The National HIV/AIDS Strategy proposes to scale-up post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). Intensive risk reduction and adherence counseling appear to be effective but are resource intensive. Identifying simpler interventions that maximize the HIV prevention potential of PEP is critical.
A randomized noninferiority study comparing 2 (standard) or 5 (enhanced) risk reduction counseling sessions was performed. Adherence counseling was provided in the enhanced arm. We measured changes in unprotected sexual intercourse acts at 12 months, compared with baseline; HIV acquisition; and PEP adherence. Outcomes were stratified by degree of baseline risk.
We enrolled 457 individuals reporting unprotected intercourse within 72 h with an HIV-infected or at-risk partner. Participants were 96% male and 71% white. There were 1.8 and 2.3 fewer unprotected sex acts in the standard and enhanced groups. The maximum potential risk difference, reflected by the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval, was 3.9 acts. The difference in the riskier subset may have been as many as 19.6 acts. The incidence of HIV seroconversion was 2.9% and 2.6% among persons randomized to standard and enhanced counseling, respectively, with a maximum potential difference of 3.4%. The absolute and maximal HIV seroconversion incidence was 9.9% and 20.4% greater in the riskier group randomized to standard, compared with enhanced, counseling. Adherence outcomes were similar, with noninferiority in the lower risk group and concerning differences among the higher-risk group.
Risk assessment is critical at PEP initiation. Standard counseling is only noninferior for individuals with lower baseline risk; thus, enhanced counseling should be targeted to individuals at higher risk.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.
"We suggest that providers may require additional training in counseling, and how to tailor services to patients' needs. Targeted individuals with high risk behaviors with enhanced counseling may be interesting . Mobile phone or internet-based strategies might also enhance follow-up rates . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Objectives The care of exposed individuals to HIV remains a challenge regarding follow-up completion and HIV-testing of the partner. Identifying patients with risk of not fulfilling HIV-testing follow-up completion (FC), among patients demanding non-occupational post-exposure prophylaxis (nPEP), may improve clinical practice. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted in a single French HIV-infection care center. FC predictors were assessed in a multivariate logistic regression model (Likelihood ratios test). Results Between 2009 and 2013, 646 sexual exposures to HIV were evaluated for nPEP, of which 507 effectively received nPEP (78%). FC rate was 30% (194/646). In the multivariate analysis, FC rates rose with age of exposed individuals (OR, 1.04 [0.25-4.28]; p<0.001) and decreased with the year of sexual exposure (OR, 0.74 [0.65-0.85]; p<0.001). FC was associated with sexual encounter with a sex worker (OR, 4.07 [0.98-16.82]; p<0.001) and nPEP use (OR, 2.69 [2.37-3.06]; p<0.001). nPEP early discontinuation was associated with decreased FC rates (OR, 0.18 [0.08-0.39]; p<0.001). No documented nPEP failure was identified. However, five Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) nPEP recipients for unprotected anal receptive intercourse subsequently seroconverted to HIV more than 6 months after nPEP. Seroconversion to HIV was associated with the lack of FC (p = 0.04) and multiple presentations for nPEP over the study period (p = 0.002). Conclusions We identified significant predictors of not fulfilling sequential HIV-testing. They appear to be linked with a self-perceived HIV risk, especially in young adults recently exposed. Enhanced counseling in targeted individuals with high risk behaviors and using smartphone and internet-based strategies may be interesting retention in care options.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract]ABSTRACT: Postexposure prophylaxis after sexual exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is recommended by state and national
agencies. A cross-sectional survey of 117 Los Angeles County sites found that 17 sites (14.5%) offer postexposure prophylaxis.
Ten sites (8.5%) offer postexposure prophylaxis to patients who are uninsured. General availability of postexposure prophylaxis
should be a public health priority.
Preview · Article · May 2009 · Clinical Infectious Diseases