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Pandiculation: Nature's way of maintaining the functional integrity of the myofascial system?

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Abstract

Pandiculation is the involuntary stretching of the soft tissues, which occurs in most animal species and is associated with transitions between cyclic biological behaviors, especially the sleep-wake rhythm (Walusinski, 2006). Yawning is considered a special case of pandiculation that affects the musculature of the mouth, respiratory system and upper spine (Baenninger, 1997). When, as often happens, yawning occurs simultaneously with pandiculation in other body regions (Bertolini and Gessa, 1981, Lehmann, 1979 and Urba-Holmgren et al., 1977) the combined behavior is referred to as the stretch-yawning syndrome (SYS).

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... It is usually connected with the pandiculation of other muscles in the body which benefit from muscle elongation (37). This phenomenon is defined as the stretch-yawning syndrome (SYS) (37,38). There are two kinds of pandiculation. ...
... In the study on an animal model, Bertolucci suggested that pandiculation and yawning play a significant role in the autoregulation of the locomotor system (38). It means that coordinated and integrated body movements could be conditioned by regular resetting and restoring functional and structural balance within the myofascial system (38). ...
... In the study on an animal model, Bertolucci suggested that pandiculation and yawning play a significant role in the autoregulation of the locomotor system (38). It means that coordinated and integrated body movements could be conditioned by regular resetting and restoring functional and structural balance within the myofascial system (38). It is probable that the SYS facilitates an appropriate myofascial tonus which is necessary for muscle activity against gravity (38). ...
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Background: The temporomandibular joint is the one of the most important joints in the human body. It enables numerous orofacial functions such as mastication, swallowing, breathing, speech, emotional communication, and facial expressions. The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of jaw functional limitations and oral behaviors with respect to general health status in patients with temporomandibular joint disorders—myofascial pain with referral. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 50 individuals (37 females and 13 males) with complete natural dentition. The average age was 23.36 years with ± 0.30 as a standard error. All subjects underwent clinical examination and were diagnosed with myofascial pain with referral according to the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. The survey was conducted in connection with the Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-8 (JFLS-8), Jaw Functional Limitation Scale-20 (JFLS-20), Patient Health Questionnaire-4 (PHQ-4), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire-15 (PHQ-15), and Oral Behaviors Checklist (OBC). Results: The most common functional problems in the entire study group were chewing tough food and yawning. In terms of gender, statistically significant differences were noted for chewing tough food and smiling ( p = 0.015451; p = 0.035978, respectively). With respect to Bonferroni correction and Benjamini-Hochberg procedure, the observed differences were not statistically significant. There were no statistically considerable differences in mastication, mandibular mobility, verbal and emotional communication, or global limitations ( p > 0.05). Over half (56%) of the respondents had depression of varying severity. Somatic symptoms of different severity were found in 78% of the patients, and 44% of the respondents declared anxiety disorders. The score of the Oral Behavior Checklist (OBC = 27.18) highlighted a high tendency for developing craniomandibular disorders. Conclusion: Patients with myofascial pain with referral, demonstrated a disturbed biopsychosocial profile. The restrictions in yawning and smiling as well as limitations in mastication, mobility, verbal and emotional communication, and global limitations appear to be significant predictors of craniomandibular dysfunction. Depression, stress, and somatic disorders are important factors predisposing patients to the occurrence of myofascial pain with referral. The progression of oral behaviors may indicate the role of somatosensory amplification.
... Past studies have described spontaneous movements in specific manual therapeutic approaches, such as myofascial unwinding (1) and a form of myofascial release formerly called Muscle Repositioning (2) that enabled a tonic muscle response. (3) Bertolucci (4) proposed that these reflexes are akin to pandiculation, an instinctual soft-tissue stretching that helps maintain the functional integrity of the myofascial system. Others postulated that it is related to ideomotor action and subconscious movement. ...
... Pandiculation-type movements are one common phenotype of spontaneous movements, which have benefits of restoring the structural and functional equilibrium of the myofascial system. (4) Like yawn reflexes, we believe spontaneous movements can arise due to bodily state needs, or can be influenced and encouraged by other external triggering agents that involve mirror neuron systems and promote disinhibition. Clinical experiences by LFB and JB confirm that patients agree that the movements feel similar to pandiculation, especially when the phenotype of the movements matches. ...
Article
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Our aim is to describe a possible class of nonpathological spontaneous movements that has so far received little attention in the scientific literature. These movements arise spontaneously without an underlying pathology such as Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, cerebral palsy or spinal cord injury. The movements arise in many different contexts including therapeutic, social, religious, and solitary settings. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the movements are related to development and maintenance of form, being part of inherited autoregulatory behaviors and hence bringing an overlooked therapeutic potential. We describe contexts in which they occur, illustrate with case reports, and characterize the movements in terms of their various triggers, movement phenotypes, and conscious and subconscious influences that can occur at both the individual level as well as during collaborative movement relationships between patient and therapist. This description is intended to create a more widespread awareness of the movements, and provide a foundation for future research as to their healing potential.
... Pandiculation tends to occur more frequently in the morning and evening and is associated with waking, fatigue and drowsiness. 1 Erroneously, it is assumed that animals use pandiculation as a form of stretch. This behaviour is too short in duration, too infrequent and too specifi c to a particular pattern to account for general agility. ...
... It has been proposed that pandiculation may provide psychological and physiological benefi ts other than fl exibility. 1,2 Among humans, only relatively few individuals stretch regularly. Those who stretch tend to focus on particular parts of the body. ...
... Pandiculation tends to occur more frequently in the morning and evening and is associated with waking, fatigue and drowsiness. 1 Erroneously, it is assumed that animals use pandiculation as a form of stretch. This behaviour is too short in duration, too infrequent and too specifi c to a particular pattern to account for general agility. ...
... It has been proposed that pandiculation may provide psychological and physiological benefi ts other than fl exibility. 1,2 Among humans, only relatively few individuals stretch regularly. Those who stretch tend to focus on particular parts of the body. ...
Article
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This book is suitable for all manual and physical therapists, sports and personal trainers, athletes who require special movement ranges and individuals who would like to recover or improve their range and ease of movement.
... Most of the physiological hypotheses of yawning's significance are based on a restorative function (i.e. homeostatic mechanism), including the opening of Eustachian tubes (Laskiewicz, 1953), equilibrium of CO 2 and/or O 2 levels in the blood (Sauer and Sauer, 1967;Provine et al., 1987b), prevention of atelectasis (Cahill, 1978), correction of imbalance in cerebral oxidative metabolism (Lehmann, 1979), proper articulation of the temporomandibular joint (de Vries et al., 1982), evacuation of potentially infectious substances from the tonsils (McKenzie, 1994), brain thermoregulation (Gallup, 2007), stimulation of the carotid body by compression (Matikainen and Elo, 2008), auto-regulation of the locomotor system (Bertolucci, 2011), and more recently, a process of switching the default mode network to the attentional system through the capacity of yawning to increase circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (Walusinski, 2014). However, none of the physiological hypotheses have received sufficient empirical support. ...
... The hypothesis proposed by Bertolucci (2011)-that yawning (he did not distinguish between cue yawning and signal yawning) increases the level of tone necessary for activity-explains the frequency of yawning observed, for example, following awakening, but not the frequency preceding sleep onset, when it is known that most mammals also yawn. The hypothesis that cue yawning reduces the variation in muscle tone accounts for the increase of yawning observed before a change of state, either from resting to activity or from activity to resting. ...
Article
Yawning behaviour has been associated with a variety of physiological and social events and a number of corresponding functions have been attributed to it. Non-directed (self-directed behaviour) and directed yawning (display behaviour) might nonetheless encompass all expressions of yawning, although it is difficult to differentiate one type from the other in a social context. Here we analysed more fully the data from a study in which four combinations of sensory cues were presented to pairs of either cage mate or stranger rats. The aim of the re-analysis was to demonstrate that non-directed and directed yawning might be identified by their distinctive functions. All pairs of rats used olfactory cues to recognise each other as stranger or cage mate companions, but only stranger rats used auditory cues to detect and respond to each other’s yawning. Increasing defecation rates (i.e. an index of emotional reactivity) inhibited yawning in cage mate rats such that yawning frequency reflected each rat’s physiological state. These results suggest that non-directed yawning functions as a cue in cage mate rats and directed yawning as a signal in stranger rats. We hypothesize that cue yawning might be a regulatory act that animals perform to adjust muscle tone for a coordinated change of state. Signal yawning might indicate the physiological capacity of rats in male-male conflicts.
... For example, prolonged immobilization leads to muscle loss and skeletal demineralisation. Bertolucci (2011) argues that "pandiculation with its specific and vigorous muscle activity, might be a means to compensate for the mechanical signals delivered by rest periods and sub-optimal movements". Yawning might be considered a feedback mechanism resulting from stiffness, and possibly be triggered by extended periods of immobility in asymmetrical positions. ...
... "Perhaps the vigorous co-contractions of pandiculation systematically reshape the structural linkage among segments and simultaneously signal the cells (via mechanotransduction) to synthesize the cellular muscle components required to maintain the appropriate environment. If so, pandiculation might help restore optimal musculoskeletal arrangements, and thus optimize motor capabilities" (Bertolucci 2011). ...
Article
Yawning can be regarded as a prototype of stereotypical behaviors that has beenrecycled through evolution for different purposes. These purposes are combined with theincreasing complexity of the central nervous system during evolution, and correlated withthe richness of social interactions. In this chapter, past and current hypotheses concerningthe generation and usefulness of yawning are discussed.
... The neck forward behavior was positively associated with the stretching behavior. Stretching is usually categorized as a comfort behavior for broilers 30 , but it could also be used when the animal needs to relax stress-related tension in their muscles 31,32 or as an adaptive strategy for dealing with unknown contexts 33 . Neck forward and stretching were eventually considered social avoidance behaviors, although they could be ambivalent and thus require further study, case-by-case assessment, and perhaps a better description in the ethogram. ...
Article
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Agroforestry systems, which are based on the integration of trees and animals, represent a useful practice for implementing the “One Welfare” concept. Geese could adapt well to these systems due to their kinetic and grazing abilities. However, the lack of specific ethograms and animal-based measures have not yet allowed a deep assessment of their welfare and behavior. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a protocol to evaluate the behavior of geese reared in two agroforestry systems (i.e., apple orchard and vineyard). Thus, a behavior observation form (BOF) including a specific ethogram was proposed, and its interobserver reliability, content, criterion and construct validity were determined. Moreover, the influence of the time of day and type of agroforestry system on geese's behavior was also investigated. Agreement and principal component analyses, as well as the comparison between data collected through direct observation by the BOF and indirect observation by a computerized system, supported the reliability and validity of the proposed protocol. While the BOF also highlighted differences in the behavior expressed by the geese according to the time of day and the environmental context, both the vineyard and apple orchard systems seem to meet their biological and behavioral needs.
... In addition variation among different stretching styles is recommended, including slow passive stretches at different angles as well as more dynamic stretches, in order to foster easy shearing ability between physiologically distinct fascial layers and to prevent the tendency for limited movement range that usually goes along with aging (Beam et al., 2003). The reader is cordially invited to review the excellent study by Bertolucci (2011) of 'pandiculation'-like stretch behaviour in the animal kingdom, including his proposed practical recommendations for myofascial body self care of humans. While dynamic stretching may be a more effective warm-up practice before sports (McMillian et al., 2006), recent examinations suggests that slow static stretching can induce anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic effects in inflammatory tissue conditions (Corey at al., 2012). ...
Article
Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated overload injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations. Principles of a fascia oriented training approach are introduced. These include utilization of elastic recoil, preparatory counter movement, slow and dynamic stretching, as well as rehydration practices and proprioceptive refinement. Such training should be practiced once or twice a week in order to yield in a more resilient fascial body suit within a time frame of 6-24 months. Some practical examples of fascia oriented exercises are presented.
... Concerning the most recent theories, the findings of Gallup et al. are consistent with a brain-cooling hypothesis, whereas Thompson links cortisol levels with yawning episodes (Thompson, 2011; Gallup and Eldakar, 2012). Bertolucci suggests that yawning and pandiculation might have an auto-regulatory role regarding the locomotor system, that is, to maintain the animal's ability to express coordinated and integrated movement by regularly restoring and resetting the structural and functional equilibrium of the myofascial system (Bertolucci, 2011). In any case, it is certain that yawning opens the Eustachian tube, inflating the lungs and thus spreading the surfactant of the alveoli; it also signals drowsiness and boredom (Baenninger, 1997). ...
Article
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While yawning is an example of behavioral continuity within mammals, the contagion of yawning, that is yawning after seeing someone else yawning, is only present in humans. We proposed that contagion of yawning is only possible in species showing altogether empathy, TOM and imitation and other perspective-taking capabilities. Preston and de Waal claimed that the PA Model might help explaining and making testable predictions about empathy. This model might also explain contagion of yawning. It might as well predicts batting average in baseball or someone touching his head when hit by a falling apple as Newton might have done and many other phenomena from reflexes to cognitive empathy. But, contrary to other mentioned phenomena, cognitive empathy and other phenomena, like imitation, theory of mind and perspective-taking requires representations of other's feelings, knowledge or actions. A fit-all model becomes useless. Yet the issue of behavioral continuity supported by a structural continuity (homology) remains a valid and interesting question. Before presenting our
... Concerning the most recent theories, the findings of Gallup et al. are consistent with a brain-cooling hypothesis, whereas Thompson links cortisol levels with yawning episodes (Thompson, 2011;Gallup and Eldakar, 2012). Bertolucci suggests that yawning and pandiculation might have an auto-regulatory role regarding the locomotor system, that is, to maintain the animal's ability to express coordinated and integrated movement by regularly restoring and resetting the structural and functional equilibrium of the myofascial system (Bertolucci, 2011). In any case, it is certain that yawning opens the Eustachian tube, inflating the lungs and thus spreading the surfactant of the alveoli; it also signals drowsiness and boredom (Baenninger, 1997). ...
Article
Yawning is a behavior to which little research has been devoted. However, its purpose has not yet been demonstrated and remains controversial. In this article, we propose a new theory involving the brain network that is functional during the resting state, that is, the default mode network. When this network is active, yawning manifests a process of switching to the attentional system through its capacity to increase circulation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), thereby increasing clearance of somnogenic factors (prostaglandin D(2), adenosine, and others) accumulating in the cerebrospinal fluid. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... The classic holding of long passive stretches is not something we see much in the animal kingdom. Animals naturally and spontaneously roll, actively stretch and rub their soft tissues and joints against the ground or trees, which neutralises built up stress, nourishes and rehydrates their myofascial system (Bertolucci, 2011). If we are well embodied, our stretching will be more of a natural occurrence, with less need for a special regime (Chapter 9). ...
Chapter
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We live in two worlds, one on either side of our skin. The very survival ofthe Ninja or the hunting wild cat is dependent on their alertness and presence in both worlds. Body-Mindfulness is what I call this embodied awareness and aliveness. Its full expression is found in martial arts mastery. Body-Mindfulness is a calm, open state of present-time awareness ofinner and outer body experiences, including sensory stimulations such as pressure, touch, stretch, temperature, pain, tingling, physical movement and position in space, visual, auditory and olfactory impressions. An integral aspect of Body-Mindfulness is fascial awareness: the capacity to sense our body-wide network of myofascial tissue in stillness and in movement. We can develop this skill and build the elastic potential of the connective tissue system (Chapter l) in fine, coordinated, controlled martial training such as tai ji, karate and kung fu forms , then actualise this controlled power in explosive high speed movements. The quest for ultimate power and awareness in self-defence and attack is an ancient one. Two thousand years ago the masters, who trained tendon power, knew something intuitively that science has only recently validated. Shaolin training and tai ji masters both recognised the vital importance of conditioning and strengthening the fascia and connective tissues to build and protect the body's Qi energy (life force). Since research has shown that it is the organ of stability and the seat of our proprioception, the fascia has finally received the attention it deserves. In fact, most musculo-skeletal injuries involve inappropriate loading of the connective tissues and fascia, not the muscles. Therefore, the fascia must be considered an important factor in peak performance and training. The pioneers in the Figure 16.1 Shaolin KungFu training develops fascial strength SiFu Pierre Yves Roqueferre new fascia research define fascia more broadly than traditionally. They recognise fascia as the soft tissue component of the connective tissue system permeating the entire human body as one interconnected tensional network. It includes tendons , ligaments, joint and organ capsules, membranes , dense sheets and softer collagenous layers Chapter 16 (Chapter 1). In the new Fascial Fitness approach there is an emphasis on developing elasticity, of acknowledging the stress-responsive nature and tensional integrity of fascial tissue, of specifically conditioning and hydrating the fascia for appropriate stress-loading, as well as appreciating its recently discovered proprioceptive qualities (Chapter 11). This chapter explores some of the implications of the current research and how Fascial Fitness , attained through physical training and Body-Mindfulness, is one of the secrets for success in martial arts mastery.
... Pre-feeding gapes have been observed in snakes (Graves and Duvall 1983;Klauber, 1997). Additionally, Bertolucci (2011) proposed that yawning, usually associated with a simultaneous stretching behavior, has an auto-regulatory role in maintaining the functional integrity of the muscles and tissues of the myofacial system. Yawns after successful or unsuccessful predation events could also be a means by which a salamander resets its jaw or tongue, as in the Ducey et al. (1999) study. ...
... 13-21 versus 53 in the standard cages) is still far below the amount of lateral stretching observed in the standard cages, suggesting that compensation for inability to stretch upright is not the only motivation driving high rates of lateral stretching. The scientific literature on stretching contends that stretching is a peri-somnolent phenomenon (occurring before or after sleep) but is also expressed in response to stiffness caused by extended periods of immobility, positional stress and sub-optimal movements [42,63]. Rats housed in standard laboratory cages are sedentary [64], having about 0.1 m 2 floor space for moving around. ...
Article
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Standard laboratory cages prevent rats (Rattus norvegicus) from performing many behaviours that they perform in the wild, but little is known about how this may affect their welfare. The aims of this study were (i) to record the propensity to burrow, climb and stand upright in 3-, 8-and 13-month old laboratory rats housed in semi-naturalistic environments and (ii) to compare the frequency of lateral stretching in semi-naturalistic versus standard-housed rats; we predicted standard-housed rats would perform more lateral stretches to compensate for the inability to stretch upright. Rats' propensity to burrow remained constant as they aged (approx. 30 bouts per day totalling 20–30 min), suggesting burrowing is important to rats. Climbing decreased from 76 to 7 bouts per day at 3 versus 13 months, probably because of declining physical ability. Upright standing decreased from 178 to 73 bouts per day, but continued to be frequently expressed even in older rats. Standard-housed rats stretched much more frequently than semi-naturalistic-housed rats (53 versus 6 bouts per day at 13 months), perhaps in compensation for inability to stretch upright and to relieve stiffness caused by low mobility associated with standard housing. These findings suggest that standard laboratory cages interfere with important natural behaviours, which is likely to compromise rat welfare.
... Although climbing bouts decreased with age, standing upright and especially burrowing were still frequent behaviors in older rats. Stretching is a corrective response to stiffness caused by immobility or positional stress (Bertolucci, 2011). Makowska and Weary (2016a) found that standard-housed rats performed 9 times more lateral stretches than rats housed in the seminaturalistic environment. ...
Chapter
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The 1st chapter 'Refinement on the way to replacement: Are we doing what we can?' of 'Animal Experimentation: Working Towards a Paradigm Change' starts by exploring the application of several refinement methods in practice, commencing with current housing and husbandry standards and a discussion about the benefits of a “culture of care”, followed by assessing important experimental refinements. To further assess the quality of animal-based research, it reviews necessary refinements in planning, conduct, and reporting practices of animal studies. The chapter then looks at feasible ways to reduce and replace animal use by first discussing tools to appraise animal studies that could lead to a significant reduction of animal experiments and thus numbers of animals used, and then reflecting on what the scientific community has been doing to move towards replacement of animals in research, testing, and education.
... Fetal yawning has been the subject of increasing interest over the last decades, due to its clinical implications for early neurobehavioral assessment [1][2][3] as well as for its theoretical insights into the ontogenetic origins of a wide arrays of phenomena, including auto-regulation [4,5], mirror-like behaviors [6], interoception and arousal [7], consciousness [8] and communication [9]. ...
Article
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Fetal yawning is of interest because of its clinical, developmental and theoretical implications. However, the methodological challenges of identifying yawns from ultrasonographic scans have not been systematically addressed. We report two studies that examined the temporal dynamics of yawning in preterm neonates comparable in developmental level to fetuses observed in ultrasound studies (about 31 weeks PMA). In Study 1 we tested the reliability and construct validity of the only quantitative measure for identifying fetal yawns in the literature, by comparing its scores with a more detailed behavioral coding system (The System for Coding Perinatal Behavior, SCPB) adapted from the comprehensive, anatomically based Facial Action Coding System for Infants and Young Children (Baby FACS). The previously published measure yielded good reliability but poor specificity, resulting in over-representation of yawns. In Study 2 we developed and tested a new machine learning system based on support vector machines (SVM) for identifying yawns. The system displayed excellent specificity and sensitivity, proving it to be a reliable and valid tool for identifying yawns in fetuses and neonates. This achievement represents a first step towards a fully automated system for identifying yawns in the perinatal period.
... Thus, the change in time spent resting and the type of recumbency observed in the present study may have lowered the quality of resting time in LSA lambs. The fact that such animals experienced shallower sleep also appears to be supported by the decreased proportion of lambs stretching in this group compared to C. Stretching (referred also as pandiculation) is a behavioral expression found in several mammals that have been suggested as a way to reverse the muscular atonia during sleep and restore homeostatic functions during the transition between sleep and wake phase [36]. Stretching is also an expression of well-being [37,38]. ...
Article
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Current European animal transportation law contains only a few and vague indications concerning how to move lambs of less than 26 kg. Moreover, little information is available in the literature about factors affecting these lambs' welfare. We investigated the effect of space allowance and ambient temperature on the welfare of unweaned Lacaune lambs during a simulation of long-distance transportation (19 h). Three groups of lambs (N = 130) were housed in equally sized pens for 19 h, Control (C; n = 39; 0.27 m 2 per head), Low Space Allowance (LSA; n = 52; 0.20 m 2 per head), and Heat Stress (HS; n = 39; 0.27 m 2 per head) groups. LSA lambs had lower space allowance than C but were tested at the same temperature, within their Thermoneutral zone (range = 12-18 • C). The HS lambs were, instead, subjected to higher temperatures (range = 19-30 • C). Scan sampling of behavior was conducted, eye temperature and body weight were also recorded. LSA and HS lambs showed more discomfort behaviors (p < 0.05) and higher eye temperatures (p < 0.001) compared to C lambs, while HS lambs additionally showed a decrease in body weight over the experimental period (p < 0.001). This study indicates that lower space allowances and higher temperatures impact negatively the welfare of lambs transported for slaughter suggesting that the regulation should be implemented taking these factors into account.
... За інформацією окремих дослідників Цигун [20], вправи стоячи використовують переважно глибокі постуральні м'язи, тоді як поверхневі залишаються розслаблені . На нашу думку, оскільки багато вправ Цигун задіюють м'язи рук та виконуються у положенні лежачи, пріоритетне використання НСХ тільки постуральною групою м'язів не давало б повного пояснення біомеханіки вправ . ...
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Резюме. Мета. Удосконалення теоретичної концепції фізичної терапії хворих з болями у нижній частині спини дихальними вправами Цигун, яка дозволить максимально безпечно та безболісно проводити заняття при м’язовотонічному синдромі. Постановка завдань для подальшого дослідження невральних та механічних ефектів від вправ Цигун. Методи. Аналіз та узагальнення даних сучасної наукової і методичної літератури. Результати. В оглядовій статті наведено порівняльний аналіз декомпресійних способів кінезитерапії поперекового відділу хребта та дихальних вправ Цигун. На теперішній час розроблено багато методів кінезитерапії при болях у нижній частині спини, які полягають в ексцентричному навантаженні або динамічному стретчингу фасилітованих м’язів. Це супроводжується тимчасовою нестабільністю поперекового відділу хребта за рахунок виникнення рефлекторної м’язової гіпотонії. Важливим фактором фізичної терапії є правильна фаза дихання при навантаженні. Біомеханічні аналізи черевного дихання дають підстави синхронізувати навантаження на м’язи поперекового відділу хребта з фазою вдиху та пост-інспіраторною фазою дихання. При глибокому диханні долучаються допоміжні м’язи, скорочення яких у вправі повинно відповідати фазі дихання. При короткочасній затримці дихання та специфічній техніці виконання вправ Цигун повинен стимулюватися фізіологічний рефлекс пандикуляції. Вправи Цигун, на затримці повітря у постінспіраторній фазі дихання, повинні викликати ефект ультракороткого протоколу ішемічного прекондиціювання. Невральні ефекти рефлексу пандикуляції та ішемічного прекондиціювання відбуваються за рахунок вагоінсулярної активації вегетативної нервової системи, тому необхідні подальші дослідження емоційно-вегетативного стану пацієнтів на фоні кінезитерапії за допомогою вправ Цигун. Ключові слова: LBP, внутрішньочеревний тиск, пандикуляція, ішемічне прекондиціювання, кінезитерапія, Цигун, міофасціальні ланцюги.
... At this point, the pharynx diameter has increased 3-4 times [1,3,24] and the hyoid bone has reached its nearest position to the mandible. Peak forces of dilator muscles (agonists) initiate the acme phase, where jaw and pharyngeal muscles (antagonists) are maximally stretched, often accompanied by stretching of other body muscles (e.g., trunk, arms) [3,25]. This is also known as the stretch-yawning syndrome, or pandiculation (in Latin pandare = stretching), which is primarily observed when awakening [3]. ...
Article
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Background and purpose Yawning is a stereotypical complex muscular movement and is commonly executed by most vertebrates. In seconds, the entire airway is fully dilated and surrounding muscles are powerfully stretched, most prominently around the pharynx. To date, yawning has been rarely studied, and as of yet there is no consensus on its main function. Material and methods To investigate a mechanical airway function for yawning, a literature search was conducted to relate the frequency of yawning and obstructive airway conditions. Results The results show that changes in obstructive airway conditions and alteration of the frequency of yawning are temporally related. Interpretation These relationships, however, cannot be interpreted as causal, nor can they be extrapolated to explain the function of yawning. Yet airway management and yawning share many physiological characteristics. We therefore propose a novel hypotheses: yawning plays a significant role in airway physiology by muscle repositioning and widening the airway lumen, thereby securing long-term oxygenation.
... In addition variation among different stretching styles is recommended, including slow passive stretches at different angles as well as more dynamic stretches, in order to foster easy shearing ability between physiologically distinct fascial layers and to prevent the tendency for limited movement range that usually goes along with aging (Beam et al., 2003). The reader is cordially invited to review the excellent study by Bertolucci (2011) of 'pandiculation'-like stretch behaviour in the animal kingdom, including his proposed practical recommendations for myofascial body self care of humans. While dynamic stretching may be a more effective warm-up practice before sports (McMillian et al., 2006), recent examinations suggests that slow static stretching can induce anti-inflammatory as well as analgesic effects in inflammatory tissue conditions (Corey at al., 2012). ...
Article
Conventional sports training emphasizes adequate training of muscle fibres, of cardiovascular conditioning and/or neuromuscular coordination. Most sports-associated over- load injuries however occur within elements of the body wide fascial net, which are then loaded beyond their prepared capacity. This tensional network of fibrous tissues includes dense sheets such as muscle envelopes, aponeuroses, as well as specific local adaptations, such as ligaments or tendons. Fibroblasts continually but slowly adapt the morphology of these tissues to repeatedly applied challenging loading stimulations. Principles of a fascia oriented training approach are introduced. These include utilization of elastic recoil, preparatory counter movement, slow and dynamic stretching, as well as rehydration practices and propri- oceptive refinement. Such training should be practiced once or twice a week in order to yield in a more resilient fascial body suit within a time frame of 6e24 months. Some practical exam- ples of fascia oriented exercises are presented.
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The forms and behavioral correlates of yawning are described, and the phylogenetic and ontogenetic aspects of the act are examined with particular attention to its possible functions. Much evidence supports the view that yawning is an important mediator of behavioral arousal levels, a view that is further strengthened by a review of endocrine, neurotransmitter, and pharmacological mechanisms of yawning: A major function of yawning appears to involve maintenance or increase of arousal when environments provide relatively little stimulation.
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Two categories of endogenous rhythmical activity of somatic and visceral muscle are considered: the basic rhythms determined by morphofunctional and age-related characteristics of an organ or system and the secondary rhythms characterized by wide spreading in different systems, age-related stability, and many-level organization. In early ontogenesis, both forms of rhythmical activity has the common goal—to provide homeostasis of the growing organism under conditions of limited external afferentation and imperfection of adaptive regulatory mechanisms. Formation of the secondary rhythms is considered as the way and the result of coordination of functions that have endogenous rhythmicity. Key wordsendogenous rhythms-coordination-basic rhythms-secondary rhythms-ontogenesis
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We report the direct observation of a nonisotropic spectral contribution to a MR spectrum recorded in vivo from a localized region within a human subject. This feature, confirmed in one- and two-dimensional spectra of human muscle, depends on the orientation of muscle fibers within the magnet and is identified to be caused by direct dipole-dipole interaction in a molecule within an oriented phase. This observation connects two distant relatives in the field of MR: in vivo spectroscopy and high-resolution MR spectroscopy in solids and liquid crystals on the other. Even with the chemical identity of the molecules involved in the anisotropic interaction not unequivocally identified, this finding promises to open a door for the investigation of microscopic structure of membranes or fibers in vivo and microstructural disturbances in pathology.
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Tissue mechanics provide an important context for tissue growth, maintenance and function. On the level of organs, external mechanical forces largely influence the control of tissue homeostasis by endo- and paracrine factors. On the cellular level, it is well known that most normal cell types depend on physical interactions with their extracellular matrix in order to respond efficiently to growth factors. Fibroblasts and other adherent cells sense changes in physical parameters in their extracellular matrix environment, transduce mechanical into chemical information, and integrate these signals with growth factor derived stimuli to achieve specific changes in gene expression. For connective tissue cells, production of the extracellular matrix is a prominent response to changes in mechanical load. We will review the evidence that integrin-containing cell–matrix adhesion contacts are essential for force transmission from the extracellular matrix to the cytoskeleton, and describe novel experiments indicating that mechanotransduction in fibroblasts depends on focal adhesion adaptor proteins that might function as molecular springs. We will stress the importance of the contractile actin cytoskeleton in balancing external with internal forces, and describe new results linking force-controlled actin dynamics directly to the expression of specific genes, among them the extracellular matrix protein tenascin-C. As assembly lines for diverse signaling pathways, matrix adhesion contacts are now recognized as the major sites of crosstalk between mechanical and chemical stimuli, with important consequences for cell growth and differentiation.
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In mammals, many physiological processes present diurnal variations, and most of these rhythms persist even in absence of environmental timing cues. These endogenous circadian rhythms are generated by intracellular timing mechanisms termed circadian clocks. In mammals, the master clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), but other brain regions and most peripheral tissues contain circadian clocks. These clocks are responsive to environmental cues, in particular light/dark and feeding/fasting cycles. In the last few years, tissue-specific knock-out and transgenic mouse models have helped to define the physiological roles of specific clocks. Recent reports indicate that the clock-physiology connection is bi-directional, and physiological cues, in particular the energetic status of the cell, can feed into the clockwork. This effect was discovered unexpectedly in molecular analyses of clock protein modifications. Beyond the positive and negative transcription/translation feedback loops of the molecular oscillator lies another level of complexity. Post-translational modifications of clock proteins are both critical for the timing of the clock feedback mechanism and to provide regulatory fine-tuning. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of the roles of peripheral clocks and of post-translational modifications occurring on clock proteins. These two matters are at the intersection of physiology, metabolism, and the circadian system.
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This chapter focuses on the emotional motor system. It also discusses the somatic motor system in order to point out the similarities and differences between the two systems. The idea of the existence of an emotional motor system is primarily based on anatomical organization. The pathways of the somatic and emotional motor system are always separate until their termination on premotor interneurons or motoneurons. The function of the somatic and emotional motor system pathways is different. The emotional motor pathways play a role in basic survival behavior. The somatic or voluntary motor system, and especially its cortical parts, starts operating only after a relatively long time of processing environmental data, combined with information from the extensive memory banks in the various regions around the primary cortices. Moreover, the behavioral differences between animals and humans are not located in the emotional, but in the somatic motor system, which, as pointed out earlier, is nothing more than a tool of the emotional, or limbic system to fulfill its needs. In that respect, humans differ only slightly from other animals.
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The adaptive response of connective tissue to loading requires increased synthesis and turnover of matrix proteins, with special emphasis on collagen. Collagen formation and degradation in the tendon increases with both acute and chronic loading, and data suggest that a gender difference exists, in that females respond less than males with regard to an increase in collagen formation after exercise. It is suggested that estrogen may contribute toward a diminished collagen synthesis response in females. Conversely, the stimulation of collagen synthesis by other growth factors can be shown in both animal and human models where insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta-1) expression increases to accompany or precede an increase in procollagen expression and collagen synthesis. In humans, it can be demonstrated that an increase in the interstitial concentration of TGF-beta, PGE2, IGF-I plus its binding proteins and interleukin-6 takes place after exercise. The increase in IGF-I expression in tendon includes the isoform that has so far been thought only to exist in skeletal muscle (mechano growth factor). The increase in IGF-I and procollagen expression showed a similar response whether the tendon was stimulated by concentric, isometric or eccentric muscle contraction, suggesting that strain rather that stress/torque determines the collagen-synthesis stimulating response seen with exercise. The adaptation time to chronic loading is longer in tendon tissue compared with contractile elements of skeletal muscle or the heart, and only with very prolonged loading are significant changes in gross dimensions of the tendon observed, suggesting that habitual loading is associated with a robust change in the size and mechanical properties of human tendons. An intimate interplay between mechanical signalling and biochemical changes in the matrix is needed in tendon, such that chemical changes can be converted into adaptations in the morphology, structure and material properties.
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All cellular processes are determined by adhesive interactions between cells and their local microenvironment. Integrins, which constitute one class of cell-adhesion receptor, are multifunctional proteins that link cells to the extracellular matrix and organise integrin adhesion complexes at the cell periphery. Integrin-based adhesions provide anchor points for assembling and organising the cytoskeleton and cell shape, and for orchestrating migration. Integrins also control the fate and function of cells by influencing their proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation. Moreover, new literature demonstrates that integrins control the cell-division axis at mitosis. This extends the influence of integrins over cell-fate decisions, as daughter cells are frequently located in new microenvironments that determine their behaviour following cell division. In this Commentary, I describe how integrins influence cell-fate determination, placing particular emphasis on their role in influencing the direction of cell division and the orientation of the mitotic spindle.
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The clinical observation of involuntary motor activity during application of a particular style of myofascial release (Muscle Repositioning-MR) has led to the hypothesis that this technique might evoke neurological reactions. Preliminary EMG recordings presented here show involuntary tonic cervical erector action during MR. Involuntary eye movements were also observed. This article presents these experimental data, along with clinical observations during the application of MR in the treatment of musculoskeletal conditions. The author hypothesizes that MR might constitute a novel manual technique: it produces unique palpatory sensations for the practitioner (e.g., a sense of firmness to the touch and the integration of bodily segments into a single block) that correspond to unique sensory experiences for the client. The article raises the possibility that MR's specific sensory input might activate the central nervous system, thus eliciting neural reactions. These reactions, in turn, might be related to the technique's efficacy. As the EMG objectively measures reactions contemporaneous with subjective palpatory phenomena, MR potentially brings the objective and subjective into congruence. EMG monitoring of touch could serve as an objective criterion in the development of treatment protocols, as well as a feedback tool for teaching. Greater objectivity, precision and reproducibility are all possible outcomes of such an approach. The author believes that MR can be used in various therapeutic settings--either as the principal approach, or as an adjunct to a variety of other approaches.