Article

Validity of the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ)

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Abstract

Sitting at work is an emerging occupational health risk. Few instruments designed for use in population-based research measure occupational sitting and standing as distinct behaviors. This study aimed to develop and validate brief measure of occupational sitting and physical activity. A convenience sample (n = 99, 61% female) was recruited from two medium-sized workplaces and by word-of-mouth in Sydney, Australia. Participants completed the newly developed Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) and a modified version of the MONICA Optional Study on Physical Activity Questionnaire (modified MOSPA-Q) twice, 1 wk apart. Participants also wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for the 7 d in between the test and retest. Analyses determined test-retest reliability with intraclass correlation coefficients and assessed criterion validity against accelerometers using the Spearman ρ. The test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients for occupational sitting, standing, and walking for OSPAQ ranged from 0.73 to 0.90, while that for the modified MOSPA-Q ranged from 0.54 to 0.89. Comparison of sitting measures with accelerometers showed higher Spearman correlations for the OSPAQ (r = 0.65) than for the modified MOSPA-Q (r = 0.52). Criterion validity correlations for occupational standing and walking measures were comparable for both instruments with accelerometers (standing: r = 0.49; walking: r = 0.27-0.29). The OSPAQ has excellent test-retest reliability and moderate validity for estimating time spent sitting and standing at work and is comparable to existing occupational physical activity measures for assessing time spent walking at work. The OSPAQ brief instrument measures sitting and standing at work as distinct behaviors and would be especially suitable in national health surveys, prospective cohort studies, and other studies that are limited by space constraints for questionnaire items.

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... The primary effectiveness outcome was self-reported percentage of the workday spent sitting, collected in the pre-and post-program staff surveys using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ [25];). This instrument also captures the percentage of the workday spent standing, walking and in heavy labour and has shown acceptable measurement properties for desk-based workers [25,26]. ...
... The primary effectiveness outcome was self-reported percentage of the workday spent sitting, collected in the pre-and post-program staff surveys using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ [25];). This instrument also captures the percentage of the workday spent standing, walking and in heavy labour and has shown acceptable measurement properties for desk-based workers [25,26]. Heavy labour is rare in office settings and was thus combined with walking to form 'moving'. ...
... The number of days of toolkit usage varied from 1 to 52 days with a median of 1 day, with this data largely indicative of how far into the program champions had progressed. Median (minimum, maximum) days of usage were: 1 (1,7) among champions who stopped before the 'Plan' phase; 1 (1,17) among those stopping during planning; 15 (3,25) among those who stopped in the 'Do' phase; and, 12 (1, 52) in those who had reached the 'Review' phase. ...
Article
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Background The web-based BeUpstanding program supports desk workers to sit less and move more. Successfully translated from a research-delivered intervention, BeUpstanding has gone through iterative development and evaluation phases in preparation for wide-scale implementation. In the third planned “early-adopters” phase (01/09/2017–11/06/2019), the program was made freely-available online. An integrated delivery and evaluation platform was also developed to enable workplace champions to run and evaluate the intervention within their work team independent of researcher support. Using the RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, Maintenance) framework, this study reports on the extent to which the program and processes were “fit-for-purpose” for a national implementation trial across the indicators of uptake (reach and adoption), implementation and engagement, and effectiveness for behaviour change. Methods Data were collected via the online surveys embedded in the program and through program access analytics. Descriptive data (with linearized variance for the clustered staff-level data) and results from mixed models (repeated data and clustering for pre-post changes) are reported. Results Despite purposeful limited promotion, uptake was good, with 182 Australian users initially registering (208 total) and 135 (from 113 organisations) then completing the sign-up process. Recruitment reached users across Australia and in 16 of 19 Australian industries. Implementation was inconsistent and limited, with signed-up users completing 0 to 14 of the program’s 14 steps and only 7 (5.2%) completing all seven core steps. Many champions (n = 69, 51.1%) had low engagement (1 day toolkit usage) and few (n = 30, 22%) were highly engaged (> 1 day toolkit usage and surveyed staff). Although only 18 users (7 organisations) performed the pre- and post-program staff evaluations (337 and 167 staff, respectively), pre-post changes showed the program effectively reduced workplace sitting by − 9.0% (95% CI -12.0, − 5.9%). Discussion The program had uptake across industries and across Australia, but implementation and engagement varied widely. Few workplaces completed the evaluation components. In those that did, the program was effective for the primary outcome (workplace sitting). Conducting a planned early adopters phase and a comprehensive evaluation according to RE-AIM helped highlight necessary program improvements to make it more suitable for wide-scale implementation and evaluation. Trial registration Australian and New Zealand Clinic Trials Registry ACTRN12617000682347. Date registered: 12/05/2017.
... The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) has been developed to assess occupational sitting, standing, walking, and performing heavy labour based on percentage of time spent in those activities at work (19). It is a low-cost and easy-to-use instrument, and manageable on a large scale. ...
... Additionally, previous studies were conducted in office based professions. A few validation studies (16,19,20) reported a moderate to strong validity of the OSPAQ for estimating occupational sitting and standing, and suggested that the OSPAQ is suitable for application in a broad range of office based professions. However, these findings were not confirmed by a number of other studies. ...
... specific type of profession, seniority, work schedule, working hours), and different activities during working hours. SB and PA during working hours were captured by the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ), an instrument to subjectively assess the percentage of the occupational time spent sitting, standing, walking, and the time spent doing heavy labour (16,19). Participants were asked to indicate the percentage of time spent on those activities during working hours on a typical workday (i.e. ...
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Background: The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) was developed as an easy-to-use instrument for self-reported assessment of percentage sitting, standing, walking and performing heavy labour in a workplace setting. This study aimed to evaluate the criterion validity of all dimensions of the OSPAQ compared to objective accelerometer measures of occupational physical activities in a mixed sample of sedentary and physically active professions. Methods: Data from the Flemish Employees’ Physical Activity (FEPA) study were used, including employees from the service and production sector. All participants filled in a questionnaire, underwent clinical measurements, and wore two accelerometers for at least 2 consecutive working days. Intra-class (ICC) and Spearman rho correlations (r) were analyzed to assess criterion validity. Results: The sample included 401 workers (16% sedentary profession) with a mean age of 39.2 (± 11) years. Criterion validity was good and moderate for assessing percentage of sitting (ICC=0.84; r=0.53), and standing (ICC=0.64; r=0.53), respectively. The criterion validity for walking was weak to moderate (ICC=0.50; r=0.49), and weak for performing heavy labour (ICC=0.28; r=0.35). Stronger validity scores were found in sedentary professions for occupational sitting and standing. In physically active professions, an underestimation of self-reported sitting and standing was found, and an overestimation of self-reported walking and heavy labour. No significant self-reported over- or underestimation was found for sitting and heavy labour in sedentary professions, but an underestimation of self-reported standing (p<0.001) and an overestimation of self-reported walking (p<0.001) was observed. Conclusions: The OSPAQ has acceptable measurement properties for assessing occupational sitting and standing. Objective measurements of occupational walking and heavy labour are recommended, since a poor criterion validity was found for both.
... Due to this cost barrier and added participant burden, there are a number of self-report questionnaires that have been developed and used in the literature. Questionnaires that have been previously used to assess sedentary behaviours in office working adults include, but are not limited to, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ; Ekelund et al., 2006), the Workforce Sitting Questionnaire (Aittasalo et al., 2017), the Sedentary Behaviour Questionnaire (SBQ; Rosenberg et al., 2010) and the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ; Chau et al., 2012). Amongst these, the OSPAQ has been used in an array of populations such as university students (Dillon et al., 2021), university employees (Headley et al., 2018), sedentary obese individuals (Lohana and Yadav, 2020), health professionals (Zafiropoulos et al., 2019) and of relevance, office workers (Nelson--Wong et al., 2020;Rollo and Prapavessis, 2020;Urda et al., 2017), to measure time spent sitting, standing, walking and perfoming heavy labour tasks during work hours. ...
... It is also very easy to implement as it only consists of three questions, minimizing participant burden. Validation studies using the OSPAQ have previously been conducted in various populations and demonstrated mixed levels of agreement and reliability depending on the occupation (i.e., sedentary versus non-sedentary) and device-based measure used (i.e., Actigraph versus activPAL™) (Chau et al., 2012;Jancey et al., 2014;Maes et al., 2020;van Nassau et al., 2015). Whether these findings can be replicated among traditional office-workers now working from home warrants investigation. ...
... It is imperative to establish the 'construct validity' of this questionnaire in an at-home 'office' worker population to allow future research to confidently assess sedentary behaviour within this setting, without the need for costly device-based measures. It is also important to note that these previous validation studies carry several limitations and pose risk of bias due to inadequate sample size (van Nassau et al., 2015) or use a device that cannot accurately differentiate sedentary behaviour (i.e., sitting) from physical inactivity (i.e., standing) (Chau et al., 2012;Jancey et al., 2014). ...
Article
High levels of occupational sitting is an emerging health concern. As working from home has become a common practice as a result of COVID-19, it is imperative to validate an appropriate self-report measure to assess sitting in this setting. This secondary analysis study aimed to validate the occupational sitting and physical activity questionnaire (OSPAQ) against an activPAL4™ in full-time home-based ‘office’ workers (n = 148; mean age = 44.90). Participants completed a modified version of the OSPAQ and wore an activPAL4™ for a full work week. The findings suggest that the modified OSPAQ has fair levels of validity in terms of correlation for sitting and standing (ρ = 0.35-0.43, all p < 0.05) and agreement (bias = 2-12%) at the group level; however, estimates were poor at an individual level, as suggested by wide limits of agreement (±22-30%). Overall, the OSPAQ showed to be an easily administered and valid questionnaire to measure group level sitting and standing in this sample of adults.
... Twenty-five questionnaires measured PA (17 in adults [30][31][32][33][34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42], four in older adults [43][44][45][46] and four in adults and older adults [47][48][49][50]), 12 measured SB (eight in adults [51][52][53][54][55][56][57][58], three in older adults [59,60] and one in adults and older adults [61]), one measured sleep (in adults and older adults [62]), 12 measured the combination of PA and SB (five in adults [63][64][65][66][67], three in older adults [68][69][70] and four in adults and older adults [71][72][73][74]), one measured the combination of SB and sleep (in adults [75]), and nine measured the combination of PA, SB and sleep (six in adults [67,[76][77][78][79][80], three in adults and older adults [81][82][83]). There were no proxy-reported questionnaires. ...
... The questionnaires combining PA and SB [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74], mostly assessed the behaviours through multi-domain (83.3%) with the occupational domain being the most prevalent (11 out of 12 questionnaires). The occupational domain was also used in single domain questionnaires [71,72]. ...
... The questionnaires combining PA and SB [63][64][65][66][67][68][69][70][71][72][73][74], mostly assessed the behaviours through multi-domain (83.3%) with the occupational domain being the most prevalent (11 out of 12 questionnaires). The occupational domain was also used in single domain questionnaires [71,72]. The most prevalent response method was the continuous method (75%) focusing on different metrics (e.g., hours/week). ...
Article
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Background Sleep, sedentary behaviour and physical activity are constituent parts of a 24h period and there are several questionnaires to measure these movement behaviours, the objective was to systematically review the literature on content and measurement properties of self- and proxy-reported questionnaires measuring movement behaviours in adults and older adults. Methods The databases PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus were systematically searched until April 2021. Articles were included if: the questionnaires were design for adults and older adults; the sample size for validity studies had at least 50 participants; at least, both validity and test-retest reliability results of questionnaire that were developed specifically to measure the amount of sleep, sedentary behaviour or physical activity, or their combination were reported; and articles had to be written in English, Spanish, French, Portuguese, German, Italian or Chinese. Findings and conclusions Data extraction, results, studies’ quality, and risk of bias were evaluated using the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines. Fifty-five articles were included in this review, describing 60 questionnaires. None of the questionnaires showed adequate criterion validity and adequate reliability, simultaneously; 68.3% showed adequate content validity. The risk of bias for criterion validity and reliability were very low in 72.2% and 23.6% of the studies, respectively. Existing questionnaires have insufficient measurement properties and frequent methodologic limitations, and none was developed considering the 24h movement behaviour paradigm. The lack of valid and reliable questionnaires assessing 24h movement behaviours in an integrated way, precludes accurate monitoring and surveillance systems of 24h movement behaviours.
... Time Spent Sitting, Standing, Walking, and Stretching. Time spent sitting, standing, walking, and stretching at work was measured using a validated threeitem modified Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ; Chau, Van Der Ploeg, Dunn, Kurko, & Bauman, 2012). The OSPAQ is a brief instrument reported to have excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.73-0.90), ...
... The OSPAQ is a brief instrument reported to have excellent test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.73-0.90), moderate criterion validity for time spent sitting and standing (r = 0.65 and 0.49, respectively), and lower validity for time spent walking (r = 0.29) (Chau et al., 2012). First, participants were asked to record both the number of days they were at work and total number of hours they worked in the last 14 days. ...
... It would have also allowed the researchers to examine if the participants were actually behaving in accordance with their action plans and/or adhering to the daily text message-based prompts and reminders that were sent. Nevertheless, both the OSPAQ and SIT-Q 7d questionnaires have been shown to be valid and reliable measures of domain-specific SB (and non-SBs) (Chau et al., 2012;Sui & Prapavessis, 2017;Wijndaele et al., 2014). Further, baseline sitting, standing, and walking time were comparable to previous trials using both self-report measures (Chau et al., 2014;Graves et al., 2015) and accelerometers (Healy et al., 2013;Neuhaus et al., 2014). ...
Article
Background: Office-working adults represent an at-risk population for high levels of sedentary behaviour (SB), which has been associated with an increased risk for numerous chronic diseases. This study examined the effectiveness of a Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) based planning intervention augmented with tailored text messages to reduce workplace sitting time (primary outcome) and increase specific non-SBs (i.e. standing time, walking time, stretching time, break frequency, break duration). A secondary purpose was to examine relationships among HAPA volitional constructs and sedentary and non-SBs. Methods: Full-time office workers (Mage = 45.18 ± 11.33 years) from Canada were randomised into either a HAPA intervention (n = 29) or control (n = 31) condition. Workplace sitting time, time spent in specific non-SBs, and HAPA volitional constructs were assessed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 6 (post-intervention), and 8 (follow-up). Results: Significant group by time interaction effects, that favoured the intervention group, were found for sitting time (p = .003, ɳp2 = .07), standing time (p = .019, ɳp2 = .05), and stretching time (p = .001, ɳp2 = .08) as well as for action planning (p < .001, ɳp2 = .20), coping planning (p < .001, ɳp2 = .18), and action control (p < .001, ɳp2 = .15). Significant correlations (p < .05) were also found between the HAPA constructs and time spent sitting, standing, walking, as well as break frequency. Conclusions: Augmenting a HAPA-based planning intervention with text messages can reduce workplace sitting time in office workers. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03461926.
... It included the validated Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) which asks participants what percentage of work hours are spent sitting, standing, walking, and in heavy labor. 21 Given the paucity of heavy labor in desk based workers in office and call center settings, walking, and heavy labor were considered combined as ''moving.'' The accumulation questionnaire included one previously tested measure regarding breaks, 19 and a range of new measures that were developed by the research team based on existing methods of measurement 21,22 and evidence from interventions regarding the behaviors people perform to break up sitting time. ...
... 21 Given the paucity of heavy labor in desk based workers in office and call center settings, walking, and heavy labor were considered combined as ''moving.'' The accumulation questionnaire included one previously tested measure regarding breaks, 19 and a range of new measures that were developed by the research team based on existing methods of measurement 21,22 and evidence from interventions regarding the behaviors people perform to break up sitting time. 23 Feedback on the draft questionnaire was sought from three expert peers with modifications made based on their responses. ...
... One of the candidate measures-percentage workplace sitting in long bouts-may be highly suited to studies (including interventions) that include the OSPAQ in their surveys and want a brief option. This single item measure was designed to immediately follow the OSPAQ questions about percentage time sitting, standing, and moving at work 21 and showed acceptable test-retest reliability, moderate correlation with the activPAL (ie, some ability to rank individuals), only a small average overestimation (ie, limited bias in group means) but with wide limits of agreement (ie, limited ability to capture the individual value identically to the activPAL). The revised single-item interruption rate question previously showed moderate correlations with device measured sit-stand or sedentary-movement transitions. ...
Article
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Objectives: To develop and assess the measurement properties of self-report measures of accumulation of sitting time. Methods: Seven candidate measures were collected in 51 workers from three office environments (79% female) via online questionnaire administered immediately before and after 7-day monitoring periods (activPAL3TM 24-h protocol with diary recorded work hours). Results: Three measures had some validity (p < 0.05 versus activPAL): % of sitting in long bouts ≥30 min, sitting strategy frequency (0-100), and interruption rate (n/h sitting). Agreement was limited. Some reliability (intraclass correlation or kappa p < 0.05) was seen for these measures, strategy variety (0-100), typical day (5 categories), and making a conscious effort to sit less (yes/no). Conclusions: Two brief and one longer option may suit workplace studies requiring self-report measures of sitting accumulation. Validity was weaker for sitting accumulation than sitting time.
... The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) has been developed to assess occupational sitting, standing, walking, and performing heavy labour based on percentage of time spent in those activities at work [22]. It is a low-cost and easy-to-use instrument, and manageable on a large scale. ...
... Additionally, previous studies were conducted in office based professions. A few validation studies [19,22,23], which used ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers, Actigraph GT1M accelerometers, and activPAL activity monitors respectively, reported a moderate to strong validity of the OSPAQ for estimating occupational sitting and standing, and suggested that the OSPAQ is suitable for application in a broad range of office based professions. However, these findings were not confirmed by a number of other studies. ...
... specific type of profession, seniority, work schedule, working hours), and different activities during working hours. SB and PA during working hours were captured by the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ), a self-reported instrument to assess the percentage of the occupational time spent sitting, standing, walking, and the time spent doing heavy labour [22]. Participants were asked to indicate the percentage of time spent on those activities during working hours on a typical working day. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) was developed as an easy-to-use instrument for self-reported assessment of percentage sitting, standing, walking, and performing heavy labour in a workplace setting. This study aimed to evaluate the concurrent validity of all dimensions of the OSPAQ compared to accelerometer-assessed measures of occupational physical activities in a mixed sample of sedentary and physically active professions. Methods: Data from the Flemish Employees' Physical Activity (FEPA) study were used, including employees from the service and production sector. All participants filled in a questionnaire, underwent clinical measurements, and wore two Axivity AX3 accelerometers for at least 2 consecutive working days. Intraclass (ICC) and Spearman rho correlations (r) were analyzed to assess concurrent validity. Results: The sample included 401 workers (16% sedentary profession) with a mean age of 39.2 (± 11) years. Concurrent validity was good and moderate for assessing percentage of sitting (ICC = 0.84; r = 0.53), and standing (ICC = 0.64; r = 0.53), respectively. The concurrent validity for walking was weak to moderate (ICC = 0.50; r = 0.49), and weak for performing heavy labour (ICC = 0.28; r = 0.35). Stronger validity scores were found in sedentary professions for occupational sitting and standing. In physically active professions, an underestimation of self-reported sitting and standing was found, and an overestimation of self-reported walking and heavy labour. No significant self-reported over- or underestimation was found for sitting and heavy labour in sedentary professions, but an underestimation of self-reported standing and an overestimation of self-reported walking was observed. Conclusions: The OSPAQ has acceptable measurement properties for assessing occupational sitting and standing. Accelerometer-assessed measures of occupational walking and heavy labour are recommended, since a poor concurrent validity was found for both.
... Time spent sitting (primary outcome), standing, walking and stretching during school-related activities were measured using a validated three-item modified Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ; Chau et al., 2012). The OSPAQ has high test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients = 0.73 − 0.90) with moderate criterion validity for time spent sitting and standing (r = 0.65 and 0.49, respectively) and lower validity for time spent walking (r = 0.29) (Chau et al., 2012). ...
... Time spent sitting (primary outcome), standing, walking and stretching during school-related activities were measured using a validated three-item modified Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ; Chau et al., 2012). The OSPAQ has high test-retest reliability (intra-class correlation coefficients = 0.73 − 0.90) with moderate criterion validity for time spent sitting and standing (r = 0.65 and 0.49, respectively) and lower validity for time spent walking (r = 0.29) (Chau et al., 2012). Participants were asked to record the number of hours and days they performed school-related activities over the previous 14 days. ...
Article
Objective: This investigation evaluated the effectiveness of a Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) based planning intervention augmented with text messages to reduce student-related sitting time (primary outcome) and increase specific non-sedentary behaviours. Relationships between the HAPA volitional constructs and sedentary and non-sedentary behaviours were also explored. Design: University students (Mage = 21.13 y; SD = 4.81) were randomized into either a HAPA intervention (n = 28) or control (n = 33) condition. Main Outcome Measures: School-related sitting time, time spent in specific non-sedentary behaviours and HAPA volitional constructs were assessed at baseline, weeks 2, 4, 6 (post-intervention) and 8 (follow-up). Results: Significant group by time interaction effects favouring the intervention group were found for sitting time (p = 0.004, ɳp² = 0.10), walking time (p = 0.021, ɳp² = 0.06) and stretching time (p = 0.023, ɳp² = 0.08), as well as for action planning (p < 0.001, ɳp² = 0.17), coping planning (p < 0.001, ɳp² = 0.20) and action control (p < 0.001, ɳp² = 0.20). Significant correlations (p < 0.05) were also found between the HAPA constructs and sitting-related outcomes. Conclusions: Combining a HAPA-based planning intervention with text messages can reduce student-related sitting time in university students. Supplemental data for this article is available online at https://doi.org/10.1080/08870446.2021.1900574 .
... OSPAQ is a six-item questionnaire, developed by Chau and colleagues from the World Health Organization's MONICA Project, which requires participants to self-report as a percentage of the time they spend sitting, standing, walking, and perform heavy work/physically demanding tasks during a typical working day in the last seven days. Also, participants must provide data on the to-tal effective working time in that same time interval -hours and days [17,18]. ...
... The participants' activity data were calculated by multiplying the percentage of activity in each domain (sitting, standing, walking) of OSPAQ by the number of hours worked per day and the number of hours worked per week. In both cases, the results obtained were converted into minutes [17]. ...
... We purposively sampled participants from the survey study who reported office-based sitting time of more than 7 h per day as measured by the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) (Chau et al., 2012); we introduce the instrument below. According to the OSPAQ, sitting 7 h or more at work indicates large amounts of sitting and increased risk of contracting an NCD. ...
... Survey study In addition to capturing socio-demographic information, we measured occupational sitting time using the OSPAQ (Chau et al., 2012). OSPAQ is a six-item self-report questionnaire that measures time spent sitting, standing, walking and doing heavy labor at work in the previous 7 days. ...
Article
Adults who accumulate a lot of sedentary time per day are at an increased risk of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Prolonged sitting is also associated with depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. With the increase in desk-based office work, many office workers spend long hours sitting at the workplace. The aim of this study was to assess occupational sitting time in Malaysian government office workers, and investigate determinants of occupational sitting time and potential strategies to interrupt sitting time. We conducted a mixed-methods study consisting of a survey and focus group discussions (FGDs). A total of 1338 office workers from 24 Malaysian ministries completed the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire. Twenty-nine office workers who spent at least 7 h per day sitting at work participated in FGDs. We enquired about knowledge, awareness and perceptions related to prolonged sitting time, barriers and facilitators to sitting time at work, and potential intervention strategies. Mean daily sitting time at work was 5.96 h (standard deviation = 1.37 h). FDGs confirmed barriers and facilitators to sitting time in accordance with the social-ecological model for health. Intrapersonal, social and physical environmental factors as well as organizational culture and organizational policy were mentioned to affect occupational sitting time. The results show that Malaysian government office workers spent a significant amount of time sitting at work and we identified multi-level factors influencing sitting time. A smartphone-based intervention to interrupt sitting time at work was suggested and is currently being tested.
... The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) was used to subjectively measure behaviour [21]. This questionnaire measured the time spent sitting, standing, walking, and doing physically demanding tasks or heavy labour. ...
... This questionnaire measured the time spent sitting, standing, walking, and doing physically demanding tasks or heavy labour. The OSPAQ shows a moderate criterion validity for sitting (ρ = 0.65) and excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.89) [21]. Comparison of sitting measures with accelerometers showed higher Spearman correlations for the OSPAQ (r = 0.65) compared to a modified version of the MONICA Optional Study on Physical Activity Questionnaire (modified MOSPA-Q). ...
Article
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Welbot is a nudge-based digital intervention that aims to reduce sedentary behaviour and improve physical and mental wellbeing at work. The purpose of this study was to pilot test the Welbot intervention. Forty-one (6M/35F) University staff (M age = 43-years) participated in this study, which was a single arm repeated measures trial conducted over three weeks of intervention. The primary outcome was sedentary behaviour (measured subjectively and objectively) and secondary outcomes included: mental wellbeing, procrastination, depression, anxiety and stress, and work engagement. A subset of participants (n = 6) wore an ActivPAL to objectively measure activity data, while another subset of participants (n = 6) completed a qualitative semi-structured interview to ascertain experiences of using Welbot. Following the intervention, a Friedman non-parametric test revealed that participants self-reported significantly less time sitting and more time standing and objectively recorded more steps at the week-1 follow-up. A series of paired t-tests exhibited that changes in all secondary outcomes were in the expected direction. However, only improvements in depression, anxiety, and stress were significant. After using Welbot, thematic analysis demonstrated that participants perceived they had a positive behaviour change, increased awareness of unhealthy behaviours at work, and provided suggestions for intervention improvement. Overall, findings provided indications of the potential positive impact Welbot may have on employees’ wellbeing, however, limitations are noted. Recommendations for intervention improvement including personalisation (e.g., individual preferences for nudges and the option to sync Welbot with online calendars) and further research into how users engage with Welbot are provided.
... This is aligned with the demographics of faculty and staff demographics and the participating institution, where faculty make up 25% and staff make up 75% of the university's employees. Using the OSPAQ guidelines, 31 sitting, standing, walking, and heavy labor data were transformed into minutes per workday. Average sitting time as well as elements of work engagement between faculty and staff were examined using an independent samples t-test. ...
... The organizational self-report measures used important in determining workplace health and performance, and they have been widely used in other studies examining similar outcomes. 29,31,39 Second, the study focuses on a population of interest that has been largely understudied in the literature as it relates to occupational health and behaviors. Third, this study contributes uniquely to the literature on occupational sedentary behavior and work engagement and, to our knowledge, is one of the first studies to examine this in university employees. ...
Article
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Objective This study sought to determine the relationship between occupational sitting and work engagement among university employees. Participants: Participants included 103 university employees (age: 48.5 ± 10.4 years, 80% female, 77% staff). Methods: Participants completed an online survey based on the Utrecht Work Engagement Survey (UWES) and the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ). The UWES assessed elements of work engagement. The OSPAQ assessed time spent sitting, standing, walking, and in heavy labor during a workday. Results: Compared to staff members, faculty members self-reported less time seated during the workday (373.8 ± 109.7 min/day vs. 321.1 ± 97.3 min/day, p = 0.03). Work engagement was comparable among faculty and staff members (vigor: p = 0.44; absorption: p = 0.68; dedication: p = 0.71). Associations of work engagement with occupational sitting were not significant. Conclusions: These pilot findings suggest that university staff tend to engage in more occupational sitting compared to faculty. Being absorbed and engaged at work is not associated with occupational sitting.
... After briefing and obtaining informed consent (Appendix 4) from participants, the researcher administered the pre-study survey protocol (Appendix 5). The pre-study survey included some general questions about the participants' job roles, work routines, break settings, and working habits, as well as the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) (Chau, Van Der Ploeg, Dunn, Kurko, & Bauman, 2012). The OSPAQ is widely used and validated questionnaire measuring occupational sitting and physical activity and validated ...
... Chau, Van Der Ploeg, Dunn, Kurko, & Bauman, 2012), which has demonstrated satisfactory validity and responsiveness previously and been widely applied in assessing office workers' activity level at work (e.g.Fountaine, Piacentini, & Liguori, 2014;Jancey, Tye, McGann, Blackford, & Lee, 2014;van Nassau, Chau, Lakerveld, Bauman, & van der Ploeg, 2015). For comparison with objective measures, self-reported stationary time was calculated by adding up sitting and standing time, and ambulatory time by adding up walking and heavy labour time. ...
Thesis
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Sedentary behaviour (SB) without breaks is associated with adverse health outcomes. The prevalence of prolonged sitting at work among office workers makes a case for SB interventions to target this setting and population. Everyday mundane objects augmented with microelectronics and ubiquitous computing represent a novel mode of delivery for behaviour change interventions enabled by the Internet of Things (IoT). However, there is insufficient research to guide the design of interventions delivered with smart objects. This research addresses this gap by developing WorkMyWay, a workplace SB intervention delivered with IoT-enabled office objects (e.g. smart water bottles and cups), and evaluating its feasibility and acceptability in an 8-week “in-the-wild” study. This thesis made 4 contributions across the disciplines of behavioural medicine and human-computer interactions (HCI). The first contribution is the development of the WorkMyWay intervention, which is informed by findings from a systematic scoping review of prior research in this field (Chapter 3), a diary-probed interview study with 20 office workers (Chapter 4), and a series of technology audit, prototyping, human-centred design, and requirement engineering processes (Chapter 5). Findings from the feasibility study (Chapter 6) suggest that despite technical issues with the data connection, participants perceive high value of WorkMyWay in changing their SB. The intervention is potentially implementable in office-based workplaces, as long as connectivity issues are fixed. Recommendations are made on improvements and a series of future studies in accordance with the Medical Research Council’s guidance on complex intervention development and evaluation. Second, this thesis deepens the theoretical understanding of SB change, by following the Behaviour Change Wheel framework (including the COM-B model, theoretical domain framework, and taxonomies of Behaviour Change Techniques (BCT)) throughout intervention design and evaluation. The intervention contents are specified using the BCT taxonomies (Chapter 5) and informed by the first published COM-B analysis of office worker’s prolonged sitting behaviour at work (Chapter 4). This allows the feasibility study (Chapter 6) to contribute to theory development by matching the interview questions and psychological measures (e.g. strength of habit) with the BCTs (e.g. action planning, prompts and cues) and associated theoretical underpinnings (e.g. goal accessibility). It also allows implementation issues to be considered in light of how well those theories and theory-informed BCTs can work in real-life settings. Third, this thesis makes a methodological contribution by documenting an interdisciplinary approach to develop a digital behaviour change intervention and a model for applying and developing theories of behaviour change in the wild. This helps address the challenge identified in Chapter 3, by bridging the gap between HCI and behavioural medicine, and catalyse the process of feeding technological innovations downstream to health practice and intervention research. Fourth, this research contributes to the HCI literature by proposing a 2×2 matrix framework to guide the design of technology for sustainable behaviour change. On one hand, the framework unifies some of the existing visions and concepts about ubiquitous computing and applies them to the context of behaviour change, by considering the type of cognitive process (automatic versus reflective, based on the dual process model) through which a persuasive design influences the behaviour. For another, the framework considers the required dosage of their technology intervention to maintain the behaviour, or the distribution of changes between the physical world and the human cognition.
... The survey included questions about current employment status, whether there were changes in employment status since completion of the previous study, whether they still owned their adjustable sit-stand desk unit that was provided in the original study, and if not, reasons why. Included in the survey was the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) (Chau et al. 2012) which is a validated selfreporting tool for the amount of time spent working in the previous week with percentages estimated for time spent sitting, standing, walking, and performing physical labour. Also included in the survey was a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (Revill et al. 1976) with endpoint anchors of no pain (0 mm) and worst imaginable pain (100 mm) for average and worst low back pain experienced during the previous 7-day period. ...
... Although they were instructed not to, participants may also have increased their activity levels during the study period due to increased awareness and knowledge of being under observation. As with all self-report measures, there is a potential for recall bias in the survey portion of the study, however participants were highly familiarised with both OSPAQ and VAS tools and OSPAQ has been validated against objectively measured accelerometry data (Chau et al. 2012). ...
Article
Previous studies report decreased workplace sitting time when standing desk interventions are provided to office workers. It is unclear whether decreased sedentary behaviors are maintained long-term. This was a follow-up to a previous intervention study to investigate whether observed sitting time decreases of 30-50% were sustained 12-24 months later. A secondary aim was to compare overall physical activity between office workers with and without standing desks. Although sitting time increased over the follow-up period, this did not reach significance and reductions in workplace sitting remained significantly lower (23.5% decrease) from baseline values. There were no differences in the physical activity measures between workers with and without access to standing desks, although this was a small sample size and further research is needed. Individuals who are motivated to try standing desks at work can benefit through decreased sitting time long-term, however this may not extend to increased overall physical activity levels. PRACTITIONER SUMMARY: Providing standing desk options to office-based employees can have long-lasting impacts with reducing sitting time at work. Office workers who choose to stand at work do not appear to compensate with overall activity level reduction outside of work.
... Participants could not be undergoing concurrent treatment for any spinal or lower extremity conditions. Participants were asked to complete a baseline Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) to confirm eligibility for the workday sitting requirement (Chau et al. 2012). After eligibility was confirmed, participants provided written informed consent. ...
... Decreases in sitting time for intervention groups were expected as these groups were given specific schedules to decrease sitting time. Self-report measures were heavily relied upon to quantify sitting time at work, although the OSPAQ has been shown to correlate well with accelerometer data for both sitting and standing estimates (Chau et al. 2012). Exercise adherence was also monitored by self-report which is a limitation. ...
Article
Sit-stand desks (SSD’s) are popular however many people have standing-induced low back pain (LBP). People with LBP have fewer standing weight shifts compared with back-healthy people. Participants were classified as standing-tolerant or intolerant. Participants were provided SSDs for 12 weeks. Participants were assigned to intervention (graded standing exposure and exercise) or control (no instruction) conditions. Participants reported weekly sitting time and average/worst LBP. Standing weight shifts and LBP were re-assessed post-intervention. All groups decreased sitting time (range: 30-50%) over 12 weeks. Sitting time and average LBP were correlated in all standing-intolerant individuals, worst LBP and sitting time were correlated for intervention group only. All standing-intolerant individuals increased standing weight shifts and decreased LBP after 12-weeks. Standing-intolerant individuals benefited from 12-weeks of SSD use regardless of intervention. Motivated individuals with standing-induced LBP may increase standing tolerance with SSD use. Additional benefits may exist when structured guidance is provided. Practitioner Summary: Many people are standing-intolerant due to low back pain (LBP). This lab and field-based study showed some benefits from structured approaches to gradually progress standing time when transitioning to standing work. Using a sit-stand desk for 12 weeks resulted in decreased LBP and sitting time in standing-intolerant people.
... STAQ has acceptable reliability and validity [69]. Sitting and activity are further quantified using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) [70]. ...
... Here, participants are asked to divide their work day into percentages spent sitting, standing, stepping, and performing heavy labour tasks. OSPAQ has demonstrated acceptable validity and reliability [70,71]. Additional questions asked include the percentage of the work day that is occupied by prolonged sitting (sitting bouts equal to or greater than 30 min) is also obtained [72], as well as the proportion of the workday spent sitting in common occupational tasks [73]. ...
Article
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Background Clinical practice guidelines recommend that adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) sit less and move more throughout the day. The 18-month OPTIMISE Your Health Clinical Trial was developed to support desk-based workers with T2D achieve these recommendations. The two-arm protocol consists of an intervention and control arms. The intervention arm receives 6 months health coaching, a sit-stand desktop workstation and an activity tracker, followed by 6 months of text message support, then 6 months maintenance. The control arm receives a delayed modified intervention after 12 months of usual care. This paper describes the methods of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the intervention, compared to a delayed intervention control. Methods This is a two-arm RCT being conducted in Melbourne, Australia. Desk-based workers (≥0.8 full-time equivalent) aged 35–65 years, ambulatory, and with T2D and managed glycaemic control (6.5–10.0% HbA1c), are randomised to the multicomponent intervention (target n = 125) or delayed-intervention control (target n = 125) conditions. All intervention participants receive 6 months of tailored health coaching assisting them to “sit less” and “move more” at work and throughout the day, supported by a sit-stand desktop workstation and an activity tracker (Fitbit). Participants receive text message-based extended care for a further 6-months (6–12 months) followed by 6-months of non-contact (12–18 months: maintenance). Delayed intervention occurs at 12–18 months for the control arm. Assessments are undertaken at baseline, 3, 6, 12, 15 and 18-months. Primary outcomes are activPAL-measured sitting time (h/16 h day), glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c; %, mmol/mol) and, cognitive function measures (visual learning and new memory; Paired Associates Learning Total Errors [adjusted]). Secondary, exploratory, and process outcomes will also be collected throughout the trial. Discussion The OPTIMISE Your Health trial will provide unique insights into the benefits of an intervention aimed at sitting less and moving more in desk-bound office workers with T2D, with outcomes relevant to glycaemic control, and to cardiometabolic and brain health. Findings will contribute new insights to add to the evidence base on initiating and maintaining behaviour change with clinical populations and inform practice in diabetes management. Trial registration ANZCTRN12618001159246 .
... This was a cross-sectional study using a self-administered online survey sent by e-mail to 1810 employees of the multinational Spanish company Grupo Red Eléctrica. Upon accessing the website, employees completed a survey consisting of 39 questions following a structured format based on previously validated studies [21][22][23][24][25]. Seventeen of the questions in the survey were used in this study to assess information related to age, sex, job position, number of diseases, weekly PA guidelines (aerobic and strength), sedentary time and HRQoL. ...
... Measurements related to sedentary time were collected both in the work environment and during leisure and free time through the total number of hours per week spent in sedentary activities. Information on sedentary time in the workplace was obtained using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) [24], which has acceptable reliability and validity measurement properties [27,28]. Workers were asked the following questions: "How many hours did you work during the past 7 days?" ...
Article
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Workers spend a large amount of time working, limiting the possibility of meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines. A better health-related quality of life (HRQoL) provides benefits for the employee and company. The aim of this study was to analyse the associations of four behavioural categories between compliance with PA guidelines (aerobic and strength training) and sedentary time with workers’ HRQoL. We classified the sample into four categories: (1) “Physically active & low sedentary”, (2) “Physically active & high sedentary”, (3) “Physically inactive & low sedentary”, and (4) “Physically inactive & high sedentary”. Student’s t-tests for two independent samples and a multiple linear regression adjusted for covariates were performed. A total of 1004 employees of the multinational company Grupo Red Eléctrica participated. Compliance with PA guidelines and a low level of sedentarism were associated with higher HRQoL (p < 0.001). Compared to “physically inactive & high sedentary”, “physically active & low sedentary” and “physically active & high sedentary” workers obtained a better HRQoL (B = 5.47; p = 0.006 and B = 4.10; p = 0.003; respectively). In this sample of Spanish workers, being physically active was associated with a better HRQoL, even in those with high sedentary time. Experimental studies are needed to confirm our results.
... Work Hours and Shift/Schedule. Using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (Chau et al., 2012), participants were asked to provide the number of hours they worked in the past 7 days, as well as the number of days they were at work in the last 7 days. Hours worked in the last 7 days were divided by days worked to obtain hours per day. ...
Article
Sleep health is an important aspect of wellbeing and merits incorporation into workplace health promotion programs for employees. Men are a unique population with whom many traditional workplace health promotion programs have had limited success. This systematic review posed the question do workplace health promotion programs improve sleep among men, and what program design features contribute to improving sleep among working men? Databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, CINHAL, Academic Search Complete and Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition and Google Scholar. Empirical research reporting non-pharmacological behavioral sleep programs and/or interventions for working men were eligible for review. 1049 articles were identified; 15 intervention studies were included: 13 interventions were delivered through workplaces, and two recruited workers to programs delivered outside of work. Interventions incorporated health education, stress reduction/relaxation, and/or physical activity components. Eleven studies reported positive findings for sleep health outcome(s) in men. A moderate level of evidence exists for sleep health programs with physical activity and stress management components. Evidence for the effectiveness of sleep health education programs was mixed. That only one study included a gender-sensitized intervention, where men's preferences shaped the content of a stress-reduction program which resulted in improved sleep quality, attests to the insufficient evidence and lack of gender-specific content and analyses. Next research steps should include considering cultural constructions of masculinity in program design in order to strengthen the appeal and engagement of men, and optimize health benefits for working men.
... A modified version of the Domain-Specific Sitting Time Questionnaire was used in order to measure both sedentary time and sleep duration [39][40][41]. Participants reported the average number of minutes spent sitting for transportation, work, television use, computer use, and other leisure activities. Participants reported sitting time in each domain for both workdays and non-workdays separately. ...
Article
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PurposeKidney cancer survivors spend large quantities of time sedentary and little time physically active, which negatively impacts quality of life (QoL). This study examined (1) the association of reallocating sedentary time to sleep, light physical activity (PA), or moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) on QoL in kidney cancer survivors and (2) the threshold at which results are clinically meaningful.Methods Kidney cancer survivors (N = 463) completed a survey including the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, sitting time, sleep duration, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT) scales. Isotemporal substitution analyses estimated associations of reallocating sedentary time to PA and sleep on QoL.ResultsReallocating 10 min/day of sedentary time to MVPA was significantly associated with higher scores on the Trial Outcome Index-Fatigue (B = 0.60, SE = 0.25, p = 0.02), FACT-Fatigue (B = 0.71, SE = 0.32, p = 0.03), functional well-being (B = 0.18, SE = 0.08, p = 0.02), and fatigue subscales (B = 0.35, SE = 0.15, p = 0.02). Reallocating sedentary time to sleep was significantly associated with higher FACT-General (B = 0.15, SE = 0.08, p = 0.04) and functional well-being subscale (B = 0.06, SE = 0.03, p = 0.049) scores. Reallocating sedentary time to light PA was significantly associated with higher fatigue subscale scores (B = 0.46, SE = 0.23, p = 0.045). Kidney cancer survivors would need to reallocate a minimum of about 83, 200, and 65 min/day of MVPA, sleep, and light PA, respectively, for associations to be clinically meaningful.Conclusions Reallocating sedentary time to MVPA, light PA, or sleep at higher doses is associated with better fatigue and physical aspects of QoL. Interventions should consider replacing sedentary time with MVPA or light PA in a gradual manner, and improve sleep quality for kidney cancer survivors.
... It is estimated that on working days, adults practice SB for up to two-thirds of the work day and spend at least 20-30 min bouts of sitting [7,8]. Studies have shown that careers associated with education including university staff members have an average SB of 7-8 h per day (75%) [9,10]. This type of career is characterized by long periods of sitting down at a desk or computer with the total duration of sitting in these occupations exceeding 80% of the work day [11]. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aimed to explore knowledge, attitude, behavior and causes of sedentary behavior (SB) among office workers and guidelines for active office intervention. Design/methodology/approach The study was comprised of a survey and an interview. In total, 39 nonacademic office workers responded to the Past-day Adults Sedentary Time-University (PAST-U) and workplace sitting break (SITBRQ) questionnaire to measure SB level, sitting bout, frequency and duration of sitting interrupted in 1 h and in whole working hours. Eleven executives and staffs participated in in-depth interviews to understand knowledge, attitude, behavior and cause of SB and guidelines for active office intervention. Findings Participants commonly spend most of their working time in SB (383.85 ± 93.03 min or 6 h 23 min). The interview indicated that at an individual level, participants lack knowledge and understanding of SB. The most common causes of SB are huge workload, personal characteristics and the weather. At the organizational level, there is no policy, no support from colleagues or organizations, while the physical environment is not conducive to reducing SB. Originality/value The outcomes of the study are used as basic information and guidelines for establishing an active office intervention in accordance with the culture and context of Thai society. There have been studies in Thailand that examine SB but no studies that have been conducted to study basic information on knowledge, attitudes, behaviors and causes of SB to be used in planning active office intervention to reduce SB.
... Basic demographic data on gender, age, ethnicity, race, marital status, and education level were collected from participants, as were data about the name of their employer and whether they worked 30 hours or more per week. Sedentary behavior was self-reported as the percentage of time during an average workday in the past week they spent sitting [33]. To assess productivity, job satisfaction, and fatigue, survey items from existing validated questionnaires were used [34,35]. ...
Article
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Reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace has become an important public health priority; however, some employers have expressed concerns regarding the potential for reduced productivity if employees are not seated while at work. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between workplace sedentary behavior (sitting time) and work productivity among full-time office-based employees, and further to investigate other potential factors associated with productivity. A 19-item online self-report survey was completed by 2068 government employees in Kansas. The survey assessed workplace sedentary behavior, work productivity, job satisfaction, and fatigue. Overall, office workers reported high levels of sedentary time (mean > 78%). The primary results indicated that sitting time was not significantly associated with productivity (β = 0.013, p = 0.519), but job satisfaction and fatigue were positively (β = 0.473, p < 0.001) and negatively (β = −0.047, p = 0.023) associated with productivity, respectively. Furthermore, participants with the highest level of sitting time (>91% of the time) reported lower job satisfaction and greater fatigue as compared with the lowest level of sitting time (<75% of the time). Taken together, these results offer promising support that less sitting time is associated with positive outcomes that do not seem to come at the expense of productivity.
... The survey was used to assess age, social economic status (Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation -a postcode measure of material deprivation) [31], ethnic background, qualifications, employment status, hours worked, days worked, office layout, flexible working and line management responsibilities. Activity at work was measured using a validated questionnaire (Occupational Sitting and PA questionnaire) [32] and leisure time PA measured using a validated single item question [33]. ...
Article
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Background: Poor physical and mental health of employees create significant problems in the workplace. Physical activity (PA) has been shown as an effective strategy for preventing and treating numerous physical and mental health issues as well as work performance outcomes. However, there are many barriers to taking part in PA (such as lack of time) with participation rates typically low. Providing PA in paid work time might be a way to overcome these issues, yet employers' and employees' opinions of this concept are unknown. The aim of this study was to explore employee and employer perspectives of PA in paid work time. Methods: Workplaces were recruited through existing contacts on the research team. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with employees and managers at one University and two executive non-departmental public bodies in central Scotland with mainly desk-based employees. Both managers and employees were involved to gain perspectives throughout the organisational hierarchy and were interviewed separately to reduce social desirability bias. All discussions were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically for both managers and employees but due to significant overlap in themes between the groups, these are reported together in the results. Results: Three out of five organisations approached took part in this qualitative study. Two individual interviews were held with strategic managers, five focus groups with middle managers (n = 16) and nine with employees (n = 45). Benefits were anticipated by managers and employees for both employees themselves and the organisation and included improved mental health, productivity and more favourable perceptions of the employer. Despite these widely acknowledged benefits, significant barriers were identified and included the structure and nature of the working day (high workload, front line job requirements), workplace culture and norms (resentment from colleagues, no break culture) and organisational concerns (cost of lost time, public perceptions). Conclusion: This study suggests that there are significant barriers to PA in paid work time. Whilst numerous anticipated benefits were conveyed by both employees and managers, PA in paid work time is unlikely to become common place until changes in attitudes and the culture towards movement at work occur.
... Time spent sitting, standing, walking, and stretching at work were measured using a reliable and valid three-item modified Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ; Chau et al., 2012). First, participants were asked to record both the number of days they were at work and total number of hours they worked in the last 14 days. ...
Article
Objective: This secondary analysis study examined the effects of a 6-week theory-based planning and mHealth text message intervention targeting workplace sitting time on health-related quality of life and work performance in office workers. Design: Office-working adults (Mage=45.18 ± 11.33 years) were randomised into either a planning + text message intervention (n = 29) or control (n = 31) condition. Outcome measures: Workplace sitting time, time spent in specific non-sedentary behaviours (e.g. standing), health-related outcomes (i.e. emotional well-being, energy/fatigue, perceived role limitations), and work performance were assessed at baseline and week 6. Results: Significant group by time interaction effects, that favoured the intervention group, were found for perceived role limitations due to emotional health problems and emotional well-being. No significant interaction effects emerged for energy/fatigue, role limitations due to physical health problems or work performance. Significant correlations in the expected direction were found between sedentary/non-sedentary behaviours and health-related outcomes. No significant mediation effects were found to suggest the intervention affected health-related outcomes through reductions in sedentary behaviour. Conclusion: Reducing workplace sitting improves emotional well-being and contributes to fewer perceived role limitations due to emotional health problems among office workers.
... These questionnaires are the most common method of measuring SB, relying on recall ability of participants (20). The commonly used self-report questionnaires for SB at work assessment are: The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (21,22), Workforce Sitting Questionnaire (WSQ, Adapted from the Marshall Questionnaire), Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) (23) and European Physical activity Questionnaire (EPAQ) (24). Questionnaires differed on global characteristics of SB or PA (such as duration, intensity or frequency), precision of data (habitual or recent, leisure, or non-leisure activities), reporting data (such as time, calories, or scores), time of recall (such as last week or over the 12 last months), and method for conducting the survey (such as paper, computer, face-to-face) (25). ...
Article
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Contexte La sédentarité prolongée est associée à un risque accru de maladies chroniques. La population active est de plus en plus sédentaire au travail. Évaluer et mieux comprendre pour réduire la sédentarité au travail est un nouvel enjeu. De nombreuses méthodes subjectives (questionnaires) et objectives (surveillance à l’aide de dispositifs portables) d’évaluation existent. Par conséquent, notre objectif était de fournir une compréhension globale des méthodes actuellement disponibles pour évaluer la sédentarité au travail. Méthodes Une revue systématisée des méthodes de mesure de la sédentarité au travail a été réalisée. Les articles en langue anglaise publiés entre le 1er janvier 2000 et le 17 mars 2019 dans Pubmed, Cochrane, Embase et Web of Science ont été examinés par des pairs. Résultats Cent cinquante-quatre articles ont été inclus : 89 étaient des études transversales et 65 des études longitudinales, pour une population totale de 474 091 salariés. La sédentarité au travail a été évaluée à l’aide de questionnaires auto-administrés dans 91 études, à l’aide de dispositifs portables dans 91 études également, et simultanément à l’aide d’un questionnaire et de dispositifs portables dans 30 études. Parmi les 91 études utilisant des dispositifs portables, 73 utilisaient un seul dispositif, 15 utilisaient plusieurs dispositifs et trois utilisaient des systèmes physiologiques complexes. Les études explorant la sédentarité au travail sur un large échantillon utilisaient le plus souvent les questionnaires et/ou un seul dispositif portable. Conclusions Les questionnaires disponibles constituent la méthode la plus accessible pour les études portant sur une large population et à budget limité. Pour les groupes plus restreints, la sédentarité au travail peut être mesurée objectivement avec des dispositifs portables (accéléromètres, moniteurs de fréquence cardiaque, manomètres, goniomètres, électromyographes, compteurs de gaz) et les résultats peuvent être associés et comparés à une mesure subjective (questionnaire). Le nombre d’appareils utilisés peut augmenter la précision mais rendre l’analyse plus complexe et plus longue.
... Work Hours and Shift/Schedule. Using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (Chau et al., 2012), participants were asked to provide the number of hours they worked in the past 7 days, as well as the number of days they were at work in the last 7 days. Hours worked in the last 7 days were divided by days worked to obtain hours per day. ...
Article
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The workplace provides an important delivery point for health promotion, yet many programs fail to engage men. A gender-sensitive 8-week team challenge-based intervention targeting increased physical activity was delivered at a petrochemical worksite. The purpose of this study was to examine men’s pre–post physical activity and sleep following the intervention, as well as to explore program acceptability and gather men’s recommendations for health promotion. Pre–post surveys assessed physical activity, sleep, program exposure, acceptability, and suggestions for continued support. Overall, 328 men completed baseline surveys and 186 (57%) completed follow-up surveys. Walking increased by 156.5 min/week, 95% confidence interval (61.2, 251.8), p = .001. Men with higher program exposure increased moderate and vigorous activity 49.4 min more than those with low exposure ( p = .026). Sleep duration and quality were higher postintervention, though changes were modest. Program acceptability was high as was intention to maintain physical activity. Men’s suggestions to enable physical activity involved workplace practices/resources, reducing workload, and leadership support. These findings suggest that a gender-sensitive physical activity workplace intervention showed promise for improving physical activity and sleep among men. The men’s suggestions reflected workplace health promotion strategies, reinforcing the need for employers to support ongoing health promotion efforts.
... Participants were emailed an electronic survey via Survey Gizmo and asked to complete it prior to completing their physical health assessment. The survey included measures of demographics, physical activity outside of work [37], and occupational sitting [38]. ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to examine associations between objectively measured workplace sedentary behavior and physiological markers of health. We hypothesize that increased sedentary time and more frequent bouts of uninterrupted sitting are associated with increased hemoglobin A1c, increased blood pressure, and impaired endothelial function. Call center employees (N = 241) were enrolled from four worksites in the United States. Participants completed a survey and a physical health assessment. Sedentary behavior and sitting/standing time at work were quantified using an accelerometer. Hemoglobin A1c was measured using a finger-prick and portable analyzer. Blood pressure was measured with an automated cuff, and vascular endothelial function was assessed in a subsample of participants (n = 56) using EndoPAT. We analyzed data with two series of ordinary least squares regressions, first to examine relationships between bouts of uninterrupted sitting and physiological outcomes, and second to examine relationships between physical activity and sitting/standing time at work and physiological outcomes. The sample was primarily female, and on average was obese, prehypertensive, and prediabetic. There were no significant relationships between bouts of uninterrupted sitting or physical activity/sitting/standing time at work and physiological outcomes. In a sample that is predominantly sedentary, at risk for cardiovascular disease, and prediabetic, there are no significant associations between workplace sedentary behavior and physiological markers. The lack of associations could be related to either physiological adaptations or ceiling effects in this sample.
... Few questionnaires, however, describe SB across all common domains of daily life in the general population. The majority focus on a defined domain such as leisure time, workplace, or a specific population [29][30][31][32][33]. A recent review identified 35 adult questionnaires that have undergone psychometric testing [21]. ...
Article
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Background: Sedentary behaviors (SB) are very prevalent nowadays. Prolonged sitting associates with chronic disease risks and increased mortality even while controlling for physical activity. Objective measurement of SB is costly, requires technical expertise, and is challenging in terms of time and management. Currently, there is no validated self-reported instrument in the Arabic language that assesses SB among individuals and relates sedentary time to social, environmental, and health outcomes. The aim of this research was to develop a multi-item Arabic SB questionnaire (ASBQ). Methods: The ASBQ was developed through an extensive literature review and discussion by the research team (n = 5), then went through content validation (n = 10 experts) and pre-testing using cognitive interviewing procedures (n = 51 respondents, mean (SD) age was 38.3 (18.2) years, and with 49% females). Results: The ASBQ included 13 questions comprising a wide range of sedentary activities. The Arabic SB instrument showed excellent content validity for assessing sedentary time in adolescents and adults with a very high item-level and scale-level content validity index. A kappa statistic, a measure of interrater reliability, was 0.95. The pre-testing showed that the instrument was highly rated by a diverse sample of Saudi adolescents and adults. Conclusion: The ASBQ received excellent acceptance by a panel of experts with promising pre-test results. Further testing of psychometric properties, including test-retest reliability and criterion validity is required.
... To be eligible, individuals had to meet the following criteria: be a current university employee, work at least 30 hours per week, spend at least 75% of a typical workday sitting, work from home most or all of the time (>80% of total work hours), not currently use a standing or height-adjustable desk, plan to remain employed at the university for at least the next six months, and have no preexisting health condition that would limit the amount of time they are able to spend standing. Time spent sitting during a typical workday was assessed using the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire [34]. ...
Article
Objective: This study examined the individual and combined effects of a height-adjustable desk and an online behavioral intervention on sedentary behavior and health among university employees working from home. Methods: Participants (N = 95) were randomly assigned to one of four conditions: Desk Only, Program Only, Desk + Program, or Control. Desk participants received a height-adjustable desk; program participants received a 12-week web-based intervention. Outcomes measured at baseline and post-intervention included workday sitting and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Results: Reductions in sitting were largest in the Desk + Program condition (−206 min/workday; d = 1.84), followed by the Desk Only condition (−122 min/workday; d = 0.98), and the Program Only condition (−96 min/workday; d = 1.13). There were no significant changes in the health outcomes assessed. Conclusions: Both a height-adjustable desk and an online behavioral intervention effectively reduced occupational sitting, and a combined approach was most effective.
... The inclusion criteria for the study were: employees had to work from home at least 80% of the time, work 30 or more hours per week and spend at least 75% of their working time seated [26]. The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire [29] was used to assess whether employees met the requirements for working time spent seated. Participants were excluded if they had a medical condition that would limit their ability to stand or if they already had a height-adjustable desk. ...
Article
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Abstract Sedentary behavior negatively impacts mental health, which can decrease employee productivity. Employee mental well-being and work performance may improve with sedentary reduction interventions, especially strategies that include environmental workplace modifications and behavior-changing strategies. However, such interventions have not been examined among employees working remotely during the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of the Stand Up Kansas program, 95 sedentary university employees working from home were randomized into one of four intervention arms: height-adjustable desk provision (Desk Only), online sedentary behavior modification program (Program Only), Desk + Program, or Control. The outcomes were measured at a baseline (November 2020) and following the 12-week intervention (February 2021). Employees reported mood (positive and negative affect), stress, fatigue (duration, interference with activities and severity) and work performance (irritability, focus, work satisfaction, non-work satisfaction and productivity) were measured using established self-report instruments. The effect sizes, by comparing the Control arm to the Desk + Program arm, revealed large improvements in mood (positive affect, d = 1.106). Moderate improvements were also seen in fatigue (duration, d = −0.533, and interference with activities, d = −0.648) and several aspects of work performance (focus, d = 0.702, work satisfaction, d = 0.751, and productivity, d = 0.572). Moderate effect sizes were also seen for positive affect (d = 0.566) and fatigue severity (d = 0.577) among the Program Only arm, whereas no noteworthy effect sizes were observed among the Desk Only arm. Combining an online sedentary behavior modification program with height-adjustable desk provisions appeared to positively affect mental well-being and work performance among remote employees. Keywords: mental well-being; work performance; sedentary behavior; mood; energy
... At present, the measurement methods of static behavior mainly include questionnaire measurement, diary survey and objective measurement. Among them, the questionnaire of static behavior is divided into self-reporting and proxy-reporting, the commonly used self-reporting questionnaires mainly include Sedentary Behavior Questionnaire (SBQ) [11], Marshall Sitting Behavior Questionnaire (MSBQ) [12], The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) [13], Adolescent Sedentary Activity Questionnaire (ASAQ). Objective measurement methods mainly include acceleration sensor measurement method, double standard water method and indirect heat measurement method. ...
Article
By using the methods of literature and logical analysis, this paper expounds the related research of static behavior and analyzes the development trend of static behavior research. The related research on static behavior includes the research on the epidemic situation, influencing factors, measurement methods, epidemiological relationship and intervention means of static behavior. The key is to study the influence of static behavior on human health, many studies show that static behavior is closely related to cardiovascular diseases, cancer, obesity, bone density, vision, neuroendocrine, depression and happiness. Most of them use questionnaires to measure static behaviors, while only a few use objective instruments to measure static behaviors. At the same time, it puts forward several development trends of static behavior research: comprehensive investigation and research, specialization of measurement tools, deepening of health impact research and diversification of intervention means. It provides a reference for further study of static behavior.
... frailty, disability, and occupational sitting) can make it difficult for individuals to maintain PA (Lindsay et al., 2016;D'Avanzo et al., 2017), which means that PA interventions may not benefit people with these conditions. More specifically, occupational sitting is a major public health concern (Chau et al., 2012;Picavet et al., 2016;Proper et al., 2007;Proper et al., 2012) because it is an entrenched behavior that discourages PA, increases health risks, and makes it less possible for employees to meet recommended PA levels (Greer, 2015). Suffice it to say that full-time employees in administrative roles spend most of their waking time sitting and, in effect, fail to utilize walkable neighborhood factors (e.g. ...
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This study examined the association between core job components (i.e. teaching, research, and student assessment), physical activity (PA), and mental health in a post-COVID-19 context. An online questionnaire administered via Google Forms was used to gather data from 1064 African academics in four countries. A sensitivity analysis was applied to adjust for covariates. Data were analyzed with the hierarchical linear regression analysis. The average age of participants was 44 years. The study found that PA was positively associated with research but negatively associated with student assessment. Mental health was positively associated with onsite teaching but negatively associated with online teaching and research. PA did not predict mental health and mediate the relationship between the job components and mental health. It is concluded that PA may not increase mental health in African academics in a post-COVID-19 situation that required the resumption of work while observing social distancing protocols.
... Occupational sitting is a global health risk associated with physical inactivity (PI), sedentary behaviour, and poor health (Chau et al., 2012;Marshall & Gyi, 2010). The risk of non-infectious diseases (e.g. ...
Chapter
University workers are among the most physically inactive workforces in the world and consequently face a higher health risk, including vulnerability to chronic health conditions. New work patterns necessitated by the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its social distancing measures are expected to increase the foregoing risks. For this reason, interventions aimed at maintaining physical activity (PA) are necessary. This chapter draws on recent data to specify interventions to physical inactivity as well as stakeholders who may lead these interventions. The data used came from a cross-sectional study involving 1,064 academics from four African countries. It was found that PA and its association with academic job tasks depend on neighbourhood walkability and whether academics lived on their university campuses. This result unfolded the need for universities, university staff, and governments to take specific actions to improve neighbourhood walkability and its utilization for PA.
... Occupational sitting is a global health risk associated with physical inactivity (PI), sedentary behaviour, and poor health (Chau et al., 2012;Marshall & Gyi, 2010). The risk of non-infectious diseases (e.g. ...
Book
Prior to COVID-19, a digital divide and inequality already existed within higher education (HE) in developing countries; however, the global pandemic has exacerbated this further. Although universities in developing countries are doing their best to remain relevant and meet the demands of their students, there is no doubt that they are struggling and looking to take a different approach in dealing with the impact of the pandemic. This book provides a theoretical insight to assist HE managers and other stakeholders in overcoming these challenges and helping them to understand the impact of COVID-19 on HE delivery and how they can cope with the ‘new normal’ post the pandemic. The introductory chapter highlights what we set out to do, including our aims and objectives. This is followed by our actions regarding coverage and content. The final section highlights what is outstanding in the form of research for reimagining educational futures in developing countries.
... El diseño del estudio transversal y descriptivo, con una población de 140 docentes de dos centros educativos de la ciudad de Quito, que tengan más de 12 (2012), para determinar el porcentaje de tiempo que permanece el docente sentado, de pie, caminando o haciendo tareas de carga pesada en el lugar de trabajo, así como la longitud total de tiempo trabajó en los últimos cinco días laborables (Fountaine, Piacentini y Liguori, 2014), validado a través de la utilización de cuestionario MONICA de actividad física (modificado MOSPA-Q) y con el actígrafo acelerómetro, en los datos del test-retest de correlación OSPAQ varió de 0.73 a 0.90, mientras que para la modificación MOSPA-Q cambió de 0.54 a 0.89. En las medidas de comparación para sentarse con los acelerómetros mostraron mayores correlaciones de Spearman para el OSPAQ (r = 0.65) que para la modificación MOSPA-Q (r = 0.52), presentando el cuestionario OSPAQ una excelente fiabilidad y valides para evaluar el tiempo caminando en el trabajo (Chau, Van-Der-Ploeg, Dunn, Kurko, y Bauman, 2012). Para determinar el nivel de actividad física y si el docente es o no sedentario se aplicó el cuestionario Internacional de Actividad Física versión corta (IPAQ por su nombre el inglés) de Román Viñas, Blanca, validado en distintos países del mundo, en la investigación de Mantilla y Gómez-Conesa (2007) a través de la utilización de tres protocolos, 1. Evaluación de la Factibilidad, 2. Validez concurrente y 3.-Validez de criterios, para la factibilidad el 75% del coeficiente de correlación están sobre 0,65 (r = 0,76; IC 95%; 0,73-0,77). ...
Article
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The increase in sedentary lifestyle in the population is a concern of the organizations responsible for ensuring the health of people, however despite the multiple programs for the population to perform regular physical activity is not enough, in the teaching population this Behavior has been growing because of the multiplicity of activities that the teacher must perform inside and outside the classroom, which is why it is essential to make a diagnosis on the situation of the teacher in his workplace to know whether or not sedentary and Identify the level of physical activity and the percentage of time that the teacher remains standing, sitting, walking or / and doing heavy work, data that will allow to propose more specific programs of physical activity or work gymnastics for teachers. Keywords: physical activity, sedentary, health.
... The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) was used to measure the percentage of time spent at work (typical day over the past 7 days) in sitting, standing, walking and heavy labour. Previous studies have shown the OSPAQ to have good test-retest reliability and criterion validity for measuring sitting (Chau et al. 2012;Maes et al. 2020). ...
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Purpose To assess physical activity and sitting time in workers from varied occupations in a regional urban population of Papua New Guinea (PNG), to identify priorities for worker health in a country experiencing rapid industrial development. Methods PNG workers from a variety of settings (office [n = 213], blue-collar [n = 131], and retail [n = 52]) completed an interviewer-administered demographic questionnaire, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire—short form (IPAQ) and the Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ); and had height and weight measured. Comparison of activity and sitting time between occupational groups was undertaken using generalised linear equations, with models including demographic variables and sitting time/physical activity as appropriate. Results Participants reported median total physical activity (walking, moderate and vigorous PA) of 5025 MET-min/week (80% constituting walking) and over 97% of participants met physical activity guidelines (> 600 MET-min/week). Total sitting time was 7 hours/day (IPAQ) and workers sat for 50% of working hours (OSPAQ). There was no difference between groups total physical activity. Office workers reported more total sitting time and a greater proportion of their work time spent sitting than blue-collar and retail workers reported significantly less total sitting time both p < 0.001) and retail workers reported a greater proportion of their work hours standing than office workers and blue-collar workers. Conclusions Sitting time in PNG office workers was high, similar to findings from high-income countries, but total physical activity was also high in all groups. As the PNG economy develops and office-based work becomes more prevalent, the challenge will be to minimise sitting time at work whilst maintaining high total physical activity.
... Participants were asked the number of hours they worked in the last seven days. The Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire (OSPAQ) 26 was used to assess the time (minutes) spent sitting, during a typical workday. This questionnaire has acceptable validity and reliability in office workers. ...
Article
Background In some occupational groups, prolonged standing is associated with adverse symptoms. While the introduction of sit-stand workstations in office-workers is increasingly common, the profile of symptom development is not known. Objectives To identify and describe the location, intensity, quality, and timing of symptoms experienced by office workers while standing at a sit-stand workstation. Methods Cross-sectional observational study performed in an university campus laboratory simulated as an office with a sit-stand workstation. Sixty-three office workers without low back pain or prior exposure to a sit-stand workstation participated. For primary outcome measures, participants recorded any symptoms of pain, stiffness, and/or fatigue on a body chart, every 15 min during a 2-hour standing task. Participants rated symptom intensity on an 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS). Results Fifty-three participants (84%) experienced symptoms during the 2-hour standing task, with 30 participants (48%) reporting at least one symptom within 30 min of standing. A greater number of participants reported symptoms ≥2 on the NRS in the lumbar spine, lower extremity, and feet/ankle than the upper quadrant (odds ratios from 3.84 to 6.86). Mean maximal symptom intensity for the lumbar spine was greater than that for the upper quadrant and feet/ankles (incidence rate ratios: 1.46 to 1.79). Conclusion Symptoms of pain, stiffness, and fatigue, especially those affecting the lumbar spine, lower extremity, and feet/ankles are common in office workers who stand at a workstation. Study findings suggest that physical therapists should advise workers using sit-stand workstations to monitor symptoms and consider changing position within 30 min.
Article
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Background: Subjective measures of sedentary behaviour (SB) (i.e. questionnaires and diaries/logs) are widely implemented, and can be useful for capturing type and context of SBs. However, little is known about comparative validity and reliability. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to: 1) identify subjective methods to assess overall, domain- and behaviour-specific SB, and 2) examine the validity and reliability of these methods. Methods: The databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and SPORTDiscus were searched up to March 2020. Inclusion criteria were: 1) assessment of SB, 2) evaluation of subjective measurement tools, 3) being performed in healthy adults, 4) manuscript written in English, and 5) paper was peer-reviewed. Data of validity and/or reliability measurements was extracted from included studies and a meta-analysis using random effects was performed to assess the pooled correlation coefficients of the validity. Results: The systematic search resulted in 2423 hits. After excluding duplicates and screening on title and abstract, 82 studies were included with 75 self-reported measurement tools. There was wide variability in the measurement properties and quality of the studies. The criterion validity varied between poor-to-excellent (correlation coefficient [R] range - 0.01- 0.90) with logs/diaries (R = 0.63 [95%CI 0.48-0.78]) showing higher criterion validity compared to questionnaires (R = 0.35 [95%CI 0.32-0.39]). Furthermore, correlation coefficients of single- and multiple-item questionnaires were comparable (1-item R = 0.34; 2-to-9-items R = 0.35; ≥10-items R = 0.37). The reliability of SB measures was moderate-to-good, with the quality of these studies being mostly fair-to-good. Conclusion: Logs and diaries are recommended to validly and reliably assess self-reported SB. However, due to time and resources constraints, 1-item questionnaires may be preferred to subjectively assess SB in large-scale observations when showing similar validity and reliability compared to longer questionnaires. Registration number: CRD42018105994.
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Background: Poor physical and mental health of employees create significant problems in the workplace. Physical activity (PA) has been shown as an effective strategy for preventing and treating numerous physical and mental health issues as well as work performance outcomes. However, there are many barriers to taking part in PA (such as lack of time) with participation rates typically low. Providing PA in paid work time might be a way to overcome these issues, yet employers’ and employees’ opinions of this concept are unknown. The aim of this study was to explore employee and employer perspectives of PA in paid work time. Methods: Workplaces were recruited through existing contacts on the research team. Focus groups and interviews were conducted with employees and managers at one University and two executive non-departmental public bodies in central Scotland with mainly desk-based employees. Both managers and employees were involved to gain perspectives throughout the organisational hierarchy and were interviewed separately to reduce social desirably bias. All discussions were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed thematically for both managers and employees but due to significant overlap in themes between the groups, these are reported together in the results. Results: Three out of five organisations approached took part in this qualitative study. Two individual interviews were held with strategic managers, five focus groups with middle managers (n=16) and nine with employees (n=45). Benefits were anticipated by managers and employees for both employees themselves and the organisation and included improved mental health, productivity and more favourable perceptions of the employer. Despite these widely acknowledged benefits, significant barriers were identified and included the structure and nature of the working day (high workload, front line job requirements), workplace culture and norms (resentment from colleagues, no break culture) and organisational concerns (cost of lost time, public perceptions). Conclusion: This study suggests that there are significant barriers to PA in paid work time. Whilst numerous anticipated benefits were conveyed by both employees and managers, PA in paid work time is unlikely to become common place until changes in attitudes and the culture towards movement at work occur.
Article
Objectives: To investigate the impacts, on mental and physical health, of a mandatory shift to working from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design: Cross sectional, online survey. Setting: Online survey was conducted from September 2020 to November 2020 in the general population. Participants: Australian residents working from home for at least 2 days a week at some time in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Main outcome measures: Demographics, caring responsibilities, working from home arrangements, work-related technology, work-family interface, psychosocial and physical working conditions, and reported stress and musculoskeletal pain. Results: 924 Australians responded to the online questionnaire. Respondents were mostly women (75.5%) based in Victoria (83.7%) and employed in the education and training and healthcare sectors. Approximately 70% of respondents worked five or more days from home, with only 60% having a dedicated workstation in an uninterrupted space. Over 70% of all respondents reported experiencing musculoskeletal pain or discomfort. Gendered differences were observed; men reported higher levels of family to work conflict (3.16±1.52 to 2.94±1.59, p=0.031), and lower levels of recognition for their work (3.75±1.03 to 3.96±1.06, p=0.004), compared with women. For women, stress (2.94±0.92 to 2.66±0.88, p<0.001) and neck/shoulder pain (4.50±2.90 to 3.51±2.84, p<0.001) were higher than men and they also reported more concerns about their job security than men (3.01±1.33 to 2.78±1.40, p=0.043). Conclusions: Preliminary evidence from the current study suggests that working from home may impact employees' physical and mental health, and that this impact is likely to be gendered. Although further analysis is required, these data provide insights into further research opportunities needed to assist employers in optimising working from home conditions and reduce the potential negative physical and mental health impacts on their employees.
Article
The study aimed to assess effectiveness of short-term workplace-based physical activity education on altering sitting outcomes, maximal oxygen consumption and occupational wellbeing. Four office clusters (46 participants) of desk-based workers were randomised to either Move-in office With Education (MOWE) group or the control (CONT) group for four weeks. The outcomes were occupational sedentary time, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and workplace wellbeing. Data were analyzed using non-parametric tests. Our study results did not show any significant change in sitting time or VO2 max. Nevertheless, workplace wellbeing of MOWE group significantly improved when compared to the CONT group especially in the domains of work satisfaction (odds ratio = 11.67; p = 0.001) and employer care (odds ratio = 0.167; p = 0.001). Workplace education (MOWE) improves wellbeing but may not alter sitting outcomes or VO2 max in office workers. Workplace education without policy change may not yield positive health outcomes.
Article
Physical activity (PA) is a component of total energy expenditure. PA and PA energy expenditure (PAEE) can be estimated by objective techniques (OTs). However, the use of questionnaires is frequent in clinical settings and epidemiological studies. We conducted a search on PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases to perform a review of studies reporting the reliability and validity of PA questionnaires validated against OTs—doubly labeled water (DLW) or accelerometers—in free-living adults. We selected original articles published between 2009 and 2019 that reported validation studies of PA questionnaires. We identified 53 studies that fulfilled the eligibility criteria. Four PA questionnaires were validated against DLW and the remaining against accelerometers. Three questionnaires were compared with both DLW and accelerometer results. The correlation between questionnaire-estimated PAEE and DLW results ranged from r = .22 to r = .46, while that between questionnaire-estimated total PA (TPA) and accelerometer results ranged from r = .11 to r = .54 The intraclass correlation coefficients were between .56 and .84. Despite having good reliability, most of the questionnaires included in this review have shown limited validity for estimating TPA in adults. OTs should be considered as a first option, when possible. Further research is warranted on techniques to obtain more accurate PA and PAEE estimates.
Article
Physical activity guidelines and epidemiological studies are mixed regarding whether standing can reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. This review describes definitions and measures of standing, reviews prospective studies of standing with CVD risk and mortality, and discusses related cardiovascular mechanisms. Studies observe that, while higher all-day standing is associated with reduced mortality, higher occupational standing has adverse/null associations with subclinical or incident CVD. These differences may reflect distinct cardiovascular mechanisms. All-day standing is likely intermittent and volitional, whereas occupational standing is likely prolonged and obligatory. Limitations of the existing literature include suboptimal/variable measures of standing, limited length of follow-up, and methodological differences in populations and outcomes that preclude direct comparison of research studying all-day vs. occupational standing. The relationship between standing and CVD risk may differ across contexts. Future research should clarify the cardiovascular effects of all-day vs. occupational standing, including testing interventions.
Article
Sedentary behavior (SB) rates are rising globally, especially during working hours. This research focused on the effectiveness of two levels of active office interventions to reduce SB in office workers. Participants were 78 nonacademic university employees divided into a control (CON) group and an intervention (INT) group. At the organizational level, it was found that the organizational health culture, the physical and social environment, and the organizational health behavior were dramatically changed. At the individual level, compared with the CON group, the INT group was significantly higher in the METs rate; light-intensity physical activity (LPA); and moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity, and was lower in SB (CON, 397.30 ± 39.33 minutes vs. INT, 389.09 ± 37.59 minutes), all p < .05. The intervention was effective in changing health behavior related to SB of office workers in both organization and individual levels.
Article
Background Contact centre staff spend up to 95% of their day seated, which can lead to a range of negative health outcomes. The aim of this study was to develop a programme theory for a complex intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour in contact centres. Methods The 6SQuID model was used. A literature review, and focus groups at one contact centre were used to: understand the problem (step 1); identify modifiable factors (step 2); and develop a theory of change (step 3). A workshop shaped a theory of action (step 4), and the programme theory was refined after testing activities over 6 months (step 5). The intervention is currently undergoing further evaluation and feasibility testing in a larger scale stepped wedge randomised controlled study in 11 contact centres (Step 6). Results Step 1: Limited opportunity to sit less, and move more at work was identified as the main problem. Step 2: Modifiable factors were identified at four levels of the centre. Step 3: A theory of change was developed around cultural norms and individual behaviour change. Step 4: Actions were developed to ‘activate’ the theory of change. Step 5: Activities were implemented, and adapted over 6 months and the programme theory was refined. Conclusion The programme theory behind this intervention is robust, evidence based, adaptive and transferable
Article
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Background: Contact centres are one of the most sedentary workplaces, with employees spending a very high proportion of their working day sitting down. About a quarter of contact centre staff regularly experience musculoskeletal health problems due to high levels of sedentary behaviour, including lower back pain. There have been no previous randomised studies specifically aiming to reduce sedentary behaviour in contact centre staff. To address this gap, the Stand Up for Health (SUH) study aims to test the feasibility and acceptability of a complex theory-based intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour in contact centres. Methods: The Stand Up for Health study has a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial design, which is a pragmatic design whereby clusters (contact centres) are randomised to time points at which they will begin to receive the intervention. All contact centre staff have the opportunity to experience the intervention. To minimise the resource burden in this feasibility study, data collection is not continuous, but undertaken on a selective number of occasions, so the stepped wedge design is "incomplete". Eleven contact centres in England and Scotland have been recruited, and the sample size is approximately 27 per centre (270 in total). The statistical analysis will predominantly focus on assessing feasibility, including the calculation of recruitment rates and rates of attrition. Exploratory analysis will be performed to compare objectively measured sedentary time in the workplace (measured using an activPAL™ device) between intervention and control conditions using a linear mixed effects regression model. Discussion: To our knowledge, this is the first stepped wedge feasibility study conducted in call centres. The rationale and justification of our novel staircase stepped wedge design has been presented, and we hope that by presenting our study design and statistical analysis plan, it will contribute to the literature on stepped wedge trials, and in particular feasibility stepped wedge trials. The findings of the study will also help inform whether this is a suitable design for other settings where data collection is challenging. Trial registration: The trial has been registered on the ISRCTN database: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN11580369.
Article
Evidence is growing on adverse health outcomes associated with less physical activity (PA) and more sedentary behavior (SB). As most workers generally spend approximately one-third of the day at work, measuring the amount of occupational PA/SB time would contribute to understanding the health risks of physical inactivity and SB among workers. In this review article, we describe the amount of time spent in different intensities of activity (moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA]; light PA [LPA]; and SB), on work and non-work days, while at work and outside working hours among workers. The review used objective measurements made by an accelerometer and showed the proportion of MVPA that office workers engaged in on work and non-work days accounted for 3-5% and 2-4% of accelerometer wear time, respectively. Moreover, office workers spent more time in SB and less time in LPA on work days than non-work days (SB, 66-76% vs. 60-69%; LPA, 20-28% vs. 23-36%). Especially on work days, office workers spent the greatest proportion of the day in SB during working hours (71-82%), compared with that outside working hours (63-67%). The proportion of MVPA accounted for 2-5% during working hours and 3-7% outside working hours. In addition, there were considerable differences in the proportions of LPA and SB between white-collar and blue-collar workers during working hours (SB, 73 vs. 55%; LPA; 22 vs. 40%), whereas the MVPA time was similar (5 vs. 5%). Some occupational exposure to unfavorable PA/SB at work might be unavoidable; however, inadequate PA/SB during working hours should be corrected.
Article
Prolonged static weight-bearing at work may increase the risk of developing plantar fasciitis (PF). However, to establish a causal relationship between weight-bearing and PF, a low-cost objective measure of workplace behaviors is needed. This proof-of-concept study assesses the classification accuracy and sensitivity of low-resolution plantar pressure measurements in distinguishing workplace postures. Plantar pressure was measured using an in-shoe measurement system in eight healthy participants while sitting, standing, and walking. Data was resampled to simulate on/off characteristics of 24 plantar force sensitive resistors. The top 10 sensors were evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation with machine learning algorithms: support vector machines (SVMs), decision tree (DT), discriminant analysis (DA), and k-nearest neighbors (KNN). SVM and DT best classified sitting, standing, and walking. High classification accuracy was obtained with five sensors (98.6% and 99.1% accuracy, respectively) and even a single sensor (98.4% and 98.4%, respectively). The central forefoot and the medial and lateral midfoot were the most important classification sensor locations. On/off plantar pressure measurements in the midfoot and central forefoot can accurately classify workplace postures. These results provide the foundation for a low-cost objective tool to classify and quantify sedentary workplace postures.Graphical abstract
Article
Objectives Sedentary behavior is pervasive in the workplace and is harmful to health. Research on the effectiveness of comprehensive workplace interventions to reduce sedentary behavior and improve worker health and safety is crucial as sedentary jobs become more common. Methods We developed a Total Worker Health intervention targeting sedentary behavior in call centers, and are evaluating intervention effectiveness in a randomized controlled trial. Four worksites will be randomly assigned to an intervention or control condition. The intervention condition includes the provision of active workstations along with programs and procedures at environmental, organizational, and individual levels. Control worksites will receive active workstations with no additional support, following common organizational practices. Results Outcomes include objectively measured physical activity, biological markers of health, and self-report survey data at baseline, after the 6-month intervention or control period, and at a 12-month follow-up. Conclusions The aims of the study are to determine whether a Total Worker Health intervention has stronger impacts on workplace sedentary behavior, uninterrupted bouts of sitting, and worker health and safety compared to a usual practice control condition. The study will inform future workplace sedentary behavior intervention and dissemination research, along with organizational best practices for reducing sedentary behavior in the workplace.
Preprint
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Background: Contact centres are one of the most sedentary workplaces, with employees spending a very high proportion of their working day sitting down. About a quarter of contact centre staff regularly experience musculoskeletal health problems due to high levels of sedentary behaviour, including lower back pain. There have been no previous randomised studies specifically aiming to reduce sedentary behaviour in contact centre staff. To address this gap, the Stand Up for Health (SUH) study aims to test the feasibility and acceptability of a complex theory-based intervention to reduce sedentary behaviour in contact centres. Methods: The Stand Up for Health study has a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial design, which is a pragmatic design whereby clusters (contact centres) are randomised to time points at which they will begin to receive the intervention. All contact centre staff have the opportunity to experience the intervention. To minimise the resource burden in this feasibility study, data collection is not continuous, but undertaken on a selective number of occasions, so the stepped wedge design is “incomplete”. Eleven contact centres in England and Scotland have been recruited, and the sample size is approximately 27 per centre (270 in total. The statistical analysis will predominantly focus on assessing feasibility, including the calculation of recruitment rates and rates of attrition. Exploratory analysis will be performed to compare objectively measured sedentary time in the workplace (measured using an activPAL™ device) between intervention and control conditions using a linear mixed effects regression model. Discussion: This is the first stepped wedge feasibility study seeking to reduce sedentary behaviour in call centres. We employ an incomplete stepped wedge design to restrict data collection to certain time points to make data collection feasible. This trial will potentially inform the design of a future large multi-centre stepped wedge trial.
Article
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Background Prolonged sitting time is detrimental for health. Individuals with desk-based occupations tend to sit a great deal and sit-stand workstations have been identified as a potential strategy to reduce sitting time. Hence, the objective of the current study was to examine the effects of using sit-stand workstations on office workers¿ sitting time at work and over the whole day.Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial pilot with crossover design and waiting list control in Sydney, Australia from September 2011 to July 2012 (n¿=¿42; 86% female; mean age 38¿±¿11 years). Participants used a sit-stand workstation for four weeks in the intervention condition. In the time-matched control condition, participants received nothing and crossed over to the intervention condition after four weeks. The primary outcomes, sitting, standing and walking time at work, were assessed before and after using the workstations with ActivPALs and self-report questionnaires. Secondary outcomes, domain-specific sitting over the whole day, were assessed by self-report. Linear mixed models estimated changes in outcomes adjusting for measurement time, study grouping and covariates.ResultsIntervention participants significantly reduced objectively assessed time spent sitting at work by 73 min/workday (95% CI: ¿106,-39) and increased standing time at work by 65 min/workday (95% CI: 47, 83); these changes were significant relative to controls (p¿=¿0.004 and p¿<¿0.001, respectively). Total sitting time significantly declined in intervention participants (¿80 min/workday; 95% CI: ¿155, ¿4).Conclusions This study shows that introducing sit-stand workstations in the office can reduce desk-based workers¿ sitting time at work in the short term. Larger scale studies on more representative samples are needed to determine the public health impact of sit-stand workstations.Trial registration ACTRN12612000072819.
Article
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Unlabelled: The objective of this study was to systematically review the literature and compare the effectiveness of controlled interventions with a focus on physical activity (PA) and/or sedentary behaviours (SBs) for reducing sedentary time in adults. Six electronic databases were searched to identify all studies that examined the effects of interventions that targeted PA and/or SBs and that reported on changes in SBs (sedentary, sitting or television time). A qualitative synthesis was performed for all studies, and meta-analyses conducted among studies with mean differences (min/d) of sedentary time. Prospero: CRD42014006535. Sixty-five controlled studies met inclusion criteria; 33 were used in the meta-analyses. Interventions with a focus on PA or that included a PA and SB component produced less consistent findings and generally resulted in modest reductions in sedentary time (PA: standardized mean differences [SMD] = -0.22 [95% confidence interval {CI}: -0.35, -0.10], PA+SB: SMD= -0.37 [95% CI: -0.69, -0.05]). Moderate quality evidence from the randomized controlled trial meta-analysis coupled with the qualitative synthesis provides consistent evidence that large and clinically meaningful reductions in sedentary time can be expected from interventions with a focus on reducing SBs (SMD= -1.28 [95% CI: -1.68, -0.87] ). There is evidence to support the need for interventions to include a component focused on reducing SBs in order to generate clinically meaningful reductions in sedentary time.
Article
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http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2458/14/749/abstract (highly accessed) Health is associated with amount of daily physical activity. Recently, the identification of sedentary time as an independent factor, has gained interest. A valid and easy to use activity monitor is needed to objectively investigate the relationship between physical activity, sedentary time and health. We compared validity and reproducibility of physical activity measurement and posture identification of three activity monitors, as well as user friendliness.
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Background Prolonged sitting time has been identified as a health risk factor. Sit-stand workstations allow desk workers to alternate between sitting and standing throughout the working day, but not much is known about their acceptability and feasibility. Hence, the aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the acceptability, feasibility and perceptions of using sit-stand workstations in a group of desk-based office workers. Methods This article describes the qualitative evaluation of the randomized controlled cross-over Stand@Work pilot trial. Participants were adult employees recruited from a non-government health agency in Sydney, Australia. The intervention involved using an Ergotron Workfit S sit-stand workstation for four weeks. After the four week intervention, participants shared their perceptions and experiences of using the sit-stand workstation in focus group interviews with 4–5 participants. Topics covered in the focus groups included patterns of workstation use, barriers and facilitators to standing while working, effects on work performance, physical impacts, and feasibility in the office. Focus group field notes and transcripts were analysed in an iterative process during and after the data collection period to identify the main concepts and themes. Results During nine 45-min focus groups, a total of 42 participants were interviewed. Participants were largely intrinsically motivated to try the sit-stand workstation, mostly because of curiosity to try something new, interest in potential health benefits, and the relevance to the participant’s own and organisation’s work. Most participants used the sit-stand workstation and three common usage patterns were identified: task-based routine, time-based routine, and no particular routine. Common barriers to sit-stand workstation use were working in an open plan office, and issues with sit-stand workstation design. Common facilitators of sit-stand workstation use were a supportive work environment conducive to standing, perceived physical health benefits, and perceived work benefits. When prompted, most participants indicated they were interested in using a sit-stand workstation in the future. Conclusions The use of a sit-stand workstation in this group of desk-based office workers was generally perceived as acceptable and feasible. Future studies are needed to explore this in different desk-based work populations and settings.
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Excessive sedentary time is detrimentally linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. Studies have been investigating the use of activity-permissive workstations to reduce sedentary time in office workers, a highly sedentary target group. This review systematically summarizes the evidence for activity-permissive workstations on sedentary time, health-risk biomarkers, work performance and feasibility indicators in office workplaces. In July 2013, a literature search identified 38 relevant peer-reviewed publications. Key findings were independently extracted by two researchers. The average intervention effect on sedentary time was calculated via meta-analysis. In total, 984 participants across 19 field-based trials and 19 laboratory investigations were included, with sample sizes ranging from n = 2 to 66 per study. Sedentary time, health-risk biomarkers and work performance indicators were reported in 13, 23 and 23 studies, respectively. The pooled effect size from the meta-analysis was −77 min of sedentary time/8-h workday (95% confidence interval = −120, −35 min). Non-significant changes were reported for most health- and work-related outcomes. Studies with acceptability measures reported predominantly positive feedback. Findings suggest that activity-permissive workstations can be effective to reduce occupational sedentary time, without compromising work performance. Larger and longer-term randomized-controlled trials are needed to understand the sustainability of the sedentary time reductions and their longer-term impacts on health- and work-related outcomes.
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Objective: This study was conducted to determine whether installation of sit-stand desks (SSDs) could lead to decreased sitting time during the workday among sedentary office workers. Methods: A randomized cross-over trial was conducted from January to April, 2012 at a business in Minneapolis. 28 (nine men, 26 full-time) sedentary office workers took part in a 4 week intervention period which included the use of SSDs to gradually replace 50% of sitting time with standing during the workday. Physical activity was the primary outcome. Mood, energy level, fatigue, appetite, dietary intake, and productivity were explored as secondary outcomes. Results: The intervention reduced sitting time at work by 21% (95% CI 18%-25%) and sedentary time by 4.8 min/work-hr (95% CI 4.1-5.4 min/work-hr). For a 40 h work-week, this translates into replacement of 8 h of sitting time with standing and sedentary time being reduced by 3.2 h. Activity level during non-work hours did not change. The intervention also increased overall sense of well-being, energy, decreased fatigue, had no impact on productivity, and reduced appetite and dietary intake. The workstations were popular with the participants. Conclusion: The SSD intervention was successful in increasing work-time activity level, without changing activity level during non-work hours.
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To quantify the association between daily total sitting and all-cause mortality risk and to examine dose-response relationships with and without adjustment for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Studies published from 1989 to January 2013 were identified via searches of multiple databases, reference lists of systematic reviews on sitting and health, and from authors' personal literature databases. We included prospective cohort studies that had total daily sitting time as a quantitative exposure variable, all-cause mortality as the outcome and reported estimates of relative risk, or odds ratios or hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. Two authors independently extracted the data and summary estimates of associations were computed using random effects models. Six studies were included, involving data from 595,086 adults and 29,162 deaths over 3,565,569 person-years of follow-up. Study participants were mainly female, middle-aged or older adults from high-income countries; mean study quality score was 12/15 points. Associations between daily total sitting time and all-cause mortality were not linear. With physical activity adjustment, the spline model of best fit had dose-response HRs of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.98-1.03), 1.02 (95% CI: 0.99-1.05) and 1.05 (95% CI: 1.02-1.08) for every 1-hour increase in sitting time in intervals between 0-3, >3-7 and >7 h/day total sitting, respectively. This model estimated a 34% higher mortality risk for adults sitting 10 h/day, after taking physical activity into account. The overall weighted population attributable fraction for all-cause mortality for total daily sitting time was 5.9%, after adjusting for physical activity. Higher amounts of daily total sitting time are associated with greater risk of all-cause mortality and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity appears to attenuate the hazardous association. These findings provide a starting point for identifying a threshold on which to base clinical and public health recommendations for overall sitting time, in addition to physical activity guidelines.
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A previous-day recall (PDR) may be a less error-prone alternative to traditional questionnaire-based estimates of physical activity and sedentary behavior (e.g., past year), but the validity of the method is not established. We evaluated the validity of an interviewer administered PDR in adolescents (12-17 yr) and adults (18-71 yr). In a 7-d study, participants completed three PDR, wore two activity monitors, and completed measures of social desirability and body mass index. PDR measures of active and sedentary time was contrasted against an accelerometer (ActiGraph) by comparing both to a valid reference measure (activPAL) using measurement error modeling and traditional validation approaches. Age- and sex-specific mixed models comparing PDR to activPAL indicated the following: 1) there was a strong linear relationship between measures for sedentary (regression slope, β1 = 0.80-1.13) and active time (β1 = 0.64-1.09), 2) person-specific bias was lower than random error, and 3) correlations were high (sedentary: r = 0.60-0.81; active: r = 0.52-0.80). Reporting errors were not associated with body mass index or social desirability. Models comparing ActiGraph to activPAL indicated the following: 1) there was a weaker linear relationship between measures for sedentary (β1 = 0.63-0.73) and active time (β1 = 0.61-0.72), (2) person-specific bias was slightly larger than random error, and (3) correlations were high (sedentary: r = 0.68-0.77; active: r = 0.57-0.79). Correlations between the PDR and the activPAL were high, systematic reporting errors were low, and the validity of the PDR was comparable with the ActiGraph. PDR may have value in studies of physical activity and health, particularly those interested in measuring the specific type, location, and purpose of activity-related behaviors.
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Many contemporary work tasks are characterised by little or no physical activity. This pertains to the whole body as well as specific areas such as neck and shoulders. Too little whole body physical activity is generally known to increase the risk of chronic diseases like vascular disorders and diabetes. Low-intensity tasks of static nature are regarded as one of the risk factors of work related musculoskeletal disorders of neck and shoulders. TNO Quality of Life has developed recommendations for a healthy amount of physical activity at work, both for the whole body and the neck-/shoulder area. These recommendations are presented here, including their scientific basis.
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Background Epidemiological research has established sitting as a new risk factor for the development of non-communicable chronic disease. Sit-stand desks have been proposed as one strategy to reduce occupational sedentary time. This formative research study evaluated the acceptability and usability of manually and electrically operated sit-stand desks in a medium-sized government organisation located in Sydney, Australia. Methods Sitting time pre- and three months post -installation of the sit-stand desks was measured using validated self-report measures. Additionally, three group interviews and one key-informant interview were conducted with staff regarding perceptions about ease of, and barriers to, use and satisfaction with the sit-stand desks. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed for themes regarding usability and acceptability. Results Of 31 staff, 18 completed baseline questionnaires, and 13 completed follow-up questionnaires. The median proportion of sitting time for work was 85% (range 50%-95%) at baseline and 60% (range 10%-95%) at follow-up. Formal statistical testing of paired data (n=11) showed that the change from baseline to follow-up in time spent sitting (mean change=1.7 hours, p=.014) was statistically significant. From the qualitative data, reasons given for initiating use of the desks in the standing position were the potential health benefits, or a willingness to experiment or through external prompting. Factors influencing continued use included: concern for, and experience of, short and long term health impacts; perceived productivity whilst sitting and standing; practical accommodation of transitions between sitting and standing; electric or manual operation height adjustment. Several trajectories in patterns of initiation and continued use were identified that centered on the source and timing of commitment to using the desk in the standing position. Conclusions Sit-stand desks had high usability and acceptability and reduced sitting time at work. Use could be promoted by emphasizing the health benefits, providing guidance on appropriate set-up and normalizing standing for work-related tasks.
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Moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity has an established preventive role in cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and some cancers. However, recent epidemiologic evidence suggests that sitting time has deleterious cardiovascular and metabolic effects that are independent of whether adults meet physical activity guidelines. Evidence from "inactivity physiology" laboratory studies has identified unique mechanisms that are distinct from the biologic bases of exercising. Opportunities for sedentary behaviors are ubiquitous and are likely to increase with further innovations in technologies. We present a compelling selection of emerging evidence on the deleterious effects of sedentary behavior, as it is underpinned by the unique physiology of inactivity. It is time to consider excessive sitting a serious health hazard, with the potential for ultimately giving consideration to the inclusion of too much sitting (or too few breaks from sitting) in physical activity and health guidelines.
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Sedentary (sitting) behaviours are ubiquitous in modern society. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the association of sedentary time with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for terms related to sedentary time and health outcomes. Cross-sectional and prospective studies were included. RR/HR and 95% CIs were extracted by two independent reviewers. Data were adjusted for baseline event rate and pooled using a random-effects model. Bayesian predictive effects and intervals were calculated to indicate the variance in outcomes that would be expected if new studies were conducted in the future. Eighteen studies (16 prospective, two cross-sectional) were included, with 794,577 participants. Fifteen of these studies were moderate to high quality. The greatest sedentary time compared with the lowest was associated with a 112% increase in the RR of diabetes (RR 2.12; 95% credible interval [CrI] 1.61, 2.78), a 147% increase in the RR of cardiovascular events (RR 2.47; 95% CI 1.44, 4.24), a 90% increase in the risk of cardiovascular mortality (HR 1.90; 95% CrI 1.36, 2.66) and a 49% increase in the risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.49; 95% CrI 1.14, 2.03). The predictive effects and intervals were only significant for diabetes. Sedentary time is associated with an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality; the strength of the association is most consistent for diabetes.
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Background Little is known about the role of low physical activity at work (sedentary work or low physical job demand) in the increasing prevalence of obesity of US workers.Methods This cross-sectional and secondary data analysis included 1,001 male and 1,018 female workers (age range: 32–69) from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) II study (2004–2006). Sedentary work and physical job demand were measured by questionnaire items. Total obesity (based on body mass index) and central obesity (based on waist circumference) were defined using WHO criteria.ResultsAfter controlling for covariates (socio-demographic, psychosocial working conditions, health status, and health behaviors), sedentary work, low physical job demand, or their combination increased the risk for total and central obesity in male workers, particularly when they worked longer than 40 hr per week. Sedentary work marginally increased the risk for total and central obesity in female workers.Conclusions Low physical activity at work is a significant risk factor for total and central obesity in middle-aged US male workers. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:1088–1101, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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Investigations using wearable monitors have begun to examine how sedentary time behaviors influence health. The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of a measure of sedentary behavior and to validate the activPAL (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland) and ActiGraph GT3X (Actigraph, Pensacola, FL) for estimating measures of sedentary behavior: absolute number of breaks and break rate. Thirteen participants completed two 10-h conditions. During the baseline condition, participants performed normal daily activity, and during the treatment condition, participants were asked to reduce and break up their sedentary time. In each condition, participants wore two ActiGraph GT3X monitors and one activPAL. The ActiGraph was tested using the low-frequency extension filter (AG-LFE) and the normal filter (AG-Norm). For both ActiGraph monitors, two count cut points to estimate sedentary time were examined: 100 and 150 counts per minute. Direct observation served as the criterion measure of total sedentary time, absolute number of breaks from sedentary time, and break rate (number of breaks per sedentary hour (brk·sed-h)). Break rate was the only metric sensitive to changes in behavior between baseline (5.1 [3.3-6.8] brk·sed-h) and treatment conditions (7.3 [4.7-9.8] brk·sed-h) (mean (95% confidence interval)). The activPAL produced valid estimates of all sedentary behavior measures and was sensitive to changes in break rate between conditions (baseline, 5.1 [2.8-7.1] brk·sed-h; treatment, 8.0 [5.8-10.2] brk·sed-h). In general, the AG-LFE and AG-Norm were not accurate in estimating break rate or the absolute number of breaks and were not sensitive to changes between conditions. This study demonstrates the use of expressing breaks from sedentary time as a rate per sedentary hour, a metric specifically relevant to free-living behavior, and provides further evidence that the activPAL is a valid tool to measure components of sedentary behavior in free-living environments.
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Background: The true causes of the obesity epidemic are not well understood and there are few longitudinal population-based data published examining this issue. The objective of this analysis was to examine trends in occupational physical activity during the past 5 decades and explore how these trends relate to concurrent changes in body weight in the U.S.
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Sedentary behaviors predominate modern life, yet we do not fully understand the adverse effects of these behaviors on mortality after considering the benefits of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We tested the hypotheses that higher amounts of overall sitting time and television viewing are positively associated with mortality and described the independent and combined effects of these sedentary behaviors and MVPA on mortality. In the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study, we examined 240,819 adults (aged 50-71 y) who did not report any cancer, cardiovascular disease, or respiratory disease at baseline. Mortality was ascertained over 8.5 y. Sedentary behaviors were positively associated with mortality after adjustment for age, sex, education, smoking, diet, race, and MVPA. Participants who reported the most television viewing (≥7 h compared with <1 h/d) were at greater risk of all-cause (HR: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.47, 1.76), cardiovascular (HR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.56, 2.20), and cancer (HR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.40) mortality after adjustment for MVPA. Overall sitting was associated with all-cause mortality. Even among adults reporting high levels of MVPA (>7 h/wk), high amounts of television viewing (≥7 h/d) remained associated with increased risk of all-cause (HR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.79) and cardiovascular (HR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.33, 3.00) mortality compared with those reporting the least television viewing (<1 h/d). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was positively associated with mortality, and participation in high levels of MVPA did not fully mitigate health risks associated with prolonged time watching television. Adults should be encouraged to reduce time spent in sedentary behaviors, when possible, and to participate in MVPA at recommended levels. The NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00340015.
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This study examined the feasibility of reducing free-living sedentary time (ST) and the convergent validity of various tools to measure ST. Twenty overweight/obese participants wore the activPAL (AP) (criterion measure) and ActiGraph (AG; 100 and 150 count/minute cut-points) for a 7-day baseline period. Next, they received a simple intervention targeting free-living ST reductions (7-day intervention period). ST was measured using two questionnaires following each period. ST significantly decreased from 67% of wear time (baseline period) to 62.7% of wear time (intervention period) according to AP ( n = 14, P < 0.01 ). No other measurement tool detected a reduction in ST. The AG measures were more accurate (lower bias) and more precise (smaller confidence intervals) than the questionnaires. Participants reduced ST by ~5%, which is equivalent to a 48_min reduction over a 16-hour waking day. These data describe ST measurement properties from wearable monitors and self-report tools to inform sample-size estimates for future ST interventions.