Post Hoc Subgroup Analysis of the HEART2D Trial Demonstrates Lower Cardiovascular Risk in Older Patients Targeting Postprandial Versus Fasting/Premeal Glycemia

Department of Internal Medicine, Hadassah Hospital, Jerusalem, Israel.
Diabetes care (Impact Factor: 8.42). 05/2011; 34(7):1511-3. DOI: 10.2337/dc10-2375
Source: PubMed


To identify the Hyperglycemia and Its Effect After Acute Myocardial Infarction on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (HEART2D) trial subgroups with treatment difference.
In 1,115 type 2 diabetic patients who had suffered from an acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the HEART2D trial compared two insulin strategies targeting postprandial or fasting/premeal glycemia on time until first cardiovascular event (cardiovascular death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke, coronary revascularization, or hospitalization for acute coronary syndrome). The HEART2D trial ended prematurely for futility. We used the classification and regression tree (CART) to identify baseline subgroups with potential treatment differences.
CART estimated the age of >65.7 years to best predict the difference in time to first event. In the subgroup aged>65.7 years (prandial, n=189; basal, n=210), prandial patients had a significantly longer time to first event and a lower proportion experienced a first event (n=56 [29.6%] vs. n=85 [40.5%]; hazard ratio 0.69 [95% CI 0.49-0.96]; P=0.029), despite similar A1C levels.
Older type 2 diabetic AMI survivors may have a lower risk for a subsequent cardiovascular event with insulin targeting postprandial versus fasting/premeal glycemia.

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    • "Conversely, the HEART2D trial [26] did not show any beneficial effect of specifically treating postprandial hyperglycemia in relation to the risk of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients. However, a post-hoc subgroup analysis of the HEART2D on a specific population (older patients) has found a lower risk of a subsequent cardiovascular events associated with the use of prandial insulin lispro [27]. In the light of these findings, the role of postprandial hyperglycemia in the development or progression of diabetic complication remains a sensitive and controversial issue. "
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    ABSTRACT: Few studies are available evaluating the impact of rapid-acting insulin analogues on long-term diabetes outcomes. Our aim was to compare the use of rapid-acting insulin analogues versus human regular insulin in relation to the occurrence of diabetic complications in a cohort of diabetic patients through the analysis of administrative databases. A population-based cohort study was conducted using administrative data from four local health authorities in the Abruzzo Region (900,000 inhabitants). Diabetic patients free of macrovascular disease at baseline and treated either with human regular insulin or rapid-acting insulin analogues were followed for a maximum of 3 years. The incidence of diabetic complications was ascertained by hospital discharge claims. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs of any diabetic complication and macrovascular, microvascular and metabolic complications were estimated separately using Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for patients' characteristics and anti-diabetic drug use. Propensity score matching was also used to adjust for significant difference in the baseline characteristics between the two treatment groups. A total of 2,286 patients were included: 914 receiving human regular insulin and 1,372 rapid-acting insulin analogues. During the follow-up, 286 (31.3%) incident events occurred in the human regular insulin group and 235 (17.1%) in the rapid-acting insulin analogue group. After propensity score-based matched-pair analyses, rapid-acting insulin analogues users had a HR of 0.73 (0.58-0.92) for any diabetes-related complication and HRs of 0.73 (0.55-0.93) and 0.55 (0.32-0.96) for macrovascular and metabolic complications respectively, as compared with human regular insulin users. No difference between the two groups was found for microvascular complications. Our findings suggest that the use of rapid-acting insulin analogues is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular and metabolic complications compared with human regular insulin use.
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    • "However, three retrospective analyses of the DCCT found that within-day glucose variability does not contribute to the development of microvascular complications [11-13]. Moreover, a prospective study specifically addressing this issue showed no effect of either post-prandial glucose [14] or glucose variability [15] on CVD events, though a post hoc subgroup analysis demonstrated lower CVD risk in older patients targeting postprandial versus fasting/pre-meal glycemia [16] and continuous glucose monitoring showed that intraday glycemic variability is associated with the presence and severity of arterial lesions in subjects with type 2 diabetes undergoing coronary angiography for chest pain [17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Previous reports have clearly indicated a significant relationship between hemoglobin (Hb) A1c change from one visit to the next and microvascular complications, especially nephropathy (albuminuria and albuminuric chronic kidney disease, CKD). In contrast, data on macrovascular disease are less clear. This study was aimed at examining the association of HbA1c variability with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Renal Insufficiency and Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) Italian Multicenter Study. Serial (3--5) HbA1c values obtained during the 2-year period preceding recruitment, including that obtained at the enrolment, were available from 8,290 subjects from 9 centers (out of 15,773 patients from 19 centers). Average HbA1c and HbA1c variability were calculated as the intra-individual mean (HbA1c-MEAN) and standard deviation (HbA1c-SD), respectively, of 4.52+/-0.76 values. Prevalent CVD, total and by vascular bed, was assessed from medical history by recording previous documented major acute events. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) was assessed by dilated fundoscopy. CKD was defined based on albuminuria, as measured by immunonephelometry or immunoturbidimetry, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, as calculated from serum creatinine. HbA1c-MEAN, but not HbA1c-SD , was significantly higher (P<0.0001) in subjects with history of any CVD (n. 2,133, 25.7%) than in those without CVD (n. 6,157, 74.3%). Median and interquartile range were 7.78 (7.04-8.56) and 7.49 (6.81-8.31), respectively, for HbA1c-MEAN, and 0.47 (0.29-0.75) and 0.46 (0.28-0.73), respectively, for HbA1c-SD. Logistic regression analyses showed that HbA1c-MEAN, but not HbA1c-SD (and independent of it), was a significant correlate of any CVD. Similar findings were observed in subjects with versus those without any coronary or cerebrovascular event or myocardial infarction. Conversely, none of these measures were associated with stroke, whereas both correlated with any lower limb vascular event and HbA1c-SD alone with ulceration/gangrene. All these associations were independent of known CVD risk factors and microvascular complications (DR and CKD). In patients with type 2 diabetes, HbA1c variability has not a major impact on macrovascular complications, at variance with average HbA1c, an opposite finding as compared with microvascular disease, and particularly nephropathy.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00715481.
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