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Phosphorylation of basic amino acid residues in proteins: Important but easily missed
Abstract and Figures
Reversible phosphorylation is the most widespread posttranslational protein modification, playing regulatory role in almost every aspect of cell life. The majority of protein phosphorylation research has been focused on serine, threonine and tyrosine that form acid-stable phosphomonoesters. However, protein histidine, arginine and lysine residues also may undergo phosphorylation to yield acid-labile phosphoramidates, most often remaining undetected in conventional studies of protein phosphorylation. It has become increasingly evident that acid-labile protein phosphorylations play important roles in signal transduction and other regulatory processes. Beside acting as high-energy intermediates in the transfer of the phosphoryl group from donor to acceptor molecules, phosphohistidines have been found so far in histone H4, heterotrimeric G proteins, ion channel KCa3.1, annexin 1, P-selectin and myelin basic protein, as well as in recombinant thymidylate synthase expressed in bacterial cells. Phosphoarginines occur in histone H3, myelin basic protein and capsidic protein VP12 of granulosis virus, whereas phospholysine in histone H1. This overview of the current knowledge on phosphorylation of protein basic amino-acid residues takes into consideration its proved or possible roles in cell functioning. Specific requirements of studies on acid-labile protein phosphorylation are also indicated.
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