Image-guided genomic analysis of tissue response to laser-induced thermal stress

Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Clark Center E-150, 318 Campus Drive, Stanford, California 94305-5427, USA.
Journal of Biomedical Optics (Impact Factor: 2.86). 05/2011; 16(5):058001. DOI: 10.1117/1.3573387
Source: PubMed


The cytoprotective response to thermal injury is characterized by transcriptional activation of "heat shock proteins" (hsp) and proinflammatory proteins. Expression of these proteins may predict cellular survival. Microarray analyses were performed to identify spatially distinct gene expression patterns responding to thermal injury. Laser injury zones were identified by expression of a transgene reporter comprised of the 70 kD hsp gene and the firefly luciferase coding sequence. Zones included the laser spot, the surrounding region where hsp70-luc expression was increased, and a region adjacent to the surrounding region. A total of 145 genes were up-regulated in the laser irradiated region, while 69 were up-regulated in the adjacent region. At 7 hours the chemokine Cxcl3 was the highest expressed gene in the laser spot (24 fold) and adjacent region (32 fold). Chemokines were the most common up-regulated genes identified. Microarray gene expression was successfully validated using qRT- polymerase chain reaction for selected genes of interest. The early response genes are likely involved in cytoprotection and initiation of the healing response. Their regulatory elements will benefit creating the next generation reporter mice and controlling expression of therapeutic proteins. The identified genes serve as drug development targets that may prevent acute tissue damage and accelerate healing.

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    ABSTRACT: Induction of heat shock protein (Hsp) expression correlates with cytoprotection, reduced tissue damage, and accelerated healing in animal models. Since Hsps are transcriptionally activated in response to stress, they can act as stress indicators in burn injury or surgical procedures that produce heat and thermal change. A fast in vivo readout for induction of Hsp transcription in tissues would allow for the study of these proteins as therapeutic effect mediators and reporters of thermal stress∕damage. We used a transgenic reporter mouse in which a luciferase expression is controlled by the regulatory region of the inducible 70 kilodalton (kDa) Hsp as a rapid readout of cellular responses to laser-mediated thermal stress∕injury in mouse skin. We assessed the pulse duration dependence of the Hsp70 expression after irradiation with a CO(2) laser at 10.6 μm in wavelength over a range of 1000 to 1 ms. Hsp70 induction varied with changes in laser pulse durations and radiant exposures, which defined the ranges at which thermal activation of Hsp70 can be used to protect cells from subsequent stress, and reveals the window of thermal stress that tissues can endure.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2011 · Journal of Biomedical Optics
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    ABSTRACT: To examine the effect of laser thermal injury on Langerhans cells (LC) within the epidermis, the dorsal skin of mice and hairless guinea pigs was exposed to varying levels of laser irradiation using a thulium laser at a wavelength of 2.0 μm. At 6, 24, and 48 hours post irradiation, animals were euthanized, skin samples prepared for histology, and the epidermis obtained and stained by MHC II staining (mice) or ATPase assay (hairless guinea pigs) for the enumeration of LC. Mouse skin exhibited histological evidence of thermal damage at 24 hours post irradiation at even the lowest dose (0.14W) and decreases in the numbers of epidermal LC were observed at all doses and decreases were proportional to dose. In contrast, hairless guinea pig skin only showed consistent histological evidence of thermal damage at the highest dose of irradiation (0.70W) at 24 and 48 hours post irradiation and exhibited a statistically significant decrease in numbers of epidermal LC only at this dose. Thus, epidermal LC depletion occurred in the skin of both mice and hairless guinea pigs in response to laser treatment and the magnitude of depletion directly correlated with the extent of thermal damage both within and between species. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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