Vogelbaum, MA, Jost, S, Aghi, MK, Heimberger, AB, Sampson, JH, Wen, PY et al.. Application of novel response/progression measures for surgically delivered therapies for gliomas: Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group. Neurosurgery 70: 234-243

Brain Tumor and Neuro-Oncology Center, Department of Neurosurgery, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, Ohio 44195, USA.
Neurosurgery (Impact Factor: 3.62). 05/2011; 70(1):234-43; discussion 243-4. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318223f5a7
Source: PubMed


The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) Working Group is an international, multidisciplinary effort to develop new standardized response criteria for clinical trials in brain tumors. The RANO group identified knowledge gaps relating to the definitions of tumor response and progression after the use of surgical or surgically based treatments.
To outline a proposal for new response and progression criteria for the assessment of the effects of surgery and surgically delivered therapies for patients with gliomas.
The Surgery Working Group of RANO identified surgically related end-point evaluation problems that were not addressed in the original Macdonald criteria, performed an extensive literature review, and used a consensus-building process to develop recommendations for how to address these issues in the setting of clinical trials.
Recommendations were formulated for surgically related issues, including imaging changes associated with surgical resection or surgically mediated adjuvant local therapies, the determination of progression in the setting where all enhancing tumor has been removed, and how new enhancement should be interpreted in the setting where local therapies that are known to produce nonspecific enhancement have been used. Additionally, the terminology used to describe the completeness of surgical resections has been recognized to be inconsistently applied to enhancing vs nonenhancing tumors, and a new set of descriptors is proposed.
The RANO process is intended to produce end-point criteria for clinical trials that take into account the effects of prior and ongoing therapies. The RANO criteria will continue to evolve as new therapies and technologies are introduced into clinical trial and/or practice.

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    • "To our opinion, the authors’ conclusion favoring iMRI-guided glioblastoma resection should be seen in the context of a minimal difference in postoperative tumor volume between both treatment groups. No significant difference exists in progression-free survival, and most importantly: There is a lack of a valid methodology for volumetric assessment of glioblastoma resection.[61323] In our opinion, tumor volumes reported in the study of Senft are within the error limits of tumor volumetry. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Although the added value of increasing extent of glioblastoma resection is still debated, multiple technologies can assist neurosurgeons in attempting to achieve this goal. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) might be helpful in this context, but to date only one randomized trial exists. Methods: We included 14 adults with a supratentorial tumor suspect for glioblastoma and an indication for gross total resection in this randomized controlled trial of which the interim analysis is presented here. Participants were assigned to either ultra-low-field strength iMRI-guided surgery (0.15 Tesla) or to conventional neuronavigation-guided surgery (cNN). Primary endpoint was residual tumor volume (RTV) percentage. Secondary endpoints were clinical performance, health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and survival. Results: Median RTV in the cNN group is 6.5% with an interquartile range of 2.5-14.75%. Median RTV in the iMRI group is 13% with an interquartile range of 3.75-27.75%. A Mann-Whitney test showed no statistically significant difference between these groups (P =0.28). Median survival in the cNN group is 472 days, with an interquartile range of 244-619 days. Median survival in the iMRI group is 396 days, with an interquartile range of 191-599 days (P =0.81). Clinical performance did not differ either. For HRQOL only descriptive statistics were applied due to a limited sample size. Conclusion: This interim analysis of a randomized trial on iMRI-guided glioblastoma resection compared with cNN-guided glioblastoma resection does not show an advantage with respect to extent of resection, clinical performance, and survival for the iMRI group. Ultra-low-field strength iMRI does not seem to be cost-effective compared with cNN, although the lack of a valid endpoint for neurosurgical studies evaluating extent of glioblastoma resection is a limitation of our study and previous volumetry-based studies on this topic.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Surgical Neurology International
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    • "In this case, CBV was not increased and the tumor demonstrated stabilization after 4 weeks at the second post-treatment MRI, which could be considered to be PsPD. Recently, Vogelbaum et al.26) suggested that retrospective assessments of serial images to distinguish PsPD form true progression and when the finding is ambiguous, the response should be called indeterminate even with RANO criteria. This shows despite the latest techniques and reorganization of the criteria they do not guarantee more reliable diagnosis or appropriate further treatment plan therefore validation should be needed. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated pseudoprogression (PsPD) following radiation therapy combined with concurrent temozolomide (TMZ), and we assessed pseudoresponse following anti-angiogenic therapy for patients with recurrent disease using the Response Assessment of the Neuro-Oncology Working Group. Patients who were pathologically confirmed as having high-grade glioma received radiotherapy with concurrent TMZ followed by adjuvant TMZ. Bevacizumab (Avastin) with CPT-11 were used as a salvage option for cases of radiologic progression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was routinely performed 1 month after concurrent radiochemotherapy (CRT) and every 3 months thereafter. For cases treated with the bevacizumab-containing regimen for progressive disease, MRI was performed every 2 months. Of 55 patients, 21 (38%) showed radiologic progression within 4 weeks after CRT. Of these patients, 16 (29%) showed progression at second post-CRT MRI (etPD) and five (9%) showed improvement (PsPD). Seven of thirty-four initially non-progressed patients showed progression at the second post-CRT MRI (ltPD). No difference in survival was observed between the etPD and ltPD groups (p=0.595). Five (50%) of ten patients showed a radiological response after salvage bevacizumab therapy. Four of those patients exhibited rapid progression immediately after discontinuation of the drug (drug holiday). Twelve weeks following treatment could be the optimal timing to determine PsPD or true progression. MRI with gadolinium enhancement alone is not sufficient to characterize tumor response or growth. Clinical correlation with adequate follow-up duration and histopathologic validation may be helpful in discriminating PsPD from true progression.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • "Extent of resection (EOR) was calculated as percentage of (preoperative tumor volume-postoperative tumor volume)/preoperative tumor volume [24]. CRET was defined as the absence of contrast enhancement in the volumetric analysis over the T1Gd on postoperative MRI [25]. Follow-up MRIs were done before and after radiotherapy and later every 2–3 months or when the patients experienced neurological deterioration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Our purpose was to analyze the pattern of failure in glioblastoma (GBM) patients at first recurrence after radiotherapy and temozolomide and its relationship with different factors. From 77 consecutive GBM patients treated at our institution with fluorescence guided surgery and standard radiochemotherapy, 58 first recurrences were identified and included in a retrospective review. Clinical data including age, Karnofsky performance score, preoperative tumor volume and location, extend of resection, MGMT promoter methylation status, time to progression (PFS), overall survival (OS) and adjuvant therapies were reviewed for every patient. Recurrent tumor location respect the original lesion was the end point of the study. The recurrence pattern was local only in 65.5 % of patients and non-local in 34.5 %. The univariate and multivariate analysis showed that greater preoperative tumor volume in T1 gadolinium enhanced sequences, was the only variable with statistical signification (p < 0.001) for increased rate of non-local recurrences, although patients with MGMT methylation and complete resection of enhancing tumor presented non-local recurrences more frequently. PFS was longer in patients with non-local recurrences (13.8 vs. 6.4 months; p = 0.019, log-rank). However, OS was not significantly different in both groups (24.0 non-local vs. 19.3 local; p = 0.9). Rate of non-local recurrences in our series of patients treated with fluorescence guided surgery and standard radiochemotherapy was higher than previously published in GBM, especially in patients with longer PFS. Greater preoperative enhancing tumor volume was associated with increased rate of non-local recurrences.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2013 · Journal of Neuro-Oncology
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