Article

Evaluation of the presence of drugs of abuse in tap waters. Chemosphere

AGBAR, Gral, Batet 5-7, 08028 Barcelona, Spain.
Chemosphere (Impact Factor: 3.34). 06/2011; 84(11):1601-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2011.05.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A total of seventy samples of drinking water were tested for non-controlled and illicit drugs. Of these, 43 were from Spanish cities, 15 from seven other European countries, three from Japan and nine from seven different Latin American countries. The most frequently detected compounds were caffeine, nicotine, cotinine, cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine, methadone and its metabolite EDDP. The mean concentrations of non-controlled drugs were: for caffeine 50 and 19 ng L(-1), in Spanish and worldwide drinking water respectively and for nicotine 13 and 19 ng L(-1). Illicit drugs were sparsely present and usually at ultratrace level (<1 ng L(-1)). For example, cocaine has mean values of 0.4 (Spain) and 0.3 ng L(-1) (worldwide), whereas for benzoylecgonine, these mean values were 0.4 and 1.8 ng L(-1), respectively. Higher concentrations of benzoylecgonine were found in Latin American samples (up to 15 ng L(-1)). No opiates were identified in any sample but the presence of methadone and EDDP was frequently detected. Total mean values for EDDP were 0.4 ng L(-1) (Spain) and 0.3 ng L(-1) (worldwide). Very few samples tested positive for amphetamines, in line with the reactivity of chlorine with these compounds. No cannabinoids, LSD, ketamine, fentanyl and PCP were detected.

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Available from: Francesc Ventura, Oct 22, 2014
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    • "Aside from their illicit nature, the common and wide-ranging clinical uses of controlled drugs result in their release into hospital wastes; waste run-off into nearby water sources is a major concern for water safety reasons. Cocaine, methadone, fentanyl and methamphetamine have been found in tap water in Spain (Rosa Boleda et al., 2011). Furthermore, codeine and methamphetamine were detected in source water in the USA (Stackelberg et al., 2007; Jones-Lepp et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This study addresses the occurrences and natural fates of chemotherapeutics and controlled drugs when found together in hospital effluents and surface waters. The results revealed the presence of 11 out of 16 drugs in hospital effluents, and the maximum detected concentrations were at the μg L−1 level in the hospital effluents and the ng L−1 level in surface waters. The highest concentrations corresponded to meperidine, morphine, 5-fluorouracil and cyclophosphamide. The sunlight photolysis of the target compounds was investigated, and the results indicated that morphine and codeine can be significantly attenuated, with half-lives of 0.27 and 2.5 h, respectively, in natural waters. Photolysis can lower the detected environmental concentrations, also lowering the estimated environmental risks of the target drugs to human health. Nevertheless, 5-fluorouracil and codeine were found to have a high risk quotient (RQ), demonstrating the high risks of directly releasing hospital wastewater into the environment.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Environmental Pollution
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    • "A previous study conducted in Europe showed maximum DIA concentrations of 2 ng L −1 in Italy and 10 ng L −1 in the UK (Jones et al., 2005). Boleda et al. (2011b) performed a study with 70 tap water samples in Europe (including Spain), South America and Japan. The most frequently detected illicit drugs were CO, BE, METH and EDDP. "
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    ABSTRACT: This work analyzes the seasonal variation (winter and summer) of ten drugs of abuse, six metabolites and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain. The occurrence of these compounds in tap water in this region is also investigated and a preliminary human health risk characterization performed for those substances found in tap water. Finally, a screening level risk assessment that combines the measured environmental concentrations (MECs) with dose-response data to estimate Hazard Quotients (HQs) for the compounds studied is also presented.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Environment International
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    • "; in bold from Boleda et al. (2011); in italics from Vázquez-Roig et al. (2010) "
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    ABSTRACT: This work investigates, for the first time, the occurrence of 10 drugs of abuse, six metabolites, and three benzodiazepines in surface waters from the Jarama and Manzanares Rivers in the Madrid Region, the most densely populated area in Spain and one of the most densely populated in Europe. The results of this study have shown the presence of 14 out of the 19 compounds analyzed at concentrations ranging from 1.45 to 1020ngL(-1). The most ubiquitous compounds, found in 100% of the samples, were the cocaine metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE), the amphetamine-like compound ephedrine (EPH), the opioids morphine (MOR), methadone (METH), and the METH metabolite 2-ethylene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), and the three investigated benzodiazepines alprazolam (ALP), diazepam (DIA) and lorazepam (LOR). Meanwhile, the largest concentrations observed corresponded to EPH (up to 1020ngL(-1)), BE (823ngL(-1)), EDDP (151ngL(-1)), and LOR (167ngL(-1)). The only not detected compounds were heroin (HER) and its metabolite 6-acetylmorphine (6ACM), lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and its metabolite 2-oxo-3-hydroxy-LSD (OH-LSD), and Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Overall, the levels measured are comparatively higher than those previously reported in Europe. Comparison of the results obtained for samples collected on different days (Thursday and Sunday) did not show meaningful differences between weekdays and weekends. The lack of (eco)toxicological data does not permit to predict or disregard potential adverse effects on wildlife. Risk assessment in humans would require further knowledge, not currently available, on exposure to these compounds through other routes like drinking water and/or food.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2013 · Chemosphere
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