Pulmonary maturational arrest and death in a patient with pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis
The Perinatal Institute, Section of Neonatology, Perinatal and Pulmonary Biology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH45229-3039, USA. Pediatric Pulmonology
(Impact Factor: 2.7).
11/2011; 46(11):1142-5. DOI: 10.1002/ppul.21486
We present the clinical presentation and pathological findings from a term infant with atypical neonatal lung disease. A full term Caucasian male presented at birth with signs of respiratory distress. The respiratory condition continued to deteriorate despite maximum intervention and the patient was placed on ECMO for further cardiorespiratory assistance. An open lung biopsy demonstrated findings consistent with severe lung growth abnormality with non-uniform pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The patient consequently developed a pulmonary hemorrhage that required discontinuation of ECMO. The patient died shortly after decannulation. Most literature suggests that PIG is one of the few pediatric interstitial lung diseases that has a favorable prognosis with rare mortality in the absence of co-morbidities. However, the current case suggests prognosis may depend more on the underlying diagnosis than on the histological finding of PIG. In addition, this case may provide insight into the pathogenesis and potential modifiers of this idiopathic disorder.
Available from: Ian Adatia
- "As with all interstitial lung diseases, the definitive diagnosis is made by histologic examination. For PIG, the hallmark histologic finding is diffuse, uniform interstitial thickening due to the presence of immature interstitial cells containing abundant cytoplasmic glycogen . Treatment is supportive. "
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Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) arises from a developmental disorder of the pulmonary mesenchyme and presents clinically with reversible neonatal respiratory distress and/or persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN).
We report two cases of PIG in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) and evidence of PPHN.
Both cases demonstrated the hallmark PIG histologic finding of diffuse, uniform interstitial thickening due to the presence of immature interstitial cells containing abundant cytoplasmic glycogen.
We report the second and third patients with PIG associated with CHD. Because histologic examination is required to establish the diagnosis, we speculate that PIG, although rare, may be underrecognized in neonates presenting with PPHN in the setting of CHD.
Available from: Mateja Cernelc-kohan
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ABSTRACT: Advances in genetics and clinical diagnostics, along with recently described clinical entities and refined classification schemes, have improved our understanding of diffuse and interstitial lung diseases in children. This review presents recent updates in these disorders in the context of systemic inflammatory conditions.
Classification of childhood diffuse lung disease (DLD) using adult paradigms is not useful. Distinct clinical-pathologic entities exist in children. Infants are more likely to present with genetic and developmental disorders, and older children with inflammatory and immune-mediated conditions. A combination of clinical evaluation, high-resolution computed tomography scanning, pulmonary function testing and serology, with bronchoscopy and surgical lung biopsy in selected cases, is most useful in the evaluation of DLD in the context of rheumatologic conditions. Common causes of DLD, such as infection, especially in the setting of immunodeficiency, must be ruled out. Optimal therapy for specific disorders will require careful analysis of data from national registries. Emerging use of biomarkers and high-throughput molecular analysis will yield novel insight into these disorders.
In the setting of known or suspected rheumatologic disorders, diagnosis and management of DLD are challenging, and require close collaboration among rheumatologists, pulmonologists, and other specialists.
Available from: Olivier Danhaive
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Pediatric diffuse lung diseases are rare disorders with an onset in the neonatal period or in infancy, characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and diffuse interstitial changes on imaging studies. Genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis represent the main etiology. Surfactant protein B and ABCA3 deficiencies typically cause neonatal respiratory failure, which is often lethal within a few weeks or months. Although heterozygous ABCA3 mutation carriers are mostly asymptomatic, there is growing evidence that monoallelic mutations may affect surfactant homeostasis. Surfactant protein C mutations are dominant or sporadic disorders leading to a broad spectrum of manifestations from neonatal respiratory distress syndrome to adult pulmonary fibrosis. The authors performed pathology and ultrastructural studies in 12 infants who underwent clinical lung biopsy. One carried a heterozygous SP-B mutation, 3 carried SP-C mutations, and 7 carried ABCA3 mutations (5 biallelic and 2 monoallelic). Optical microscopy made it possible to distinguish between surfactant-related disorders and other forms. One of the ABCA3 monoallelic carriers had morphological features of alveolar capillary dysplasia, a genetic disorder of lung alveolar, and vascular development. One patient showed no surfactant-related anomalies but had pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis, a developmental disorder of unknown origin. Electron microscopy revealed specific lamellar bodies anomalies in all SP-B, SP-C, and ABCA3 deficiency cases. In addition, the authors showed that heterozygous ABCA3 mutation carriers have an intermediate ultrastructural phenotype between homozygous carriers and normal subjects. Lung biopsy is an essential diagnostic procedure in unexplained diffuse lung disorders, and electron microscopy should be performed systematically, since it may reveal specific alterations in genetic disorders of surfactant homeostasis.
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