Article

Complicated grief among individuals with major depression: Prevalence, comorbidity, and associated features

Center for Anxiety and Traumatic Stress Disorders, Department of Psychiatry, Massachusetts General Hospital/Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States.
Journal of Affective Disorders (Impact Factor: 3.38). 05/2011; 134(1-3):453-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.jad.2011.05.017
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Growing data suggest that complicated grief (CG) may be common in clinical care settings, but there are few prior reports about CG in outpatients presenting with primary mood disorders.
The present study examined rates of bereavement and threshold CG symptoms (defined as a score ≥ 25 on the Inventory of Complicated Grief scale) in 111 outpatients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 142 healthy controls participating in a study of stress and depression. Clinical and demographic characteristics were also compared for bereaved individuals with CG (MDD+CG) to those without (MDD-CG). Participants completed structured diagnostic interviews as well as measures of CG, depression, anxiety, exposure to traumatic events, and perceived social support.
Lifetime history of a significant loss did not differ for the MDD and control groups (79.3% vs. 76.1%), but bereaved participants with MDD had higher rates of threshold CG (25.0% vs. 2.8%). Among those with MDD, CG was associated with a higher prevalence of lifetime alcohol dependence, greater exposure to traumatic events, and lower perceived social support. Depressed women, but not men, with CG also had higher rates of panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder.
Our findings are limited by the lack of a clinician confirmatory assessment of CG diagnosis, absence of complete information about the nature and timing of the loss, and relatively narrow generalizability.
We found high rates of CG in a group of psychiatric outpatients with chronic MDD, suggesting that patients with depression should be routinely screened for CG.

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    • "This decreased performance could not be explained by greater symptoms of depression. executive functioning, and specifically response interference , can be measured through neuropsychological tests such as the Stroop task (Stroop, 1935). In its original form, the Stroop task was composed of a series of color names printed in various colors. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives: Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. Methods: We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results: Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Discussion: Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief.
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    • "In the general population, there is evidence that grief predicts negative health outcomes independently from PTSD and depression (Bonanno et al., 2007), and that direct exposure to trauma worsens grief (Neria et al., 2007; Sung et al., 2011). Grief has also been linked to poor physical health (Mancini and Bonanno, 2011; Stroebe et al., 2007) and functional impairment (Mancini and Bonanno, 2011; Neria et al., 2007; Stroebe et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies have measured the burden of physical health problems after Iraq/Afghanistan deployment, except in association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Grief, a correlate of health problems in the general population, has not been systematically examined. We aimed to identify the prevalence of post-deployment physical health problems and their association with difficulty coping with grief. Infantry soldiers (n=1522) completed anonymous surveys using validated instruments six months following deployment in November-December 2008. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the association of difficulty coping with grief and physical health. The most frequent physical health symptoms reported were: sleep problems (32.8%), musculoskeletal pain (32.7%), fatigue (32.3%), and back pain (28.1%). Difficulty coping with grief over the death of someone close affected 21.3%. There was a dose-response relationship between level of difficulty coping with grief and principal physical health outcomes (ps<.002). Controlling for demographics, combat experiences, injuries, PTSD, depression, and other factors, grief significantly and uniquely contributed to a high somatic symptom score (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.6), poor general health (AOR=2.0), missed work (AOR=1.7), medical utilization (AOR=1.5), difficulty carrying a heavy load (AOR=1.7), and difficulty performing physical training (AOR=1.6; all 95% confidence intervals>1). Data are cross-sectional and grief was measured with one item. Over 20% of soldiers reported difficulty coping with grief. This difficulty was significantly associated with physical health outcomes and occupational impairment. Clinicians should be aware of the unique role grief plays in post-deployment physical health when treating patients.
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