-peptide and changes in body weight were
also measured. Insulin resistance and β-cell function were calculated using
the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA2).
Nigella sativa at a dose of 2 gm/day caused significant reductions in
FBG, 2hPG, and HbA1c without significant change in body weight. Fasting
blood glucose was reduced by an average of 45, 62 and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8 and
12 weeks respectively. HbA1c was reduced by 1.52% at the end of the 12
weeks of treatment (P<0.0001). Insulin resistance calculated by HOMA2
was reduced significantly (P<0.01), while β-cell function was increased
(P<0.02) at 12 weeks of treatment.
The use of Nigella sativa in a dose of 1 gm/day also showed trends in
improvement in all the measured parameters but it was not statistically
significant from the baseline. However, no further increment in the
*Corresponding Author : Abdulla O. Bamosa; Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Faisal
University, P.O. Box 2114, Dammam 31451, Saudi Arabia; Tel.: 00966505853161
Fax : 0096638575329; E-mail address: aosbamosa@gmail.com
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4) Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds on the Glycemic Control 345
emphasized the beneficial effects of Nigella
sativa in diabetic animals (8–11). These
studies clearly showed that Nigella sativa
significantly reduced the elevated blood
glucose levels of different animals with
experimentally-induced diabetes mellitus (8,
9). The evident antidiabetic effect of Nigella
sativa was attributed to its insulinotropic
action (10, 11), and the antioxidant properties
which decrease the oxidative stress
and preserve pancreatic β-cell integrity
(12–14). The glycemic control obtained by
Nigella sativa was also attributed to its
extrapancreatic actions, mainly the inhibition
of hepatic gluconeogenesis (15, 16).
In addition, previous studies did not
reveal any harmful effect of Nigella sativa
on renal and hepatic functions. On the
contrary, the reported pharmacological
actions of Nigella sativa oil include
protection against nephrotoxicity and
hepatotoxicity induced by either diseases,
drugs or chemical compounds (17–21). The
antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities
of Nigella sativa are considered the main
factors responsible for its nephroprotective
and hepatoprotective effects (22).
The effects of Nigella sativa on diabetic
patients are not adequately investigated.
beneficial response was observed with the 3 gm/day dose. The three doses
of Nigella sativa used in the study did not adversely affect either renal
functions or hepatic functions of the diabetic patients throughout the study
period.
In Conclusion : the results of this study indicate that a dose of 2 gm/
day of Nigella sativa might be a beneficial adjuvant to oral hypoglycemic
agents in type 2 diabetic patients.
Key words : Nigella sativa diabetes mellitus type 2
fasting blood glucose glycosylated hemoglobin
C-peptide insulin resistance
INTRODUCTION
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most
common chronic diseases affecting millions
of people worldwide with a large negative
impact on the patient’s health. Type 2
diabetes is characterized by Hyperglycemia
that arises from insulin resistance and/or
impaired beta cell function/insulin secretion
(1). Umpierrez GE, et al. (2) demonstrated
that hyperglycemia was associated with
increased morbidity and mortality. In
addition, newest published data has
raised the concern about the benefit of
treatment of hyperglycemia to achieve near-
normoglycemia in intensive care patients (3).
Nigella sativa Linn is an annual
plant belongs to the botanical family of
Ranunculaceae (4) and commonly grows in
Europe, Middle East and Western Asia.
Nigella sativa known as black cumin is
usually used as a traditional medicine in
Arabian countries (5), Indian sub-continent
(6) and Europe (7), for a wide range of
illnesses including brochial asthma,
headache, dysentery, infections, back pain,
hypertension and gastrointestinal problems
(22).
Several previous studies strongly
346 Bamosa et al Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4)
Well controlled clinical studies demonstrating
the antidiabetic effect of Nigella sativa in
human subjects are still lacking. Only few
surveys showed that some diabetic patients
utilize Nigella sativa to improve glycemic
control (23, 24). Therefore the aim of this
study was to investigate the effect of three
doses of Nigella sativa on glycemic control
in type 2 diabetic patients.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Patient selection
The study was conducted on 94 patients
(43 males and 51 females) with uncontrolled
diabetes mellitus type 2. The patients in the
study were enrolled from King Fahad
University Hospital and Al-Agharabia
Primary Health Care Center, Al-Khobar,
Saudi Arabia. Diabetes was diagnosed
according to the criteria of the American
Diabetes Association (25).
The selection of uncontrolled diabetes was
made on the basis of two successive readings
of HbA1c more than 7%, done three months
apart. Patients included were of age 18–60
years, treated only with oral hypoglycemic
drugs (glipenclamide, metformin, rosiglitazone),
ready for regular follow up and had HbA1c
> 7%. Patients were excluded if they had
chronic cardiac illness (ischeamic heart
disease, heart failure, cardiac arrythmias),
chronic liver disease (hepatic failure, active
hepatitis, liver cirrhosis), renal complications
and any other chronic deplitating illness.
Patients were also excluded if they had
compliance less than 90% and if their
standard medications were changed during
the 12 weeks of the study. All patients were
fully informed about the purpose and
duration of the study and they were free
to leave the study at any time. Written
informed consent was obtained from all
participants. The study has been approved
by the research ethics committee of King
Faisal University – Dammam, reference
number KFU-LEC-132.
Study design
Nigella Sativa seeds (Bioextract (Pvt) Ltd,
Sri Lanka) were provided in form of capsules.
Each capsule contained 500 mg of grounded
Nigella Sativa. Recruited type 2 diabetic
patients fulfilling above criteria were
randomly divided into 3 groups (cohort of 10
patients in sequence for each group) and
were administered 3 different oral doses of
Nigella sativa (1 gm, 2 gm, and 3 gm per
day for 12 weeks). These doses were selected
on the basis of a previous study conducted
on healthy human volunteers, where a daily
ingestion of 2 gm Nigella sativa was effective
in reducing blood glucose following one week
of administration (26). Therefore, in this
study we went up and down by 1g around
the previous effective dose (2 g) in the above
quoted study.
All patients in the three groups were
subjected to history taken, physical
examination, laboratory investigations and
self monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). In
addition body mass Index (BMI) was
calculated for each patient before initiation
of treatment and 12 weeks after.
Every patient was requested to do SMBG
of both FBG and 2hPG before initiation of
therapy and after one and four days of
treatment initiation, then weekly for 12
weeks. SMBG readings have a reliability of
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4) Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds on the Glycemic Control 347
Evaluation of insulin resistance (IR)
and β-cell function was obtained using the
updated homeostatic model assessment
(HOMA2) which is developed from original
HOMA1 described by Matthews and
coworkers (27). The output of the
computerized HOMA2 model is calibrated to
give normal β-cell function of 100% and
normal IR of 1 (28).
Statistical analysis
Statistical analysis was performed using
the Statistical Package of Social Science
(SPSS) version 11. Data are presented as
means±standard error of the means (SEM).
All experimental results are compared to
their own baseline values by paired Student’s
t-test. The level of significance was set at
P<0.05. The corresponding parameters in the
three groups were also compared using
analysis of variance (ANOVA). “F” test
was performed to determine statistical
significance of all groups. In case of
significant “F” test (P<0.05), further analysis
was made by LSD (least significant
difference) multiple range-test to find inter-
groupal significance. A probability of P<0.05
was considered significant.
RESULTS
Baseline data including the number of
patients, age, sex, duration of diabetes, dose
of Nigella sativa and duration of treatment
in each group are outlined in Table I. There
was no significant difference between the
three groups, compared by ANOVA, except
for age between groups 3 and 2. The number
of patients excluded was higher at the 3 gm
group because of non compliance to
medication. Most of excluded patients in this
10 mg/dl. Investigations including liver and
renal function tests, FBG, 2hPG, fasting C-
peptide, and HbA1c were done for all patient
as baseline and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after
initiation of therapy.
During the first 2 weeks of administration
of Nigella sativa, patients were contacted
daily by telephone, and were enquired about
any new symptoms and compliance to
medications. They were also asked to report
any change in their medication or lifestyle
throughout the study.
Analytical methods
Serum glucose was measured by Glucose
Flex reagent cartridge, supplied by Dade
Behring. The automated assay analyzer
was Dimension clinical chemistry system,
Germany. HbA1c was measured by Gold
Reagent Kit-HbA1c by Drew Scientific Ltd,
using Hb Gold Analyzer. C-peptide was
measured by Immulite C-peptide kit by
EURO/DPC Ltd using Immulite Analyzer.
The glucometer brand used for SMBG was
Accu-Chek Go, Roche Diagnostic GmbH,
Germany.
Blood samples were collected after at
least 8 hours of fasting and 2 hours after
breakfast. Blood was collected into plain
tubes (without anticoagulant) and allowed to
clot. Then it was centrifuged at 3000 rpm
for 8 minutes to separate the serum. Serum
was stored and kept frozen at – 20oC for up
to 1 week to be used for determination of
glucose, C- peptides, liver and renal function
tests. Another portion of blood was collected
into EDTA – coated tubes. The hemolysates
were prepared after sample collection and
stored at 4oC to be used within 2 days for
estimation of HbA1c.
348 Bamosa et al Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4)
TABLE I : No of patients, age, duration of diabetes,
dose of Nigella sativa, and duration of
supplementation in 3 groups of Patients
with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Group I Group II Group III
No. of 30 32 32
patients (16 females) (18 Females) (17 females)
No. of 7 6 13
patients
excluded
Age (years) 47.80±1.42 49.63±0.97 44.91±1.88
Mean±SEM
Duration of 7.9±1.02 7.12±0.92 6.74±1.08
diabetes (years)
Mean±ESM
Dose of 500 mg 1 gm 1 gm
Nigella twice daily twice daily thrice daily
sativa (1 gm/day) (2 gm/day) (3 gm/day)
Duration of 12 weeks 12 weeks 12 weeks
Nigella sativa
supplementation
Age and duration of diabetes were non
significantly different between the three groups,
except for age that was significantly lower in
group 3 compared to group 2, using ANOVA.
group changed, on their own, to 2 gm dose
in the last 4 weeks of treatment.
Generally, the three doses of Nigella
sativa were well tolerated with only three
patients who experienced a mild epigastric
discomfort that settled down after taking the
capsules post meals.
One gram of Nigella sativa
supplementation for 12 weeks to type 2
diabetic patients (group 1), induced a
moderate decline in the levels of FBG and
2hPG, starting after 4 weeks of treatment
and continued thereafter. However, this
decline was statistically not significant when
compared to corresponding baseline levels
(Table II). On the other hand, SMBG showed
a significant reduction in FBG after 8 weeks
and in 2hPG after 8 and 12 weeks of
treatment (Table III). Other parameters were
not significantly changed by this dose (Table
II).
Patients in group 2, treated with 2 gm/
day Nigella sativa, had a significant reduction
in FBG level throughout the 12 weeks
treatment period. FBG was reduced by an
average of 45, 62, and 56 mg/dl at 4, 8, and
12 weeks, respectively (Table II). The 2hPG
level, also, showed significant drop after 4
and 8 weeks of treatment. Further, SMBG
showed a significant drop in FBG and 2hPG,
starting one day after treatment initiation
and continued throughout most of the
treatment points (Table III). This dose of
Nigella sativa was, also, able to significantly
lower HbA1c by 1.52% after 12 weeks of
treatment (7.57%±0.3% vs. 9.09%±0.24%,
P<0.0001) (Table II). Group 3 patients, who
received 3 gm/day of Nigella sativa for 12
weeks, showed statistically significant
reduction in FBG levels after 4, 8, and 12
weeks (Table II). Similarly, SMBG displayed
a significant fall in FBG in most time points
(Table III). Also, this dose produced a
considerable reduction in HbA1c by 2%
(7.31%±0.37% vs. 9.35%±0.41%, P<0.0001)
(Table III). On the other hand, C-peptide did
not change significantly by the 2 and 3 gm
doses.
Insulin resistance, calculated by HOMA2
was significantly reduced by 2 gm daily
supplementation of Nigella sativa (2.37±0.20
vs. 3.20±0.36, P<0.01, n = 23). Furthermore,
this dose of Nigella sativa produced a
significant elevation in β-cell function,
calculated with HOMA2 (63.63%±9.59% vs.
45.03%±6.28%, P<0.02, n = 23) at the end of
the 12 weeks treatment period (Table II).
However, other doses used (1 and 3 gm) did
not produce any significant change in both
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4) Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds on the Glycemic Control 349
TABLE II : Mean±SEM of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours post prandial blood glucose (2hPG),
hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) fasting C-peptide, insulin resistance index, beta cell function and body
mass index (BMI), in type 2 diabetic patients, treated with Nigella sativa – 1 g/day (group1) –
2 g/day (group 2) – 3 g/day (group 3), for 12 weeks, compared to the corresponding baseline values.
Group 1 Group 2 Group 3
Parameter Baseline Treatment duration Baseline Treatment duration Baseline Treatment duration
Values in weeks Values in weeks Values in weeks
4 8 12 4 8 12 4 8 12
FBG
(mg/dL)
Mean 189 186 171 171 219 174 157 162 204 176 157 169
±SEM ±14.3 ±13.8 ±10.1 ±7.8 ±12.3 ±10.1 ±10.8 ±9.2 ±18.2 ±15.2 ±9.9 ±16.4
n 222220212626192416161416
p NS NS NS <0.0001 <0.001 <0.001 0.01 0.006 0.04
2hPG
(mg/dL)
Mean 286 244 241 218 289 213 231 256 277 301 229 234
±SEM ±23.3 ±22.5 ±19.2 15.6 ±24.2 ±27.8 ±26.5 ±28.1 ±54.3 ±54.3 ±9.9 ±80.3
n 997 512127106 6 44
p NS NS NS <0.04 <0.04 N S NS NS NS
HbA1c (%)
Mean 8.36 8.01 9.09 7.57 9.35 7.31
±SEM ±0.31 ±0.27 ±0.24 ± 0.30 ±0.41 — ±0.37
n21 2124 2417 17
p NS <0.0001 <0.0001
C-peptide
(ng/mL)
Mean 2.96 3.16 3.02 2.66 3.54 3.44
±SEM ±0.33 — ±0.32 ±0.32 — — ±0.26 ±0.36 — ±0.47
n17 1724 2413 13
p NSNSNS
Insulin
resistance
index
Mean 2.75 2.82 3.20 2.37 4.11 2.98
±SEM ±0.34 — ±0.26 ±0.36 — — ±0.20 ±0.55 — ±0.49
n17 1723 239 9
p N S ‹0.01 N S
Beta cell
function %
Mean 61.75 59.12 45.03 63.63 41.89 88.90
±SEM ±7.79 — ±8.19 ±6.28 — ±9.59 ±9.83 ±36.05
n17 1723 239 9
P N S ‹0.02 N S
BMI (kg/m2)
Mean 33.6 33.3 28.9 29.4 31.63 31.61
±SEM ±1.53 — ±1.53 ±0.95 — — ±0.94 ±1.47 — ±1.50
n22 2224 2416 16
P NSNSNS
n: number of patients. NS: not significant.
P: significance of difference from baseline values, using Student’s t-test, for paired data.
Insulin resistance and beta cell function% were calculated using HOMA2 calculator.
350 Bamosa et al Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4)
Fig. 1 : Changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG), post prandial blood glucose (PPBG), glycosylated hemoglobin
(HbA1c), fasting C-peptide, in type 2 diabetic patients, received 1 g/day (group 1), 2 g/day (group 2),
and 3 g/day (group 3) of Nigella sativa, for 12 weeks. The corresponding parameters in the three
groups were compared using ANOVA.
Data are Mean±SEM of the values as percentages of the corresponding baseline values, considering
baseline values equal 100.
: significance of difference between groups 2 and 1. (P<0.05)
Δ: significance of difference between groups 3 and 1. (P<0.05)
o : significance of difference between groups 2 and 3. (P<0.05)
IR and β-cell function calculated with
HOMA2 (Table II).
Inter groups comparison, using ANOVA,
showed significant reduction in FBG level in
group 2 compared to group 1 after 4, 8, and
12 weeks of treatment. However, FBG was
not significantly different in group 3 when
compared to group 1. 2hPG levels in group
2 were reduced when compared to group 1
and 3, yet the decrease was statistically
significant only after 4 weeks treatment,
compared to group 3 (Fig. 1). FBG recorded
through SMBG was significantly decreased
in groups 2 and 3 compared to group 1
in most reading points. However, the
glucometer readings for 2hPG in group 2
were significantly decreased after 1 day and
8 weeks when compared to group 1 and only
after 4 days of treatment when compared to
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4) Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds on the Glycemic Control 351
TABLE III : Mean (+SEM) of fasting blood glucose (FBG), 2 hours post prandial blood glucose (2hPG), in type
2 diabetic patients, received 1g/day (group 1), 2 g/day (group 2), and 3g/day (group 3) of Nigella
sativa, for 12 weeks, measured by self monitoring Glucometer (SMBG). The corresponding parameters
were compared to their corresponding baseline values using student’s t-test for paired data.
FBG (mg/dL) ) by SMBG
Treatment duration in weeks
Baseline (0) 1a 1b 4 8 12
Group 1n 193 (8)25 179 (10)25 181 (11)25 178 (11)20 165 (10)*16 195 (19)19
Group 2n 230 (13)25 181 (13)Δ25 177 (14)Δ25 210 (12)25 160 (9)Δ22 157 (10)Δ22
Group 3n 221 (16)21 173 (13)Δ21 172 (14)Δ20 195 (12)21 158 (12)Δ19 149 (15)Ë%13
2hPG (mg/dl) by SMBG
Group 1n 288 (13)23 270 (16)23 256 (17)23 262 (16)19 231 (16)o15 248 (16)*18
Group 2n 302 (12)23 243 (13)Δ23 254 (13)Δ23 274 (5)*23 219 (12)Δ18 242 (13)o14
Group 3n 294 (17)18 247 (19)*18 272 (16)18 274 (19)19 223 (20)*16 238 (26)11
1a is the reading one day after treatment, 1b is the reading 4 days after treatment.
4, 8 and 12 represent the average readings of (1-4), (5-8) and (9-12) weeks respectively.
* : significantly different from baseline value. (P<0.05)
o : significantly different from baseline value. (P<0.01)
Δ: significantly different from baseline value. (P<0.001)
n: number of patients.
Fig. 2 : Changes in the fasting blood glucose (FBG), and post prandial blood glucose (PPBG) readings using self
monitoring glucometer, in type 2 diabetic patients, received 1 g/d (group 1), 2 g/d (group 2), and 3 g/d
(group 3) of Nigella sativa, for 12 weeks, the readings in the three groups were compared using ANOVA.
Data are Mean±SEM of the values as percentages of the corresponding baseline values, considering
baseline values equal 100.
1a: is the reading taken one day after treatment. 1b: is the reading taken 4 days after treatment.
4, 8 and 12 represent the average readings of (1-4), (5-8) and (9-12) weeks respectively.
: significance of difference between groups 2 and 1. (P<0.05)
Δ: significance of difference between groups 3 and 1. (P<0.05)
o : significance of difference between groups 2 and 3. (P<0.05)
352 Bamosa et al Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4)
in blood glucose that was supported
by a corresponding reduction in HbA1c.
Glycosylated hemoglobin reflects an
integrated index of diabetic control for 6–8
weeks period before the measurement (29).
These data are in agreement with a
number of studies carried out in animal
models of diabetes mellitus. Nigella sativa
has been reported to induce reduction in
plasma glucose levels in alloxan-induced
diabetic rabbits (8), as well as in
streptozotocin induced diabetic rats (11, 16,
20), and found to be very effective in
restoring glucose homeostasis in sand rat
models (9).
On the other hand, the hypoglycemic
effect of Nigella sativa was not demonstrated
in certain studies using, normal rats (30),
and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (31).
This disparity might be due to differences
in animal species, and/or doses and types of
Nigella sativa extract used.
The hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa
found in this study is most probably due to
dual effect of this plant on insulin resistance
and β-cell function as evident from HOMA2
calculations. The 2 gram dose managed to
reduce insulin resistance (P<0.03) and at the
same time seems to increase β-cell function
(P<0.02). This finding is supported by the
study of Le et al (30), who reported that
treatment with Nigella sativa extract induced
a decrease in fasting plasma levels of insulin
and sensitized rat hepatocytes to the action
of insulin by enhancing the activity of two
major intracellular signal transduction
pathways of insulin receptor. Conceivably,
insulin resistance could be decreased at
target tissues by the same mechanisms. The
group 3 (Fig. 2). HbA1c was significantly
reduced in groups 2 and 3 compared to group
1, but, non-significantly different in group 2
compared to group 3. On the other hand,
fasting C-peptide levels were not significantly
different among the three groups (Fig. 1).
DISCUSSION
The results of this study clearly show a
hypoglycemic effect of Nigella sativa in type
2 diabetic patients. The optimum dose seems
to be 2 gm/day of Nigella sativa powder. The
effect of Nigella sativa on fasting and
postprandial blood glucose levels took place
within one day of treatment. HbA1c was
lowered significantly by both 2 & 3 grams
daily supplementation of Nigella sativa, but
was not affected significantly by the one
gram dose. The results, also, indicate that
Nigella sativa is well tolerated in the dose
range used. The epigastric pain experienced
by 3 patients could have been due to acidity,
as it disappeared when the patients took the
capsules after meals.
Interestingly, the doses used in this study
covered the anticipated effect of the drug on
the parameters studied. While one gram
Nigella sativa was unable to produce
significant hypoglycemic effect, the 2 gram
was enough to do so. However, the 3 gram
dose failed to produce significant further
glucose lowering effect. This could be partly
due to less compliance of patients in the
higher dose group which made its “n” values,
in many parameters, smaller. Another
possible cause, of less effect for the 3gm dose,
is the presence of other ingredients in the
Nigella sativa seeds that produce a counter
acting effect at this higher dose. The 2
gram dose produced a sustained reduction
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2010; 54(4) Effect of Nigella Sativa Seeds on the Glycemic Control 353
mechanism of improved tissue sensitivity
to insulin action by Nigella sativa may
be related to reduction in oxidative stress
(32–34). Several studies have documented
the antioxidant properties of Nigella sativa
(22, 35).
In conclusion, the present study propose
that Nigella sativa in a dose of 2 gm/day
supplemented to Type 2 diabetes mellitus
patients improves significantly the laboratory
parameters of glycemia and diabetes control.
However, further randomized placebo
controlled clinical trials are needed to prove
the promising findings reported in this study.
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This study was supported by king
Abdulaziz City for Science and Technology.
Thanks are due to Professor Shahid Baig
from department of clinical neuroscience,
and Dr. Amro Ahmad Fouad from
pharmacology division at the biomedical
department in the college of medicine in Al-
Ahsa for reviewing the manuscript. Authors
are thankful for Mr. Naseem & Mr. Khaisar
for technical assist.
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... After 12 weeks of therapy with 2 g/day NS as well as after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with 2 g/day NS, Bamosa et al. (2010) demonstrated a significant decrease in FBG and 2hPG. According to Hosseini et al. (2013), the 2.5 mL NS oil group experienced a substantial drop in 2hPG levels and FBG when compared to the placebo group. ...
... According to Hosseini et al. (2013), the 2.5 mL NS oil group experienced a substantial drop in 2hPG levels and FBG when compared to the placebo group. After 12 weeks of treatment with 2 g/day and 3 g/day of NS, Bamosa et al. (2010) found a substantial reduction in HbA1c levels. After 12 weeks of treatment, NS at a dose of 2 g/day dramatically reduced the insulin resistance index and improved -cell function. ...
... After 12 weeks of treatment with 2 g/day NS, Bamosa et al. (2010) demonstrated a substantial decrease in FBG, as well as in 2hPG after 4 and 8 weeks of treatment with 2 g/day NS. According to Hosseini et al. (2013), compared to the placebo group, the group receiving 2.5 mL NS oil experienced a substantial drop in 2hPG levels and FBG. ...
... Kaatabi et al. also reported increased pancreatic β cell activity with considerably lower insulin resistance after a year of NS treatment (94). A similar finding was reported by Bamosa et al. who demonstrated that treatment with NS oil for 12 weeks helps in the reduction of insulin resistance calculated by HOMA-IR and the improvement of β cell function in a non-controlled trial study (91). Another study reported that the effects of NS on fasting insulin and insulin resistance in newly diagnosed patients with T2DM were comparable to the standard oral hypoglycaemic agent (OHA) metformin following treatment for 3 months (97). ...
... The improvement in pancreatic β-cell function has also reported widely in in vitro (66) and in vivo diabetes studies (38,41,43,45,53,62,63). The amelioration of β-cell function could explain the improvement of insulin levels and the overall fasting and post-prandial blood glucose levels in clinical trials (91)(92)(93). The improvement in post-prandial blood glucose could be attributed partially to the inhibition of the carbohydrate digestion enzyme by NS (52,67,68). ...
... Post-prandial blood glucose control helps prevent the post-meal spike in blood glucose levels, which is crucial in preventing T2DM progression and complications. After NS treatment, improvement in glycated hemoglobin levels resulted a well-controlled blood glucose level (91)(92)(93)(94)(95)102). The organ-protecting effect was also observed in the liver and kidney, in which treatment with NS caused a reduction in serum creatinine and urea with improvement in glomerular filtration rate and 24 h urinary volume (101) and a reduction in ALT (90), AST and total serum bilirubin (92). ...
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This review aims to gather and summarize up-to-date information on the potential health benefits of Nigella sativa (NS) on diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications from different animal models, clinical trials and in vitro studies. DM is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders resulting from chronic hyperglycaemia due to problems in insulin secretion, insulin action or both. It affects people regardless of age, gender and race. The main consequence of DM development is the metabolic dysregulation of glucose homeostasis. Current treatments for DM include pharmacological therapy, insulin and diabetic therapy targeting β cells. Some of these therapeutic approaches are promising; however, their safety and effectiveness remain elusive. Since ancient times, medicinal plants have been used and proven effective against diseases. These plants are believed to be effective and benefit physiological and pathological processes, as they can be used to prevent, reduce or treat multiple diseases. Nigella sativa Linn. is an annual indigenous herbaceous plant belonging to Ranunculaceae, the buttercup family. NS exhibits multifactorial activities; it could ameliorate oxidative, inflammatory, apoptotic and insulinotropic effects and inhibit carbohydrate digestive enzymes. Thus, this review demonstrates the therapeutic potential of NS that could be used as a complement or adjuvant for the management of DM and its complications. However, future research should be able to replicate and fill in the gaps of the study conducted to introduce NS safely to patients with DM.
... Consuming N. sativa oil for 40 days reduced the fasting glucose level from 190.8 mg/dL to 168.3 mg/ dL (Bilal et al. 2009). Similarly, taking N. sativa seeds, in the form of powder and oil, for 3 or up to 12 months lowered the fast glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels (Bamosa et al. 2010;Hosseini et al. 2013;Kaatabi et al. 2015;Heshmati et al. 2015). In contrast, consuming N. sativa oil for 3 months led to an increase in HbA1c from 8.4 to 9.4% in patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and 4 (Ansari et al. 2017). ...
... As a result, injection of insulin glargine was reduced from 38 units to 25 units and injection of insulin aspart was reduced from 10 units to 5 units, while maintaining almost the same HbA1c level as that at the baseline (7%). Previously, several authors (Bamosa et al. 2010;Hosseini et al. 2013;Kaatabi et al. 2015;Heshmati et al. 2015) also reported that N. sativa seeds, in the form of powder or oil, reduced HbA1c. Unlike the study by Ansari et al. (2017), this case study showed that N. sativa tea can be used to reduce the glucose level in a 72-year-old with type-2 diabetes and stage 3-4 chronic kidney disease. ...
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Diabetes is a major deadly disease. In 2019 alone, it caused an estimated 1.5 million deaths world-wide. Cases of diabetes are rising rapidly in low- and middle-income countries. Natural remedies that can lower the glucose level would be very useful, particularly to people living in low- and middle-income countries. A 2-year case study was carried out, therefore, to determine if Nigella sativa tea can lower the glucose level in a 72-year-old man with type-2 diabetes, stage 3–4 chronic kidney disease, and congestive heart failure. Changes in body weight, lipids, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) were also studied. N. sativa tea was prepared with N. sativa , barley, and wheat seeds. The 72-year-old drank approximately 50 ml of N. sativa tea daily, in the morning. Results showed that after drinking N. sativa tea daily, hypoglycemia started to occur and occurred more frequently as time went by and that the glycated hemoglobin, HbA1c, was decreasing. Subsequently, the dosages of insulin glargine and insulin aspart were reduced by 33% and 50%, respectively. Results also showed that weight loss led to the 72-year-old cutting back his intake of the diuretic furosemide by at least 50%. His triglycerides level was also lower and there were no changes in his total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. His eGFR was stable but his UACR was worsening. N. sativa tea is easy to prepare, costs very little, and could be a natural remedy for mitigating diabetes and edema. Many more studies on N. sativa are warranted.
... However, no further increment in the beneficial response was observed with 3 g/day vs. 2 g/day dose. The doses of Nigella sativa used in the study did not show adverse effects [116]. ...
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Essential oils (EOs) are mixtures of volatile molecules endowed with health-promoting biological activities that go beyond their role as aromas and natural preservatives and can be exploited to develop functional foods and diet supplements. Their composition is briefly addressed along with regulatory aspects. The potential health benefit of human diet supplementation with EOs is outlined through a review of the recent literature on available clinical trials and preclinical research concerning EOs activity towards: (1) irritable bowel syndrome; (2) inflammatory bowel disease; (3) regulation of microbiota; (4) gastroprotection; (5) hepatoprotection; (6) protection of the urinary tract and diuresis; (7) management of metabolic disorders including hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia; (8) anti-inflammatory and pain control; (9) immunomodulation and protection from influenza; and (10) neuroprotection and modulation of mood and cognitive performance. The emerging potential in such activities of selected EOs is given focus, particularly green and black cumin, bergamot, orange, myrtle, peppermint, sage, eucalyptus, lavender, thyme, lemon balm, ginger, and garlic.
... Interestingly, natural herbs have long been used in different parts of the world, not only as food condiments, but also for their various nutritional constituents and health benefits. 7,8 Herbs are widely used to help in the reduction of body weight in multiple culture. In a cross-sectional study of 422 overweight and obese participants in Taif, Saudi Arabia, revealed that 98.1% of the participants used herbal medicines to lose weight. ...
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Background: Obesity is a global pandemic that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Natural herbs are commonly used for weight reduction and appetite suppression. Therefore, we aim to investigate the role and mechanism of Nigella sativa (NS) and ginger on weight reduction and appetite regulation. Methods: This experimental study was performed at Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University. Twenty-five female rats were distributed into 5 groups: NS (oral 1000mg/kg), Ginger (500 mg/kg), NS-ginger (both interventions), a positive control (intraperitoneal 50 μg/kg Liraglutide), and a negative control. Each intervention was given for 9 weeks. Food intake and body weight were assessed weekly. Serum lipid profile and peptides involved in appetite control (cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1), gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP), ghrelin, peptide YY, and orexin) were assayed at the end of the experiment. Results: None of the interventions showed a statistically significant difference regarding food consumption or weight gain (p > 0.05). However, the three interventions significantly reduced total cholesterol (TC), NS and NS-ginger significantly increased HDL, NS increased ghrelin and ginger increased orexin. Conclusion: The present dose and duration of NS, ginger, or in combination did not demonstrate a significant change in body weight or food consumption in comparison to the negative or positive controls. However, NS or ginger has improved the lipid profile by reducing TC and increasing HDL. In addition, NS or ginger can influence some of the peptides involved in appetite regulation such as the increase in ghrelin induced by NS and the reduction of orexin induced by ginger. We believe that these latter effects are novel and might indicate a promising effect of these natural products on appetite regulation.
... N. sativa supplementation was evaluated for its potent activity in various studies on diabetic Saudis. When 92 patients with type 2 diabetes took different doses of N. sativa (1, 2, and 3 g) daily for 3 months, their blood glucose significantly decreased at a dose of 2 g/day [152]. Furthermore, healthy volunteers in another survey exhibited a decrease in blood glucose level after 2 weeks of taking 2 g/day of N. sativa, indicating that this is an optimal dose [153]. ...
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The kingdom of Saudi Arabia (SA) ranks fifth in Asia in terms of area. It features broad biodiversity, including interesting flora, and was the historical origin of Islam. It is endowed with a large variety of plants, including many herbs, shrubs, and trees. Many of these plants have a long history of use in traditional medicine. The aim of this review is to evaluate the present knowledge on the plants growing in SA regarding their pharmacological and biological activities and the identification of their bioactive compounds to determine which plants could be of interest for further studies. A systematic summary of the plants' history, distribution, various pharmacological activities , bioactive compounds, and clinical trials are presented in this paper to facilitate future exploration of their therapeutic potential. The literature was obtained from several scientific search engines, including Sci-Finder, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, MDPI, Wiley publications, and Springer Link. Plant names and their synonyms were validated by 'The Plant List' on 1 October 2021. SA is home to approximately 2247 plant species, including native and introduced plants that belong to 142 families and 837 genera. It shares the flora of three continents, with many unique features due to its extreme climate and geographical and geological conditions. As plants remain the leading supplier of new therapeutic agents to treat various ailments, Saudi Arabian plants may play a significant role in the fight against cancer, inflammation, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. To date, 102 active compounds have been identified in plants from different sites in SA. Plants from the western and southwestern regions have been evaluated for various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-cancer, antimicrobial, antimalarial, anti-inflammatory, anti-glycation, and cy-totoxic activities. The aerial parts of the plants, especially the leaves, have yielded most of the bio-active compounds. Most bioactivity tests involve in vitro assessments for the inhibition of the growth of tumour cell lines, and several compounds with in vitro antitumour activity have been Citation: El-Seedi, H.R.; Kotb, S.M.; Musharraf, S.G.; Shehata, A.A.; Guo, Z.; Alsharif, S.M.; Saeed, A.; Hamdi, O.A.A; Tahir, H.E.; Alnefaie, R.; et al. Saudi Arabian Plants: A Powerful Weapon against a Plethora of Diseases. Plants 2022, 11, 3436. https://doi.org/10.3390/ plants11243436 Academic Editors:
... The intervention group received 3 g/day of BSO oil soft gel capsules and subjects reported no side effects during the intervention except mild gastrointestinal problems. In another study by Bamosa et al., subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus were randomly divided into three groups to receive BSO extracts at 1 g, 2 g, and 3 g per day, respectively, for 12 weeks [46]. The three doses of BSO were well tolerated, with only three subjects experiencing mild epigastric discomfort that settled down after taking the capsules after meals. ...
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Background: Neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) are a heterogeneous group of cancers that had a significant increase in annual incidence in the last decade. They can be divided into well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs). Poorly differentiated NECs are aggressive forms of cancers with limited therapeutic options. The first line treatment of metastatic poorly differentiated NECs is similar to small cell lung cancer, with cytotoxic chemotherapy (etoposide plus platinum). Patients who progress have limited therapeutic options and poor overall survival, calling for other novel agents to combat this deadly disease. Therefore, in this article, we summarized the effects of a novel component, Thymoquinone (TQ, C10H12O2), which is the main bioactive component of the black seed (Nigella sativa, Ranunculaceae family), plus immunotherapy in case series of patients with refractory metastatic extra-pulmonary NEC (EP-NEC) and one case of mixed neuroendocrine-non-neuroendocrine neoplasm (MiNEN). Methods: We report the effect of TQ plus dual immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab plus ipilimumab) in four patients with poorly differentiated gastrointestinal Ep-NEC and MiNEN who progressed on cytotoxic chemotherapy. Results: This is the first case series to report the clinical activity of TQ plus dual immune checkpoint inhibitors (nivolumab plus ipilimumab) in patients with refractory metastatic EP-NEC. The four patients showed benefits with the combined regimen TQ plus dual ICPIs with durable response and exceeded the two years of progression-free survival. None of the four patients experienced significant toxicity, and all of them showed improvement in quality of life. Conclusion: The reported clinical courses suggest that combined TQ plus ICPIs is a potential promising regimen for refractory EP-NEC and MiNEN that deserves further prospective investigation.
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Black seeds, sometimes called black cumin, are obtained from the spicy medicinal herb Nigella sativa that is native to a broad region encompassing the eastern Mediterranean, southwest Asia, and northern Africa. The seed and its oil have a distinctive aroma and taste, diversely described as bitter, peppery, metallic, and pungent. Both are frequent ingredients in numerous foods, especially in the Middle East and India. In these same regions N sativa has an extensive history as a folk medicine dating back millenia for relief for a variety of health conditions such as asthma, headache, bronchitis, amenorrhea, allergies, infections, and hypertension. The antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immunomodulatory properties of N sativa seeds observed in preclinical studies provided an impetus for clinical trials examining the seeds' effects on cardiovascular, respiratory, and neurological disorders, among others. This narrative review summarizes findings from publications addressing several these and other disorders and provides suggestions for future research.
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In recent times, herbal medicines have experienced exponential expansion in both developing and developed nations due to its natural origin and lack of adverse effects. To gather information regarding herbal plants used to treat diabetes mellitus, a systematic review was undertaken. The aim of this article is to review evidences from preclinical and clinical trials and the proposed mechanism of the herbal drugs in diabetes mellitus. In this review, the literature survey mainly focused on scientific papers published in recent years. The search strategy involved the interrelated keywords like Diabetes mellitus, Herbs, Hyperglycemia et.c. Electronic databases used were Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, Elsevier etc. A large number of clinical and preclinical study has been presented for evaluating the mechanism of anti-hyperglycaemic effect of herbal drugs in diabetes mellitus. Through clinical and preclinical research as well as an analysis of their mechanism of action, the current review offers preliminary evidence for possible antidiabetic benefits of herbal medicines.
Chapter
Nigella sativa is one of the natural drugs that has been studied extensively not only in modern medicine but also since the era of Unani medicine. It has been associated with many pharmacological properties including anticancer, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, antioxidant, antihypercholesterolemic, and antidiabetic. Antihypercholesterolemic activity of N. sativa has been researched extensively whether in vivo, in vitro, and clinical study. It has been summarized that N. sativa showed potential as antihypercholesterolemic agents by increasing the arylesterase activity, which is one of the biomarkers in cardiovascular disease. Thymoquinone is one of the main bioactive compounds found in N. sativa has been reported to possess antihypercholesterolemic properties by reducing HMG-CoA reductase serum level. Besides antihypercholesterolemic properties, N. sativa also has been associated with antihyperglycemic activities. Hyperglycemia is described as body blood glucose level is greater than 125 mg/dL while fasting or greater than 180 mg/dL after 2 h postprandial. Many studies had been done, and it has been strongly concluded that N. sativa and its bioactive compounds such as thymoquinone do possess antihyperglycemic properties. Activation of AMPK pathways which leads to a decrease in hepatic gluconeogenesis, and an increase in GLUT4 synthesis is one of the major mechanisms contributed to N. sativa antihyperglycemic properties. Besides that, other mechanisms contribute to antihyperglycemic properties of N. sativa were increased in insulin secretion and β-cell proliferation in pancreas, and protection and regeneration of Islet of Langerhans. N. sativa has been studied extensively for its antihypercholesterolemic and antihyperglycemic properties, and it has been proven scientifically that N. sativa did possess both of the pharmacological properties.
Article
Extracts of the seeds of Nigella sativa (NS), an annual herbaceous plant of the Ranunculaceae family, have been used for many years for therapeutic purposes, including their potential anti-diabetic properties. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that combined treatment with NS and human parathyroid hormone (hPTH) is more effective than treatment with NS or hPTH alone in improving bone mass, connectivity, biomechanical behaviour and strength in insulin-dependent diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) at a single dose of 50mg/kg. The diabetic rats received NS (2ml/kg/day, i.p.), hPTH (6microg/kg/day, i.p.) or NS and hPTH combined for 4 weeks, starting 8 weeks after STZ injection. The beta-cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans were examined by immunohistochemical methods. In addition, bone sections of femora were processed for histomorphometry and biomechanical analysis. In diabetic rats, the beta-cells were essentially negative for insulin-immunoreactivity. NS treatment (alone or in combination with hPTH) significantly increased the area of insulin immunoreactive beta-cells in diabetic rats; however, hPTH treatment alone only led to a slightly increase in the insulin-immunoreactivity. These results suggest that NS might be used in a similar manner to insulin as a safe and effective therapy for diabetes and might be useful in the treatment of diabetic osteopenia.
Article
The state of research on plants used in traditional medicine and its development in Egypt is indicated by the number of scientific institutions devoted to this problem: Universities, the National Research Centre, the Desert Institute and the Horticulture Department of the Ministry of Agriculture. Moreover, the use of certain medicinal plants has been "industrialised', e.g., Ammi visnaga, Cymbopogon proximus, Nigella sativa and Aloe vera. Other plants are under investigation: Urginea maritima, Phytolacca americana and Euphorbia sp. (known for its claimed antitumour properties), Glycyrrhiza glabra, Cynara scolymus and Solanum laciniatum.
Article
Admission hyperglycemia has been associated with increased hospital mortality in critically ill patients; however, it is not known whether hyperglycemia in patients admitted to general hospital wards is associated with poor outcome. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of in-hospital hyperglycemia and determine the survival and functional outcome of patients with hyperglycemia with and without a history of diabetes. We reviewed the medical records of 2030 consecutive adult patients admitted to Georgia Baptist Medical Center, a community teaching hospital in downtown Atlanta, GA, from July 1, 1998, to October 20, 1998. New hyperglycemia was defined as an admission or in-hospital fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dl (7 mmol/liter) or more or a random blood glucose level of 200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/liter) or more on 2 or more determinations. Hyperglycemia was present in 38% of patients admitted to the hospital, of whom 26% had a known history of diabetes, and 12% had no history of diabetes before the admission. Newly discovered hyperglycemia was associated with higher in-hospital mortality rate (16%) compared with those patients with a prior history of diabetes (3%) and subjects with normoglycemia (1.7%; both P < 0.01). In addition, new hyperglycemic patients had a longer length of hospital stay, a higher admission rate to an intensive care unit, and were less likely to be discharged to home, frequently requiring transfer to a transitional care unit or nursing home facility. Our results indicate that in-hospital hyperglycemia is a common finding and represents an important marker of poor clinical outcome and mortality in patients with and without a history of diabetes. Patients with newly diagnosed hyperglycemia had a significantly higher mortality rate and a lower functional outcome than patients with a known history of diabetes or normoglycemia.
Article
The pathogenesis of gentamicin (GM) nephrotoxicity has been shown to involve the generation of oxygen free radicals, and several free radical scavengers have been shown to ameliorate the nephrotoxicity. The seeds and oil of Nigella sativa are reported to possess strong antioxidant properties and was effective against disease and chemically-induced hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Therefore, in the present work, we have tested whether oral treatment of rats with N. sativa oil (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 ml/kg/day for 10 days) would ameliorate nephrotoxicity of GM (80 mg/kg/day given intramuscularly and concomitantly with the oil during the last 6 days of treatment). Nephrotoxicity was evaluated histopathologically with a light microscope and by measurement of concentrations of urea, creatinine and total antioxidant status (TAS) in plasma and reduced glutathione (GSH) and TAS in kidney cortex. The results indicated that GM treatment caused moderate proximal tubular damage, significantly increased the concentrations of creatinine and urea, and decreased that of TAS and GSH. Treatment with N. sativa oil produced a dose-dependent amelioration of the biochemical and histological indices of GM nephrotoxicity that was statistically significant at the two higher doses used. Compared to controls, treatments of rats with N. sativa did not cause any overt toxicity, and it increased GSH and TAS concentrations in renal cortex and enhanced growth. The results suggest that N. sativa may be useful in ameliorating signs of GM nephrotoxicity in rats, and pending further experimentation to determine safety and efficacy, may be useful clinically.
Article
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of thymoquinone (TQ), the main constituent of the volatile oil from Nigella sativa seeds, in rats after chronic inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl esters (l-NAME). Rats were divided randomly into different treatment groups: control, l-NAME, TQ and l-NAME + TQ. Hypertension was induced by 4 weeks administration of l-NAME (50 mg/kg/day p.o.). TQ was administered alone or in combination with l-NAME and continued for 4 weeks. The animals were killed, and the serum and kidney tissues were isolated for the determination of creatinine and glutathione (GSH), respectively. Rats receiving l-NAME showed a progressive increase in systolic blood pressure compared with control rats. Concomitant treatment with TQ (0.5 and 1 mg/kg/day p.o.) reduced the increase in systolic blood pressure induced by l-NAME in a dose dependent manner. Kidney injury was demonstrated by a significant increase in serum creatinine and a decrease in GSH in kidney tissue from l-NAME treated rats. Treatment of rats with TQ decreased the elevated creatinine and increased GSH to normal levels. TQ inhibited the in vitro production of superoxide radical in enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. In conclusion, TQ is effective in protecting rats against l-NAME-induced hypertension and renal damage possibly via antioxidant activity.
Glucose control in the ICU – how tight is too tight?Saad SI. Classification of flowering plants. 2nd edition. Alexandria, The general Egyptian Book Co
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