Deaths Associated With Bacterial Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food: Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet), 1996-2005

Enteric Diseases Epidemiology Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases (Impact Factor: 6). 07/2011; 204(2):263-7. DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir263
Source: PubMed


Foodborne diseases are typically mild and self-limiting but can cause severe illness and death. We describe the epidemiology of deaths associated with bacterial pathogens using data from the Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network (FoodNet) in the United States.
We analyzed FoodNet data from 1996-2005 to determine the numbers and rates of deaths occurring within 7-days of laboratory-confirmation.
During 1996-2005, FoodNet ascertained 121,536 cases of laboratory-confirmed bacterial infections, including 552 (.5%) deaths, of which 215 (39%) and 168 (30%) were among persons infected with Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. The highest age-specific average annual population mortality rates were in older adults (≥65 years) for all pathogens except Shigella, for which the highest age-specific average annual population mortality rate was in children <5 years (.2/1 million population). Overall, most deaths (58%; 318) occurred in persons ≥65 years old. Listeria had the highest case fatality rate overall (16.9%), followed by Vibrio (5.8%), Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 (0.8%), Salmonella (0.5%), Campylobacter (0.1%), and Shigella (0.1%).
Salmonella and Listeria remain the leading causes of death in the United States due to bacterial pathogens transmitted commonly through food. Most such deaths occurred in persons ≥65 years old, indicating that this age group could benefit from effective food safety interventions.

Full-text preview

Available from:
  • Source
    • "Most cases of human campylobacteriosis are self limiting, requiring no medical treatment. Therapeutic intervention is often warranted in children or in severe or long-lasting infections, the latter occurring mainly in immunocompromised individuals [3]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The molecular epidemiology of C. jejuni and C. coli clinical strains isolated from children with gastroenteritis, was investigated using the multilocus sequence typing method (MLST). This analysis establishes for the first time in Greece and constitutes an important tool for the epidemiological surveillance and control of Campylobacter infection in our country. The MLST genotypes were compared with those gained by other typing methods (HS-typing, PFGE and FlaA typing) and were also phylogenetically analyzed, in order to uncover genetic relationships. Among 68 C. jejuni strains, 41 different MLST-Sequence Types (MLST-STs) were found. Fifty six strains or 34 MLST-STs could be sorted into 15 different MLST-Sequence Type Complexes (MLST-STCs), while twelve strains or seven MLST-STs did not match any of the MLST-STCs of the database. Twenty C. coli strains belonged to 14 different MLST-STs. Eleven MLST-STs were classified in the same MLST-STC (828), and three were unclassifiable. There was no significant association between the MLST-STs and the results of the other typing methods.Phylogenetic analysis revealed that some strains, classified to the species of C. jejuni, formed a separate, phylogenetically distinct group. In eight strains some alleles belonging to the taxonomic cluster of C. jejuni, were also detected in C. coli and vice versa, a phenomenon caused by the genetic mosaic encountered inside the genus Campylobacter. The MLST-ST determination proved to be a very useful tool for the typing as well as the identification of Campylobacter on the species level.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · BMC Research Notes
  • Source
    • "Globally, non-typhoidal salmonellae (NTS) cause an estimated 93.8 million human infections and 155,000 deaths annually [3]. Non-typhoidal salmonellae are the second most frequently reported enteric bacterial pathogens in Canada [8,9], the United States of America (US) [10], and Europe [11]; and they are the top foodborne bacteria causing hospitalization and death in Canada [12] and the US [13,14]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background In Canada, surveillance systems have highlighted the increasing trend of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (S. Enteritidis) human infections. Our study objectives were to evaluate the epidemiology of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario using surveillance data from January 1, 2007 through December 31, 2009. Methods Annual age-and-sex-adjusted incidence rates (IRs), annual and mean age-adjusted sex-specific IRs, and mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs by public health unit (PHU), were calculated for laboratory-confirmed S. Enteritidis cases across Ontario using direct standardization. Multivariable Poisson regression with PHU as a random effect was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of S. Enteritidis infections among years, seasons, age groups, and sexes. Results The annual age-and-sex-adjusted IR per 100,000 person-years was 4.4 [95% CI 4.0-4.7] in 2007, and 5.2 [95% CI 4.8-5.6] in both 2008 and 2009. The annual age-adjusted sex-specific IRs per 100,000 person-years ranged from 4.5 to 5.5 for females and 4.2 to 5.2 for males. The mean age-adjusted sex-specific IR was 5.1 [95% CI 4.8-5.4] for females and 4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.1] for males. High mean age-and-sex-adjusted IRs (6.001-8.10) were identified in three western PHUs, one northern PHU, and in the City of Toronto. Regression results showed a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections in 2009 [IRR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.06-1.32; P = 0.003] and 2008 [IRR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.05-1.31; P = 0.005] compared to 2007. Compared to the fall season, a higher IRR of S. Enteritidis infections was observed in the spring [IRR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.01-1.29; P = 0.040]. Children 0–4 years of age (reference category), followed by children 5–9 years of age [IRR = 0.64, 95% CI 0.52-0.78; P < 0.001] had the highest IRRs. Adults ≥ 60 years of age and 40–49 years of age [IRR = 0.31, 95% CI 0.26-0.37; P < 0.001] had the lowest IRRs. Conclusions The study findings suggest that there was an increase in the incidence of S. Enteritidis infections in Ontario from 2007 to 2008–2009, and indicate seasonal, demographic, and regional differences, which warrant further public health attention.
    Full-text · Article · May 2013 · BMC Infectious Diseases
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive, non-spore forming, catalase-positive rod that is a major bacterial food-borne disease agent associated with uncooked meats, including poultry, uncooked vegetables, soft cheeses, and unpasteurized milk. The bacterium may be carried by animals without signs of disease, can replicate at refrigeration temperatures, and is frequently associated with biofilms. There is a need to discover innovative pathogen intervention technologies for this bacterium. Consequently, bioinformatic analyses were used to identify genes encoding lytic protein sequences in the genomes of L. monocytogenes isolates. PCR primers were designed that amplified nucleotide sequences of a putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase gene from L. monocytogenes strain 4b. The resultant amplification product was cloned into an expression vector, propagated in Escherichia coli Rosetta strains, and the recombinant protein was purified to homogeneity. Gene and protein sequencing confirmed that the predicted and chemically determined amino acid sequence of the recombinant protein designated PlyLM was a putative N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine amidase. The recombinant lytic protein was capable of lysing both the parental L. monocytogenes strain as well as other strains of the bacterium in spot and MIC/MIB assays, but was not active against other bacteria beyond the genus. A microtiter plate assay was utilized to assay for the ability of the recombinant lysin protein to potentially aid with digestion of a L. monocytogenes biofilm. Protease or lysozyme digestion alone did not significantly reduce the L. monocytogenes biofilm. Although the recombinant protein alone reduced the biofilm by only 20%, complete digestion of the bacterial monolayer was accomplished in conjunction with a protease. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).
    No preview · Article · Mar 2011 · Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Show more