Empathy development from 8 to 16 months: Early signs of concern for others
The Academic College of Tel Aviv-Yaffo, Israel.Infant behavior & development (Impact Factor: 1.34). 05/2011; 34(3):447-58. DOI: 10.1016/j.infbeh.2011.04.007
The study examined the responses of typically developing infants to the distress of another, prior to and following the transition to the second year. Infants' responses to maternal simulations of distress and to a peer distress videotape were observed from 8 to 16 months, using an accelerated longitudinal design (overall n = 37). Modest levels of affective and cognitive empathy for another in distress were already evident before the second year, and increased gradually (and not always significantly) across the transition to the second year. Prosocial behavior was rare in the first year and increased substantially during the second year. Self-distress reactions were rare overall. Individual differences in cognitive and affective empathy assessed in the first year, particularly at 10-months, predicted the levels of prosocial behavior observed in the second year. No gender differences were found. Theoretical implications and future research directions are discussed.
- "For example, in a study of adults' thinking about others' emotions, variation in the gene ZNF804A related to neural activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and left temporoparietal cortex (Walter et al., 2011). Similarly, it would be important to study the biological aspects of prosocial and empathic responding from an early age, due to the accumulating evidence for the early emergence of relevant behaviors (e.g., Hamlin et al., 2011; Roth-Hanania et al., 2011). There is little developmental research on the neural bases of such behaviors, and we located no longitudinal study covering meaningful developmental ground on the topic. "
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- "There is some suggestion that toddler girls may show more affective concern than boys to adults (Knafo et al., 2008; Volbrecht et al., 2007; Zahn-Waxler, Radke-Yarrow et al., 1992; Zahn-Waxler , Robinson et al., 1992), with this effect becoming more pronounced with age (Zahn-Waxler et al., 1992). However, gender effects have been inconsistent when infants' responsiveness to other children is examined (Gill & Calkins, 2003; Roth-Hanania et al., 2011; Spinrad & Stifter, 2006). Because gender differences in early prosocial behavior have been less thoroughly examined than those in later childhood, relatively little is known about their origins, particularly toward other children (Eisenberg et al., 2006). "
ABSTRACT: Early developments in toddlers’ responses to adults’ distress have been extensively examined, but less work has been directed to young children's responses to other children in distress. In the current study, we examined 12-, 18-, and 24-month-old children's (N = 71) behavioral and affective responses to a crying infant (doll) present in the room with the child. A comparison condition included a contented, neutral infant to contrast with the crying infant so as to disambiguate social interest from distress-specific responding. Results showed that 12-month-olds were neither particularly interested in nor concerned about the infant, although they did discriminate between conditions. In contrast, 18- and 24-month-olds were socially interested and attentive to the infant, but 24-month-olds exhibited greater affective concern to the crying infant than did 18-month-olds. Children at all three ages were also mildly distressed themselves by the infant's crying, and this did not decline over the second year. Both girls and children without siblings were more interested in the infant; no effects were found for gender, daycare experience, or siblings on affective concern.
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- "Whether empathic concern is present even during the first year (with the aid of implicit self-recognition capacities) is an open question. As noted earlier, some recent work suggests that infants as young as 8–10 months show concern for others displaying distress (Roth-Hanania et al., 2011; see also Nichols et al., 2009). Certainly by the second year, human children experience other-directed empathic concern and this concern motivates their prosocial behavior toward those in need. "
ABSTRACT: The fact that humans cooperate with nonkin is something we take for granted, but this is an anomaly in the animal kingdom. Our species’ ability to behave prosocially may be based on human-unique psychological mechanisms. We argue here that these mechanisms include the ability to care about the welfare of others (other-regarding concerns), to “feel into” others (empathy), and to understand, adhere to, and enforce social norms (normativity). We consider how these motivational, emotional, and normative substrates of prosociality develop in childhood and emerged in our evolutionary history. Moreover, we suggest that these three mechanisms all serve the critical function of aligning individuals with others: Empathy and other-regarding concerns align individuals with one another, and norms align individuals with their group. Such alignment allows us to engage in the kind of large-scale cooperation seen uniquely in humans.
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