Synthesis of enantiomerically pure D- and L-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexenyl carbanucleosides and their antiviral evaluation
Based upon the fact that L-nucleosides have been generally known to be less cytotoxic than D-counterparts, L-bicyclo[3.1.0]hexenyl carbanucleoside derivatives with a fixed north conformation were designed and synthesized by employing a novel synthetic strategy starting from (R)-epichlorohydrin in order to search for new anti-HIV agents with high potency and less cytotoxicity. A tandem alkylation, γ-lactonization, a chemoselective reduction of ester in the presence of γ-lactone functional group, a RCM reaction, and a Mitsunobu coupling reaction were used as key reactions. D-Counterpart nucleosides were also prepared according to the same synthetic method. Among the synthesized carbanucleosides, D-thymine nucleoside, D-2 and L-thymine nucleoside, L-2 exhibited excellent anti-HIV-1 and -2 activities, in MT-4 cells, which were higher than those of ddI, an anti-AIDS drug. Whereas D-2 exhibited high cytotoxicity in MT-4 cell lines, L-2 did not show any discernible cytotoxicity in all cell lines tested, reflecting that L-2 may be a good candidate for an anti-AIDS drug. L-2 also showed weak anti-HSV-2 activity without cytotoxicity. However, none of the synthesized nucleosides exhibited antiviral activities against RNA viruses including coxsakie, influenza, corona and polio viruses, maybe due to their 2',3'-dideoxy structure. Potent antiviral effects of D-2 and L-2 indicate that nucleosides belonging to a class of D4Ns can be an excellent candidate for anti-DNA virus agents. This research strongly supports L-nucleosides of a class of D4Ns to be a very promising candidate for antiviral agents due to its low cytotoxicity and a good antiviral activity.
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