Electrically Conductive Gold-Coated Collagen Nanofibers for Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Enhanced Differentiation and Proliferation
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca, Romania. ACS Nano
(Impact Factor: 12.88).
06/2011; 5(6):4490-503. DOI: 10.1021/nn1035312
Gold-coated collagen nanofibers (GCNFs) were produced by a single-step reduction process and used for the growth and differentiation of human adult stem cells. The nanomaterials were characterized by a number of analytical techniques including electron microscopy and spectroscopy. They were found to be biocompatible and to improve the myocardial and neuronal differentiation process of the mesenchymal stem cells isolated from the placental chorionic component. The expression of specific differentiation markers (atrium, natriuretic peptide, actin F and actin monomer, glial fibrilary acidic protein, and neurofilaments) was investigated by immunocytochemistry.
Available from: Priya Vashisth
- "Tissue engineering is an expanding interdisciplinary field that applies the principles of chemistry, physics, material science, engineering , cell biology and medicine to develop supplementary biological substitutes that can sustain or improve tissue functions (Orza et al., 2011; Agarwal, Wendorff, & Greiner, 2009; Langer & Vacanti, 1993). Presently the re-establishment of the dysfunctional tissues mainly relies on autografts and allografts. "
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ABSTRACT: In this investigation, we have introduced novel electrospun gellan based nanofibers as a hydrophilic scaffolding material for skin tissue regeneration. These nanofibers were fabricated using a blend mixture of gellan with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). PVA reduced the repulsive force of resulting solution and lead to formation of uniform fibers with improved nanostructure. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) confirmed the average diameter of nanofibers down to 50 nm. The infrared spectra (IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis evaluated the crosslinking, thermal stability and highly crystalline nature of gellan-PVA nanofibers, respectively. Furthermore, the cell culture studies using human dermal fibroblast (3T3L1) cells established that these gellan based nanofibrous scaffold could induce improved cell adhesion and enhanced cell growth than conventionally proposed gellan based hydrogels and dry films. Importantly, the nanofibrous scaffold are biodegradable and could be potentially used as a temporary substrate/ or biomedical graft to induce skin tissue regeneration.
- "(4) Various zinc (Vardatsikos et al., 2013), vanadium (Goc, 2006;Willsky et al., 2011), and tungsten (Munoz et al., 2001;Fernandez-Alvarez et al., 2004;Altirriba et al., 2009) compounds, either alone, or in association with vegetal extracts, in order to obtain synergic protective effects (Clark et al., 2012;Pillai et al., 2013). Among the widest used methods of delivery of various active molecules one can mention the use of nanomaterials such as AuNP (Orza et al., 2011Orza et al., , 2014), AgNP (Potara et al., 2013), and carbon nanotubes (Lamanna et al., 2012). Polyoxometalates (POMs) are synthetic early-transition metal-oxygen clusters (with V, Mo, W, Nb, Ta;Pope & Müller, 1991;Gouzerh & Che, 2006), having sizes in the range of nanometers. "
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ABSTRACT: Two polyoxometalates (POMs), synthesized through a self-assembling method, were used in the
treatment of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. One of these nanocompounds [tris(vanadyl)-substituted tungsto-antimonate(III)-anions—POM1] was previously described in the literature, whereas the second [tris-butyltin-21-tungsto-9-antimonate(III)-anions—POM2], was prepared by us based on our original
formula. In rats with STZ-induced diabetes treated with POMs (up to a cumulative dose of 4 mg/kg
bodyweight at the end of the treatments), statistically significant reduced levels of blood glucose were measured after 3 weeks, as compared with the diabetic control groups (DCGs). Ultrastructural analysis of pancreatic β-cells (including the mean diameter of secretory vesicles and of their insulin granules) in the treated diabetic rats proved the POMs contribute to limitation of cellular degeneration triggered by STZ, as well as to the presence of increased amounts of insulin-containing vesicles as compared with the DCG. The two POMs also showed hepatoprotective properties when ultrastructural aspects of hepatocytes in the experimental groups of rats were studied. Based on our in vivo studies, we concluded that the two POMs tested achieved hypoglycemiant effects by preventing STZ-triggered apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells and stimulation of insulin synthesis.
Available from: Ioana Brie
- "Mechanical stimulation of osteoblasts or stem cells induced by the properties of the implant surface triggers the reorganization of the focal adhesion plaques followed by the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and the activation of signaling pathways involved in osteogenic cell differentiation such as transcription factors Cbfa1 (Core Binding Factor A1) and Osterix. As a consequence osteoblasts synthesize higher amounts of collagen I, osteopontin, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein, and induce higher levels of alkaline phosphatase activity
[55-57]. The canonical Wnt (Wingless/Integrated) signaling pathway is also activated with consequences on β-catenin, alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression, as Galli et al. showed in a study using mesenchymal and osteoblastic cells growing on polished titanium discs versus acid-etched and sand-blasted (SLA) surfaces. "
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The development of novel biomaterials able to control cell activities and direct their fate is warranted for engineering functional bone tissues. Adding bioactive materials can improve new bone formation and better osseointegration. Three types of titanium (Ti) implants were tested for in vitro biocompatibility in this comparative study: Ti6Al7Nb implants with 25% total porosity used as controls, implants infiltrated using a sol–gel method with hydroxyapatite (Ti HA) and silicatitanate (Ti SiO2). The behavior of human osteoblasts was observed in terms of adhesion, cell growth and differentiation.
The two coating methods have provided different morphological and chemical properties (SEM and EDX analysis). Cell attachment in the first hour was slower on the Ti HA scaffolds when compared to Ti SiO2 and porous uncoated Ti implants. The Alamar blue test and the assessment of total protein content uncovered a peak of metabolic activity at day 8–9 with an advantage for Ti SiO2 implants. Osteoblast differentiation and de novo mineralization, evaluated by osteopontin (OP) expression (ELISA and immnocytochemistry), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, calcium deposition (alizarin red), collagen synthesis (SIRCOL test and immnocytochemical staining) and osteocalcin (OC) expression, highlighted the higher osteoconductive ability of Ti HA implants. Higher soluble collagen levels were found for cells cultured in simple osteogenic differentiation medium on control Ti and Ti SiO2 implants. Osteocalcin (OC), a marker of terminal osteoblastic differentiation, was most strongly expressed in osteoblasts cultivated on Ti SiO2 implants.
The behavior of osteoblasts depends on the type of implant and culture conditions. Ti SiO2 scaffolds sustain osteoblast adhesion and promote differentiation with increased collagen and non-collagenic proteins (OP and OC) production. Ti HA implants have a lower ability to induce cell adhesion and proliferation but an increased capacity to induce early mineralization. Addition of growth factors BMP-2 and TGFβ1 in differentiation medium did not improve the mineralization process. Both types of infiltrates have their advantages and limitations, which can be exploited depending on local conditions of bone lesions that have to be repaired. These limitations can also be offset through methods of functionalization with biomolecules involved in osteogenesis.
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