Therapeutic potential of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases. World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol

Sigrid A Rajasekaran, Nemours Center for Childhood Cancer Research, Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children, Wilmington, DE 19803, United States.
World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology 02/2011; 2(1):1-14. DOI: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i1.1
Source: PubMed


Curcumin, also known as diferuloylmethane, is derived from the plant Curcuma longa and is the active ingredient of the spice turmeric. The therapeutic activities of curcumin for a wide variety of diseases such as diabetes, allergies, arthritis and other chronic and inflammatory diseases have been known for a long time. More recently, curcumin's therapeutic potential for preventing and treating various cancers is being recognized. As curcumin's therapeutic promise is being explored more systematically in various diseases, it has become clear that, due to its increased bioavailability in the gastrointestinal tract, curcumin may be particularly suited to be developed to treat gastrointestinal diseases. This review summarizes some of the current literature of curcumin's anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-cancer potential in inflammatory bowel diseases, hepatic fibrosis and gastrointestinal cancers.

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Available from: Sigrid A Langhans
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    • "It seems that the magnificent molecule knows where to react. A usual thinking is that any molecule with nucleophilic center will necessarily act as inhibitor of every enzyme, but curcumin does not affect acid phosphatase activity which has been reported in diminished state in prostate cancer[1,2]. In the case of curcumin, the poor aqueous solubility and relatively low bioavailability have been major obstacles for its clinical development as a therapeutic drug, but the same has contributed towards its efficacy in the diseases of gastrointestinal tract. "

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    • "Under in vivo conditions, the position of the hydroxyl group having a crucial role in the improvement of antioxidant activity of curcuminoids (Somparn and others 2007). As evidenced from tetrahydrocurcumin, a reduction of the C-C of the C7 linker apparently does not have any effect on antioxidant activity (Rajasekaran 2011). The anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin is partly mediated through inhibition of IkB kinase activity leading to suppression of NF-kB activation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Curcumin, the natural yellow-colored active principle, also called turmeric yellow, extracted from the perennial herb Curcuma longa L., has potent biological and pharmacological properties such as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, anti-ischemic, antitumor, and anticancer actions. The molecular mechanism of the hepatoprotective action of curcumin is due to its antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity against nuclear factor (NF)-B that regulates different proinflammatory and profibrotic cytokines. Overall, scientific reports demonstrate that curcumin has high therapeutic ability for treating hepatic disorders. Here is a systematic discussion of the hepatoprotective activity of curcumin and its possible mechanisms of actions.
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    • "The chemo preventive and chemotherapeutic effects of curcumin have been demonstrated in numerous carcinogenesis models and preclinical trials. Most recently, curcumin has been shown to exhibit anticancer effects in several human cancers (Anand et al., 2008) (Goel et al., 2008) in particular the gastrointestinal cancers including oesophageal, mouth, intestinal, stomach and colon (Rajasekaran, 2011). Curcumin inhibits growth and proliferation of human gastric cancer cells (Cai et al., 2009; Sintara et al., 2012) and is also effective in preventing cancers resistant to multiple drug treatment (Tang et al., 2005). "
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    ABSTRACT: The work was aimed to validate the gastroretentive potential of microsponges via optimization of targeted floating curcumin microsponges for improved site specific absorption for gastric cancer Modified quasi emulsion solvent diffusion method was used to formulate microsponges using 3(2) full factorial design. The effect of different levels of ethyl cellulose and polyvinyl alcohol concentration, selected as independent variables was determined on the % entrapment efficiency, %buoyancy and %cumulative drug release. Modified rosette rise apparatus was used for in vitro release and the release data best fitted Higuchi's model and mechanism of drug release was diffusion (n). The optimized formulation (MS5) demonstrated favourable %entrapment efficiency (90.7 ±1.7), %buoyancy (82.0± 2.0) and %cumulative drug release (85.2±1.07) with maximum desirability factor of 0.816. SEM revealed spherical and porous microsponges. DSC confirmed molecular dispersion of the drug in the microsponges polymeric matrix. DRIFT revealed no chemical interaction between the drug and polymer used. The in vitro permeation of curcumin through gastric mucin gel layer affirmed the capability of microsponges to deliver drug across mucin r and reach the target site to treat gastric cancer. Anticancer oral dose of microsponges was calculated as cytotoxicity assay in human cancer cell line KB. The pharmacokinetic evaluation of MS5 in rabbits revealed 10 fold increase in bioavailability as compared to native curcumin, demonstrated the superiority of microsponges over native curcumin as gastro retentive drug delivery system. This study presents a new approach based on floating ability of microsponges for treatment of gastric cancer.
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