A-Z of nutritional supplements: Dietary supplements, sports nutrition foods and ergogenic aids for health and performance-Part 22

ArticleinBritish Journal of Sports Medicine 45(9):752-4 · July 2011with10 Reads
DOI: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090180 · Source: PubMed
    • "So, athletes who are using or want to use NS, seem be the ones who are already more concerned about their nutrition and are, therefore, the ones with the lowest need to take supplements. Professionals working with athletes and athletes themselves should review and question NS use, in order to prevent pointless supplementation and avoid unnecessary risks – one should bear in mind that supplements may result in inadvertent doping (Geyer et al., 2011). Individual characteristics such as sex, age, BMI, parental education, type of sport, training load, and food intake should be taken into account when deciding upon the need for supplementation as they provide an important insight on the athlete's dietary supplementation profile. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to analyse differences in sociodemographic and sporting characteristics, health-behaviours, and food intake of athletes using and not using nutritional supplements (NS). Design/methodology/approach – High-performance Portuguese athletes from 13 sports completed a NS usage questionnaire, assessing information on sociodemographic (sex, age, height, weight, athlete’s, and parental education level), health-related (smoking, daily time of sleeping, walking, and sitting), and sporting (type, number of international performances, weekly hours of training and weekly hours of gym) characteristics; and a semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire (86 items), regarding the previous 12 months. Findings – From the 241 athletes (66 per cent males, 13-37 years), 64 per cent reported NS use. Supplement usage was associated with age 18 years (odds ratio (OR) 2.57, 95 per cent; confidence interval (CI) 1.17-5.65), performing individual sports (OR 5.45, 95 per cent; CI 2.49-11.93) and > 2 h gym/week (OR 2.42, 95 per cent; CI 1.15-5.11), a higher consumption of meat (OR 2.83, 95 per cent; CI 1.36-5.90), eggs (OR 2.53, 95 per cent; CI 1.07-5.96), and yogurt (OR 2.24, 95 per cent; CI 1.08-4.62), and a lower intake of processed meat (OR 0.32, 95 per cent; CI 0.15-0.72), vegetable oils (OR 0.35, 95 per cent; CI 0.17-0.74), margarine (OR 0.37, 95 per cent; CI 0.18-0.76), chips (OR 0.22, 95 per cent; CI 0.10-0.48), and fast food (OR 0.42, 95 per cent; CI 0.19-0.91). Originality/value – Athletes using NS had different characteristics from non-users, and seemed to have healthier and more sports-oriented food choices. Our findings may help sport and health professionals to identify an alleged or future NS user, enabling the development of a timely and self-directed supplement scheme.
    Article · Jan 2016
    • "Banned or controlled anorectics such as sibutramine, fenfluramine and diethylpropione can be found in slimming products (Geyer et al., 2011; Tang et al., 2011 ), and phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors have been detected in supplements that claim to enhance sexual performance (Gratz et al., 2004). Designer steroids, which are not listed as ingredients in any currently available medication, are now produced exclusively for the nutritional supplement market, even though there is limited or no data regarding their effects and adverse reactions in humans (Geyer et al., 2011). On its website, the FDA summarizes data on undeclared drug detection in dietary supplements in the US (USFDA, 2014b). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objectives of this work were to evaluate current legislation on dietary supplements in the United States, the European Union and Brazil, and the profile of adulterated and/or irregular products on these markets. Due to a less restrictive legal framework, a supplement product that is freely available in the US may be considered a drug or even be proscribed in the EU and Brazil, thus giving rise to a clandestine market based on smuggling. From 2007 to 2014, the United States Food and Drug Administration reported 572 cases of supplement adulterations in the country, mainly products for sexual enhancement (41.6%). Data from the European Union Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed showed 929 adulterations during the same period, over 40% due to unauthorized ingredients or undeclared medicines. From 2007 to 2013, the Brazilian Federal Police Department seized 5,470 supplement products, 92.2 % with an American-declared origin. Qualitative chemical analyses performed on 2,898 products found 180 adulterations, 41.1% due to undeclared drugs, mainly anabolic steroids, anorectics and products for erectile dysfunction, all considered medicines in Brazil. Educating the public regarding the potential risks they are taking when consuming adulterated or irregular products is necessary to protect the health of consumers. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2015
    • "e WADA for use by athletes, it is a releasing factor that belongs to a prohibited substance group on their list. [7] Other newer molecules A selective androgen receptor modulator and agonists of the peroxi some proliferator-activated receptor δ, which produce anabolic effects and enhance endurance, respectively, have been found on the black market. [7] It has also come to the attention of the WADA that another substance for increasing endurance, GW501516, has been available for some time on the black market, through the internet and elsewhere. Anti-doping authorities have already seen its use by athletes, as there have been a number of positive cases. This developmental drug has not b"
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The role of prohormones, ‘classic’ and ‘designer’ steroids, clenbuterol, peptide hormones and newer molecules causing concern in dietary supplements is discussed. Apart from their potential adverse effects on athletes’ health, their non-achievement of increased strength and muscle size, trace quantities present in contaminated dietary supplements can lead to failed doping tests. The methodologies used for the identification and determination of prohibited substances in very low concentrations, mainly liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry, are also addressed. Of concern is the anticipation that the number of dietary supplements containing (not yet) prohibited designer steroids and other performance-enhancing newer chemical entities will increase. Athletes, coaches and sports doctors should therefore be provided with information regarding dietary supplements and be advised to minimise risks for non-intentional ingestion of forbidden substances by using safe products listed on databases, such as those obtainable in The Netherlands and Germany.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2014
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