The impact of atypical antipsychotic use on obstructive sleep apnea: A pilot study and literature review

Department of Psychiatry, Dartmouth Medical School, Hanover, NH, USA.
Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.15). 06/2011; 12(6):591-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.sleep.2010.12.013
Source: PubMed


Limited evidence links atypical antipsychotics (AAs) use to sleep related respiratory dysfunction and greater severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). The present paper reviews the published evidence and examines the impact of AA use on the presence and severity of OSA among subjects with clinically suspected OSA after adjusting for several confounds.
Archives of the University of Iowa Sleep Laboratory from 2005 to 2009 were searched for patients using AAs at the time of diagnostic polysomnogram (PSG). PSG data of the 84 AA users with heterogeneous psychiatric disorders (of these 20 diagnosed only with depression) were subsequently compared to PSG data of two randomly selected, non-AA user groups from the same patient pool: (i) 200 subjects with a depressive disorder as the only psychiatric diagnosis, and (ii) 331 mentally healthy controls. PSG data were analyzed adjusting for known demographic, medical, and psychiatric risk factors for OSA.
Prevalence and severity of OSA did not differ significantly across three groups. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and neck circumference (NC) independently predicted OSA. Odds ratio for OSA in the subset of AA users carrying the diagnosis of depression (n=20) compared with subjects without mental illness was 4.53 (p<.05). By contrast, AA users without depression or those with multiple psychiatric diagnoses including depression did not show a statistically significantly elevated OSA risk.
AA use in subjects with depression appears to increase the risk of OSA after controlling for known predisposing factors.

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    • "Inconsistent associations between OSA and antipsychotic and hypnotic medications were reported in available studies and potentially arise from variation in medication use measures. Other literature reports higher prevalence (Shirani et al., 2011) and severity of OSA (Rishi et al., 2010) in people taking antipsychotic medications. Similarly there is a recognized association between benzodiazepine use and OSA in the general population (Dolly and Block, 1982; Hanly and Powels, 1993). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are common in people with schizophrenia. Identification and treatment of OSA may improve physical health in this population; however there are no guidelines to inform screening and management. Objectives: Systematic review to determine, in people with schizophrenia and related disorders: the prevalence of OSA; the prevalence of OSA compared to general population controls; the physical and psychiatric correlates of OSA, associations between antipsychotic medications and OSA; the impact of treatment of OSA on psychiatric and physical health; and the diagnostic validity of OSA screening tools. Data sources: Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and PsycINFO electronic databases. Cohort, case-control and cross-sectional studies and RCTs reporting on prevalence of OSA in subjects with schizophrenia and related disorders were reviewed. Results: The prevalence of OSA varied between 1.6% and 52%. The prevalence of OSA was similar between people with schizophrenia and population controls in two studies. Diagnosis of OSA was associated with larger neck circumference, BMI>25, male sex and age>50years. There were no data on physical or psychiatric outcomes following treatment of OSA. The diagnostic utility of OSA screening tools had not been investigated. Conclusion: OSA may be prevalent and potentially under-recognized in people with schizophrenia. Further research is required to determine utility of OSA screening tools, the relationships between antipsychotic medications and OSA and any benefits of treating OSA. We propose a strategy for the identification of OSA in people with schizophrenia and related disorders.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Schizophrenia Research
    • "Inclusion of this information would have given a better picture of OSA in psychiatric patients. However, in previous studies in psychiatric patients, neck circumference either was not associated with OSA (Kelly et al., 2013), or was not an important predictor in models that included BMI (Shirani et al., 2011; Anderson et al., 2012). We are not aware of any study in psychiatric patients that has included data on upper airway structure or visceral obesity, and nocturia has been assessed only in trauma patients (Krakow et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Psychiatric diseases and symptoms are common among patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, only a few studies have examined OSA in psychiatric patients. At the outpatient clinic of the Uusikaupunki Psychiatric Hospital, Finland, we used a low referral threshold to a diagnostic sleep study. An ambulatory cardiorespiratory polygraphy was performed in 114 of 221 patients. 95 patients were referred by the psychiatric clinic and 19 were examined in other clinical settings. We reviewed the medical files and retrospectively assessed the prevalence of OSA and the effect of gender, age, obesity, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, alcohol abuse, and symptoms suggesting OSA. 58 of the 221 patients (26.2%), 30 of 85 men (35.3%) and 28 of 136 women (20.6%), had OSA as determined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) of 5/h or more. 20 patients (12 men and 8 women) had moderate or severe OSA (AHI ≥ 15/h). 46 patients (including 11 patients with moderate or severe OSA) were identified in the psychiatric clinic. In univariate analysis, a high body mass index, male gender, hypertension, snoring, and a history of witnessed apneas during sleep were associated with the presence of OSA. In multivariate analysis, a history of witnessed apneas did not remain significant. Age, type 2 diabetes, alcohol abuse, excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), and fatigue did not associate with the presence of OSA. Our findings suggest that in psychiatric outpatients OSA is common but underdiagnosed. Presentation is often atypical, since many patients with OSA do not report witnessed apneas or EDS.
    No preview · Article · Sep 2015 · Journal of Psychiatric Research
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