Probiotic (symbiotic) bacterial languages

Research Group Probiotic & Functional Foods, Moscow Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology after G.N. Gabrichevsky, Admiral Makarov Street 10, 125212 Moscow, Russia.
Anaerobe (Impact Factor: 2.48). 05/2011; 17(6):490-5. DOI: 10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.05.009
Source: PubMed


Symbiotic gut microorganisms release of various soluble low molecular weight (LMW)molecules of different chemical nature (surface and exogenous proteins, nucleases, serpins, sirtuines, other enzymes, lectins, peptides, amines, bacteriocines, fatty and amino acids, lactones, furanons, miRNA, NO, etc). These LMW molecules are able to sense environment, interact with corresponding cell surface, membrane, cytoplasm and nucleic acid receptors, to reply quickly and coordinately by induction of special sets of genes, to support stability of host genome and microbiome, to modulate epigenomic regulation of gene phenotypic expression, to ensure the information exchange in numerous bacterial and bacteria-host systems playing an important role in the control for many genetic and physiological functions, biochemical and behaviour reactions, in supporting host health in general. Various symbiotic (probiotic) strains produce different spectrum of such LMW molecules. There is chemical and functional similarity between LMW molecules synthesized by host eukaryotic cells, indigenous and probiotic microorganisms and some micronutrients. It means many LMW compounds of different origin may be the universal regulators contributing to the transmission of information, quorum sensing effects, metagenome stability and epigenomic control for cell growth and development as well as phenotypic expression of different genes. Knowledge accumulated concerning molecular languages of symbiotic microorganisms allows us to better understand the mode of action of known probiotics and to design in principle novel probiotics (metabiotics) with increased health effectiveness. Now we are only at the beginning of a new era of molecular personal biotherapy and nutrition. Soon we can successfully manipulate both the host and its microbiota through interfering in their cross talk, stability and epigenomic regulation of expression of genes using various types of eukaryotic, prokaryotic and nutrition origin LMW molecules are capable to modulate genetic, metabolic and physiological activities.

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Available from: Boris Shenderov, Apr 06, 2015
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    • "Therefore, the LuxS/AI-2 signalling system plays an important role in EHEC infections of the human intestine, and constitutes an interesting challenge for treatment or prevention of infections caused by EHEC (Kim, Oh, Park, Seo, & Kim, 2008). Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are primary candidates for this approach because of their general acceptability and safety (Medellin-Peña & Griffiths, 2009; Shenderov, 2011), while, commonly, LAB play an important role in the safety and stability of numerous fermented foods. The objective of this study was the development of a new quorum quenching Lactobacillus strain. "
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    ABSTRACT: Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the expression of certain target genes for social behaviour. A LuxS/AI-2 signalling system serves to control the virulence of some pathogenic bacteria by mechanisms such as motility, biofilm formation and attachment, and is typical of the enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EHEC) associated with infections of the human intestine. The LuxS/AI-2 signalling system presents an interesting potential as antimicrobial target for appropriate AI-2 inhibitors, and thus widens the scope for treatment or prevention of infections by pathogens such as EHEC. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are primary candidates for this approach because of their general acceptability, safety and adaptation to the intestinal and/or food ecosystem. In this paper, we report on Lactobacillus sakei NR28 as a new candidate strain for AI-2 related quorum quenching. It is considered to be a putative probiotic strain and was originally isolated from kimchi, a traditional Korean fermented food known for its special health features. This study has shown that AI-2 activity and the associated virulence factors of the EHEC ‘wild-type’ strain E. coli ATCC 43894, were significantly reduced by L. sakei NR28, while, at the same time, the cell viability of the EHEC strain was not affected. In addition, the purified AI-2 molecule, a luxS-deficient mutant of EHEC strain ATCC 43894, and an AI-2 independent EHEC mimicking strain of Citrobacter rodentium were used to determine the relationship between the virulence reducing effect of L. sakei NR28 and its AI-2 inhibiting ability. Our results showed that L. sakei NR28 has a reducing effect on the pathogenicity of the ‘wild-type’ EHEC strain ATCC 43894 by AI-2 signalling inhibition.
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    • "Surely, ‘no food fits all’. Therefore, specialized nutria-epigenetic and microbiota-epigenetic-based functional foods have to be developed (18, 63, 78, 79, 91). The intention is to have age- and cohort-related specialized functional foods that positively affect specific groups of hosts resulting in a decrease or elimination of negative consequences caused by the factors described above. "
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    • "Interacting with corresponding prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell targets, these biological and pharmacological active compounds may control many genetic, epigenetic, and physiological functions; biochemical and behavior reactions; and intra- and intercell exchange of information. Some commensal microbes including probiotics can secrete a variety of signaling molecules that can modify the inter-bacterial signaling (quorum quenching) and suppress the expression of virulence genes in pathogens or stimulate the growth of beneficial indigenous gut microorganisms (15, 18, 20, 48, 55–62). In our opinion, the probiotics commercially available now should be considered as a first generation of means directed for correction of microecological disorders. "
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    ABSTRACT: Traditionally, probiotics on the base of live microorganisms are considered to be both beneficial and safe. Unfortunately, their effects may have short-term success or are absent or uncertain. Some symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms with known beneficial health affects may cause opportunistic infections, increase incidence of allergic sensitization and autoimmune disorders, produce microecological imbalance, modify gene expression, transfer antibiotic resistant and virulence genes, cause disorders in epigenome and genome integrity, induce chromosomal DNA damage, and activate signaling pathways associated with cancer and other chronic diseases. The commercially available probiotics should be considered as a first generation means of correcting microecological disorders. Further, their development will include the selection of natural metabiotics and/or working out the synthetic (or semi-synthetic) metabiotics that will be analogies or improved copies of natural bioactives, produced by symbiotic (probiotic) microorganisms. Metabiotics are the structural components of probiotic microorganisms and/or their metabolites and/or signaling molecules with a determined (known) chemical structure that can optimize host-specific physiological functions, regulator, metabolic and/or behavior reactions connected with the activity of host indigenous microbiota. Metabiotics have some advantages because of their exact chemical structure, well dosed, very safe and long shelf-life. Thus, now metabiotics should not consider myth; they are the result of the natural evolution of probiotic conception.
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