rinken-ippan-002, H22-sinkei-ippan-001); the Japanese Ministry of Education,
Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (18689030, 22390225); CREST (Core
Research for Evolutionary Science and Technology) of JST (Japan Science
and Technology Agency), Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority
Areas, Research on the Pathomechanisms of Brain Disorders, from the
Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (18023045);
the Japan Foundation for Neuroscience and Mental Health and the Meiji
Yasuda Mental Health Foundation; and the Osaka University Program for the
Support of Networking among Present and Future Researchers. The study
sponsors had no further role in the study design; the collection, analysis and
interpretation of data; the writing of the report; or the decision to submit
the manuscript for publication.
Department of Psychiatry, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine,
D3, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, 565-0871, Osaka, Japan.
CREST (Core Research for
Evolutionary Science and Technology) of JST (Japan Science and Technology
Agency), 4-1-8, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama, 332-0112, Japan.
Research Center for Children’s Mental Development, United Graduate School
of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University and
Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, D3, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka,
Department of Molecular Neuropsychiatry, Osaka
University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka, 565-
Division of Developmental Neuroscience, United Graduate
School of Child Development, Osaka University, Kanazawa University and
Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka,
RH supervised the entire project; collected the data; wrote the manuscript;
was critically involved in the design, analysis and interpretation of the data;
and was responsible for performing the literature review. YY was critically
involved in the collection and analysis of the data, contributed to the
editing of the final manuscript and contributed intellectually to the
interpretation of the data. HY, SU and AI were involved in the mRNA
measurements and collection of the majority of the data. KO, MF, IM, MTan
and MTak were heavily involved in the collection of the majority of the data
and contributed intellectually to the interpretation of the data. All authors
reviewed the manuscript before submission and approved the final
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
Received: 9 March 2011 Accepted: 26 May 2011 Published: 26 May 2011
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