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Effect of Four Types of Dietary Fiber on the Technological Quality of Pasta

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The development of dietary fiber-enriched foods permits to obtain products with functional properties but can cause several problems in technological quality. The aim of this study was to study the quality of pasta obtained by replacing bread wheat flour with resistant starch II (RSII), resistant starch IV (RSIV), oat bran (OB) and inulin (IN) with the purpose of improving their nutritional quality. RSII, RSIV, OB and IN were substituted for a portion of bread wheat flour at levels 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%. Cooking properties, amylose and inulin losses, color and texture were measured. Finally, nutritional quality of enriched pasta was evaluated by protein losses during cooking and total dietary fiber. Microstructure of pasta was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Addition of RSII into pasta formulation improved the quality of the final product. RSIV-enriched pasta presented an improvement in textural characteristics and OB affected cooking properties positively up to 5% of substitution. Inulin was lost during cooking; besides, its addition negatively affected the technological quality of pasta. The results obtained in this study prove that it is possible to elaborate pasta with acceptable cooking quality and with improved nutritional characteristics by adding 10% of RSII and RSIV and 5% of OB.
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Effect of Four Types of Dietary Fiber on the Technological
Quality of Pasta
M.C. Bustos, G.T. Pe
´rez and A.E. Leo
´n
*
Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Nacional de Co
´rdoba-CONICET, CC 509, 5000,
Co
´rdoba, Argentina
The development of dietary fiber-enriched foods permits us to obtain products with functional properties
but can cause several problems in technological quality. The aim of this study was to study the quality of
pasta obtained by replacing bread wheat flour with resistant starch II (RSII), resistant starch IV (RSIV),
oat fiber (OF) and inulin (IN) with the purpose of improving their nutritional quality. RSII, RSIV, OB and
IN were substituted for a portion of bread wheat flour at levels 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0%. Cooking
properties, amylose and inulin losses, color and texture were measured. Finally, nutritional quality of
enriched pasta was evaluated by protein losses during cooking and total dietary fiber. Microstructure of
pasta was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Addition of RSII into pasta formulation improved
the quality of the final product. RSIV-enriched pasta presented an improvement in textural characteristics
and OF affected cooking properties positively up to 5% of substitution. Inulin was lost during cooking;
besides, its addition negatively affected the technological quality of pasta. The results obtained in this study
prove that it is possible to elaborate pasta with acceptable cooking quality and with improved nutritional
characteristics by adding 10% of RSII and RSIV and 5% of OF.
Key Words: pasta, resistant starch, amylase, oat fiber, inulin
INTRODUCTION
The special characteristics and compositional qualities
of pasta have placed it in an important position in
modern society’s daily diets (Sozer et al., 2007): it is
easy to cook (Brennan et al., 2004) and store, it is a low
glycemic food product (Tudorica
˘et al., 2002), it has low
sodium content, it has cholesterol-free fat and a it is rich
source of complex carbohydrates (Chillo et al., 2008).
Dietary fiber has been identified as an important com-
ponent of a healthy diet and it is defined as the compo-
nent of plant cells that resist digestion by human
digestion enzymes. Such components include cellulose,
hemicellusose, lignin, inulin, resistant starch (RS) and
other constituents distributed in the bran and starchy
endosperm parts of the grain (Lunn and Buttriss, 2007).
Consumption of these components has been associated
with the reduced risk of chronic diseases (Liu et al., 1999;
Charalampopoulos et al., 2002; Kaur and Gupta, 2002;
Topping, 2007; Shahidi, 2008). But particularly, the
insoluble fraction of dietary fiber has been associated
with reduced risk in diabetes (Meyer et al., 2000) and
coronary heart disease (Jenkins et al., 2000).
Resistant starch is defined as that fraction of dietary
starch that escapes digestion in the small intestine. It
is divided into four fractions: RS1, RS2, RS3 and
RS4. These are also called type I, II, III and IV starches
(Sajilata et al., 2006). Type II and IV are the ones used
like ingredients in the formulation of functional foods.
RS type I is resistant because it is in a physically inac-
cessible form. RS type II is in a certain granular form
that is resistant to enzyme digestion. Types I and II rep-
resent residues of starch forms, which are digested very
slowly and incompletely in the small intestine. Type III
RS is the most resistant one and is the mainly retro-
graded amylose formed during cooling of gelatinized
starch. RS type IV is the one where novel chemical
bonds other than a-(1-4) or a-(1-6) are formed
(Sajilata et al., 2006).
Hull-Oat fiber contains b-glucans (25%), arabinox-
ylans and Klason lignin (50%; Manthey et al., 1999);
b-glucan is a group of linear polymers of glucose mole-
cules linked by 70% of b-(1-4) and 30% of b-(1-3)-link-
ages. Lignin is a phenolic compound with a very
complex structure; it is relatively hydrophobic and
considered an insoluble dietary fiber (Liu, 2007).
Inulin is not simply one molecule; it is a polydisperse
b-(2-1) fructan (Phelps, 1965) and classified as soluble
dietary fiber (Lunn and Buttriss, 2007). Most of the
*To whom correspondence should be sent
(e-mail: aeleon@agro.unc.edu.ar).
Received 3 February 2010; revised: 29 March 2010.
Food Sci Tech Int 2011;0(00):0001–0010
ßSAGE Publications 2011
Los Angeles, London, New Delhi and Singapore
ISSN: 1082-0132
DOI: 10.1177/1082013210382303
1
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inulin commercially available on the industrial food
ingredient market today is either synthesized from
sucrose or extracted from chicory roots (Ninness, 1999).
Especially in pasta, it is possible to vary the choice of
the ingredients involved in the manufacture to obtain a
wide range of pasta products (Fardet et al., 1998). So, it
is necessary to evaluate in what way a change in formu-
lation affects cooking properties, since these are impor-
tant factors that influence consumer acceptance and
product quality (Lee et al., 2002).
Formulating pasta with dietary fiber produces modi-
fications that may cause many problems in the quality of
the final product; in consequence, more research has to
be done to better understand how different fiber addi-
tions affect pasta quality, cooking properties and
texture.
In order to obtain a good-quality final product with
better health promoting properties, the main objective of
this study was to study the quality of the pasta formu-
lated with insoluble (RS type II, RS type IV and oat
bran) and soluble fiber (inulin).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Materials
Bread wheat flour without additives was given by
Industrias Alimenticias Tiranti S.R.L. (Argentina):
moisture content: 12.38±0.07, protein 10.6±0.2, ash
0.54±0.01 and total dietary fiber 5.7±0.4.
RS type II (Hi maize 260, National Starch) and RS
type IV (Novelose 480, National Starch), were supplied
by Gelfix S.A. (Buenos Aires, Argentina). RSII is high-
amylose maize starch (70% of amylose) and RSIV is
defined as phosphated distarch phosphate, a cross-
linked high-amylose maize starch. Oat bran (Canadian
HarvestÕOat Fibers 200/58 series, Sunopta, USA) and
inulin (Orafti HP, Beneo-Orafti Latin America, Sa
˜o
Paulo, Brazil) were supplied by Saporiti S.A., Argentina.
Pasta Making
Pasta was made using commercial bread wheat flour,
water and four types of dietary fiber. Resistant starch
type II (RSII) and type IV (RSIV), oat bran (OB) and
inulin (IN) were incorporated into recipes by replacing
wheat flour in four proportions (w/w): 2.5%, 5.0%,
7.5% and 10.0%, resulting in RSII2.5, RSII5.0,
RSII7.5, RSII10.0, RSIV2.5, RSIV5.0, RSIV7.5,
RSIV10.0, OB2.5, OB5.0, OB7.5, OB10.0, IN2.5,
IN5.0, IN7.5 and IN10.0 samples, respectively. An addi-
tional sample with no fiber included was also prepared
as a control. Preparation of pasta was established using
50 g of flour, 500 mg of salt (NaCl) and distilled water
through trial and error until appearance, sheeting and
handling properties were obtained to produce a visually
optimum dough prior to lamination. The crumbly
dough was sheeted using a laboratory sheeting machine
obtaining a sticky 0.90 mm-thick sheet. Then, it was cut
into strips approximately 2 mm wide and 15 cm long
using cutting rolls. Pasta was then dried at low temper-
ature in two steps: the first one was 30 min at 30C with-
out controlling humidity in an air convection drier;
the second step was performed at 45C in a humidity-
controlled (75%) drier for 17.5 h. The samples were
wrapped in cling film and stored in airtight containers
at room temperature until needed.
Pasta Quality Parameters
Cooking procedure
All cooking tests were performed in duplicate. Pasta
(4 g) was broken into pieces of 5 cm and cooked in boil-
ing distilled water (200 mL). Boiling was kept at this
level for the entire cooking period.
The Optimum Cooking Time
Optimum cooking time (OCT) was determined as the
time when the white inner core of the pasta disappeared
after cross-cutting it with a razor blade, according to
method 16-50 (AACC, 2000) and/or after compressing
the pasta between two glass slides in 30 s intervals. The
OCT was determined as 10 min for control sample,
8.5 min for OF2.5 and IN2.5, 8.0 min for RSII2.5,
7.5 min for RSII5.0, RSIV2.5, RSIV5.0, RSIV7.5,
RSIV10.0, OB5.0, OB7.5, OB10.0, IN5.0 and IN7.5;
and 7.0 min for RSII7.5, RSII10.0 and IN10.0.
After cooking and draining, the samples were ana-
lyzed for water absorption, swelling index, color and
texture analysis. Cooking water was used for the deter-
mination of cooking, amylose and inulin losses.
Water Absorption
Water absorption of drained pasta was determined as
Equation (1) (Tudorica
˘et al., 2002).
Water absorption ð%Þ¼W1W2
W2100 ð1Þ
where W1 is the weight of cooked pasta and W2 the
weight of raw pasta.
Swelling Index
Swelling index of cooked pasta (grams of water per
gram of dry pasta) was evaluated by drying cooked
pasta samples to constant weight at 105C, expressed
as Equation (2) (Tudorica
˘et al., 2002).
Swelling index ¼W1W3
W3ð2Þ
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where W1 is the weight of cooked product and W3 the
weight after drying.
Cooking Loss
Cooking loss of pasta was determined in water col-
lected from each sample by evaporation to constant
weight in an air oven at 105C. The residue was weighed
and reported as percentage of the raw pasta sample
(Tudorica
˘et al., 2002).
Color of Cooked Pasta
Color of cooked pasta was determined with a Minolta
508 d spectrophotometer (Ramsey, NJ). Eight-milli-
metre measurement apertures, D65 illuminant, 10
angle of observer according to approved methods 14-
22 (AACC, 2000), were set. Cooked strands of pasta
were laid in parallel to cover an area about 5 cm wide on
a black background (0% reflectance). At least 10 read-
ings were taken from the cooked pasta strand and recorded
as CIE-LAB, L* (lightness), a* (rednessgreenness) and
b* (yellownessblueness) values.
Cooked Spaghetti Textural Analysis
A texture analyzer (TA-xT2i, Stable Micro Systems,
Godalming, UK) equipped with a Windows version of
the Texture Expert Software package was used to make
texture analyses; the parameters determined were pasta
hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. For
all measurements, TA-XT2i was equipped with a 25 kg
load cell and an HDP/PFS pasta firmness-stickiness
probe was fixed to the texturometer. All samples were
cooked on the day of determination. Before testing the
samples, excess water was blotted with an absorbent
paper. The probe compressed the samples at a rate of
2.0 mm/s to 70% strain. The probe was retracted and
followed by a second compression cycle after 2 s. The
variables (hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewi-
ness) were recorded through 10 measurements for each
sample in three different zones, on two samples prepared
on different occasions, totaling 20 measurements. Pasta
hardness was defined as the peak force attained during
the first compression. Springiness was defined as the rate
at which a deformed sample went back to its unde-
formed condition after the deforming force is removed,
calculated as the ratio of distance of the first half of the
second peak to the distance of the first half of the first
peak. Cohesiveness was defined as the ratio of the area
under the second peak to the area under the first peak.
Chewiness was defined as the product of hardness, cohe-
siveness and springiness.
Amylose Content in Cooking Water
Pasta samples (5 g) were cooked in 100 mL of water
until OCT. An aliquot of 10 mL was used to determine
the percentage of amylose content in cooking water. The
amylose leached to cooking water was determined using
the Megazyme amylose and amylopectin assay kit
(Megazyme International, Ireland) according to the pro-
cedure described by Gibson et al. (1997). Results were
expressed as grams of amylose lost during cooking of
100 g of pasta.
Inulin Content in Cooking Water
To determine inulin content in cooking water, an
anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatogra-
phy (HPLC) method following extraction of inulin was
used according to Zuleta and Sambucetti (2001). The
chromatographic equipment consisted of a Waters
6000A pump system, a Waters injector with a 50-ı
´L
sample loop, a refractive index detector (Waters R40)
and an integrator (Data Module Waters). HPLC condi-
tions were an Aminex HPX-87C (Bio-Rad) anion-
exchange column, with deionized water at 85C as the
mobile phase at a flux rate of 0.6 mL/min.
The inulin content in cooking water was expressed as
grams of inulin loss during the cooking of 100 g of pasta.
Scanning Electron Microscopy
The microstructure of transversely fractured cooked
pasta was investigated by scanning electron microscopy
(SEM; Leo EVO VP, Cambridge, England) of gold-
coated (using a Pelco 91000 sputter coater) freeze-dried
samples. The micrographs were taken using 3000
magnification.
Nutritional Parameters
Protein Losses
Protein losses were determined as follows: protein
content of uncooked pasta (PU) was calculated from
wheat flour protein content; this value was used to esti-
mate the protein content of cooked pasta if no protein
was leached to cooking water, while the protein content
of cooked pasta (PC) was determined by Kjeldahl
method and the nitrogen conversion factor used was
5.7. Pasta samples were cooked and dried overnight
at 100 C and then milled prior to analyses. The percent-
age of protein losses were expressed in dry basis as
Equation (3).
Protein losses ð%Þ¼ 100 PU
100 Cooking loss ð%ÞPC ð3Þ
Total Dietary Fiber
Cooked pasta (1 g) was dried at 100 C overnight and
milled for total dietary fiber content determination
according to method 32-05 (AACC, 2000). Two
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replicates from two different sets of lamination were
analyzed. Results were expressed as the percentage of
total dietary fiber in dry basis.
Statistical Analysis
The results for the different analysis of fiber-enriched
pasta were compared by the Di Rienzo, Guzma
´n and
Casanoves means-comparison test (Di Rienzo et al.,
2009). This uses multivariate analysis of conglomerates
in a matrix obtains from the sample mean. This allowed
the samples to be grouped according to descending levels
of preference (A, B and C) and with a degree of signif-
icance of p¼0.05. These analyses were performed using
the Infostat Statistical Software (Facultad de Ciencias
Agropecuarias, UNC, Argentina).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Pasta Quality Parameters
All fiber-enriched pasta samples showed a decrease in
water absorption and swelling index compared to con-
trol (Table 1). The inclusion of both types of resistant
starches, RSII and RSIV, showed a significantly
decrease in water absorption and swelling index, while
the concentration of fiber increased. This agrees with the
fact that RSs have a lower water-holding capacity than
other fibers (Nugent, 2005).
Results for oat bran and inulin showed the highest
water absorption and swelling index values (in both
cases less than control). Both fibers showed no differ-
ences in water absorption while the level of substitution
of fiber increased. The swelling index showed a signifi-
cant increase as both fibers additions increased; this
observation agrees with the high water-holding capacity,
a characteristic of these fibers (Phelps, 1965; Manthey
et al., 1999).
Cooking loss is one of the most important parameters
that affect consumer acceptance in this type of products
(Sissons et al., 2005; Fu, 2008); so, it is of great use to
predict the overall cooking performance of pasta. All
fiber-enriched pasta samples showed cooking losses
which did not exceed the expected values for durum
wheat pasta (lower than 8%; Dick and Youngs, 1988).
Table 1 illustrates that decreased cooking losses were
obtained for the samples containing RSII and RSIV
(less than the control), while pasta containing IN
showed increased cooking loss values compared with
control.
RS type II containing pasta showed a progressive and
significant reduction in cooking losses with increasing
fiber concentration. These results support those already
observed by Brennan et al. (1996) and by Tudorica
˘et al.
(2002), which suggest a strong interaction among
hydrated soluble fiber network and the protein-starch
matrix.
Cooking losses for pasta with RS type IV were similar
or less than control. In this case, results can be explained
in terms of the interactions between the fiber added and
the proteinstarch matrix. These interactions may not
be sufficiently strong, as in the case of RSII, to encap-
sulate the native starch and thus inhibit the diffusion of
solids to cooking water. The differences found between
the two types of resistant starches are explained by the
fact that RSII (high-amylose maize starch) has a similar
structure to native starch (Sajilata et al., 2006), so that it
can integrate to pasta structure well and thus contribute
to strengthen it. On the other hand, RSIV is a chemically
modified cross-linked starch with a very different struc-
ture (Woo and Seib, 2002) so, it could not interact so
well and many empty spaces may be generated in the
proteinstarch matrix when the fiber is added into pasta
formulation.
Oat bran-enriched pasta had a different performance
in cooking losses compared with RSII and RSIV. At
2.5% and 5.0%, the values were similar or significantly
lower than control and at 7.5% and 10.0%, the cooking
loss increases. One hypothesis that could explain how
oat bran affects the cooking properties of pasta is that
at low concentrations, the fiber may be dispersed and
incorporated into the proteinstarch matrix. On the
other hand, at higher degrees of substitution, disrup-
tions in the protein matrix by oat bran particle became
important and would promote water absorption and
facilitate starch granule swelling and rupture. So,
Table 1. Cooking properties of fiber enriched pasta.
Sample
a
Water
absorption
(g/100 g pasta)
Swelling
index
Cooking
losses
(g/100 g pasta)
Control 164 a 2.15 a 6.1 f
RSII2.5 150 b 2.03 c 6.2 f
RSII5.0 148 c 1.98 d 5.5 h
RSII7.5 145 c 1.96 d 5.5 h
RSII10.0 136 d 1.85 f 5.3 i
RSIV2.5 152 b 1.96 d 5.8 g
RSIV5.0 144 c 1.91 e 6.0 f
RSIV7.5 139 d 1.86 f 5.9 g
RSIV10.0 138 d 1.86 f 5.7 g
OB2.5 155 b 1.87 f 6.0 f
OB5.0 150 b 1.98 d 5.7 h
OB7.5 151 b 2.05 c 6.3 e
OB10.0 155 b 2.09 b 6.8 d
IN2.5 152 b 1.98 d 6.4 e
IN5.0 156 b 2.04 c 7.2 c
IN7. 5 156 b 2.07 b 7.6 b
IN10.0 156b 2.08 b 8.0 a
a
Resistant starch type II enriched pasta (RSII), Resistant Starch type IV
enriched pasta (RSIV), Oat bran enriched pasta (OB) and Inulin enriched
pasta (IN).
Values are the average of triplicate measurements on the duplicate sample.
Values followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly
different (p>0.05).
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inclusion of more than 5.0% of this type of fiber into the
structure generates a disruption of proteinstarch
matrix. These results parallel the data obtained by
Manthey et al. (2004) in a study that included wheat
bran.
Cooking losses in pasta containing inulin presented
an increase compared to control, indicating a disruption
of the proteinstarch matrix and so a decrease in pasta
quality. These results parallel those obtained by
Tudorica
˘et al. (2002).
The principal component of cooking losses is amylose
(Fortini, 1988). A strong proteinstarch matrix in pasta
can inhibit the diffusion of amylose to cooking water
during cooking time, so that it is an important quality
parameter to determine the integrity of proteinstarch
matrix.
The amylose content in cooking water showed values
that ranged from 3.21 g/100 g pasta (for pasta containing
RSII at 10%) to 4.91 g/100 g pasta (for pasta containing
IN at 10%) with a control sample showing an amylose
content of 3.56 g/100 g pasta (Figure 1).
RS type II-enriched pasta showed reduced amylose
content in cooking water when more than 2.5% of
fiber was added when compared with the control. This
agrees with the results obtained in cooking properties
and supports the hypothesis that the fiber forms a net-
work around starch granules, encapsulating them during
cooking and restricting excessive swelling and diffusion
of the amylose content.
Pasta containing RSIV showed changeable amylose
content values in cooking water. At 2.5%, it presented
lesser values than control. At 5.0% of substitution, the
amylose leached to cooking water increased, while with
higher levels of substitution, the amylose decreased again.
Amylose content in oat bran enriched-pasta cooking
water showed the same tendency observed in cooking
losses. Pasta with inulin addition presented the highest
amylose content in cooking water, which agrees with the
high cooking losses observed, but considering that pasta
with 10.0% of substitution with inulin presented a cook-
ing loss of 8.0% and the amylose loss was 4.91%, it is
clear that the last one is not the major factor in cooking
losses.
Inulin is characterized as a soluble fiber, with increas-
ing solubility at increasing temperature (Phelps, 1965).
In this regard, it is essential to determine inulin losses
during cooking.
Inulin losses during cooking were determined in cook-
ing water and the values obtained were: 3.1% for pasta
with 2.5% of IN, 5.7% for pasta with 5.0% of IN, 6.7%
for pasta with 7.5% of IN and 10.1% for pasta with
10.0% of IN substitution. These results correlate with
observations in cooking and amylose losses and illus-
trate that all inulin added is leached to cooking water
during cooking, thus showing the problems of adding
soluble fiber in products cooked in boiling water.
The color of pasta is an important quality factor for
consumers. In pasta products made from semolina, the
higher the L* and b* values, the more desirable the
product. Among L*, b* and a* parameters, the first
two are considered more important as pasta color attrib-
utes (Rayas-Duarte et al., 1996).
Color analysis results are shown in Table 2. Pasta with
RSII showed significantly high L* values compared with
control (except for 2.5% of RSII addition) and RSIV
presented a significant decrease in L* compared to con-
trol with no significant differences between levels of
substitution.
For oat bran enriched pasta, the L* parameter
showed a significant decrease while fiber was incorpo-
rated in formulation. Pasta with inulin presented an
increased L* parameter. With respect to b* parameter,
RS II RS IV O B IN
2.5
3.0
3.5
4.0
4.5
5.0
5.5
Amylosecontent incooking
water (%)
Control 2.5% 5.0% 7.5% 10.0%
A
A
BC C
G
D
D
E
FFF
G
G
G
D
E
D
A
Figure 1. Amylose content in cooking water after cooking fiber enriched pasta. Columns with the same letters
are not significantly different ( p<0.0).
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it is remarkable that while RSIV showed a decrease with
the addition of fiber (except for 2.5% of RSIV addition)
and oat bran presented high values in b* parameter,
which is an important improvement in quality for this
type of wheat flour-based products.
These results agree with the fact that RS fibers and
inulin are white, so that the Lparameter was altered
with the fiber substitution. In the other hand, oat bran
is yellow; so, the L* parameter decreases and b* param-
eter increases.
Results for a* parameter showed an increase while oat
bran was being added to formulation due to lignin. This
is the major component in this fiber; it is aromatic and
so more Maillard reactions could occur. Redness also
increased.
The textural characteristics of pasta play an essential
role in determining the final acceptance by consumers.
Results obtained in this study showed that the textural
characteristics of the pasta may be affected by the type
and rate of fiber inclusion into pasta. Pasta hardness,
springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness results are pre-
sented in Table 3.
It is remarkable in results from textural analysis that
addition of RSII to the pasta formulation significantly
affects hardness.
RS type IV showed the highest values in hardness; no
differences were observed between different levels of
fiber inclusion (except 2.5%); this agrees with the fact
that cross-linking starches are characterized for a
low degree of gelatinization and an increase in gelatini-
zation temperature. These observations are related to
the mobility of amorphous chains in the starch granule
as a result of the intermolecular bridges (Singh et al.,
2007).
The addition of oat bran appears to interfere with the
structure of pasta, thus lowering pasta hardness. This
interference agrees with the general tendency of pasta
to decrease springiness while fiber is being added; con-
sidering that springiness is related to the development of
proteinstarch matrix, the decrease is another evidence
of the disruption caused by oat bran inclusion, which
agrees with results obtained by Sozer et al. (2007). The
same behaviour was observed for cohesiveness and
chewiness.
Inulin-enriched pasta showed the lowest values in
hardness and chewiness, since all inulin was leached to
cooking water generating holes in proteinstarch matrix,
which explains the decrease in springiness while sub-
stitution increases. No differences were observed in
cohesiveness.
Scanning Electron Microscopy
In order to evaluate the integrity of protein starch
matrix in fiber-enriched pasta, the microstructure of
pasta was analyzed by SEM.
SEM techniques were used to investigate the struc-
tural integrity of pasta with addition of fiber. Samples
with 10% of ARII, ARIV and OF and a control sample
were evaluated.
Internal structure of cooked pasta is shown in
Figure 2. Control sample presented swollen and
Table 3. Textural characteristics of fiber
enriched pasta.
Samples
a
Hardness
(N) Springiness Cohesiveness
Chewiness
(N)
Control 1.39 b 0.88 a 0.68 a 0.83 a
RSII2.5 1.35 c 0.89 a 0.66 a 0.80 a
RSII5.0 1.41 b 0.87 a 0.68 a 0.84 a
RSII7.5 1.34 c 0.89 a 0.69 a 0.82 a
RSII10.0 1.46 a 0.86 b 0.67 a 0.81 a
RSIV2.5 1.41 b 0.84 b 0.66 b 0.68 b
RSIV5.0 1.48 a 0.85 b 0.67 a 0.71 b
RSIV7.5 1.50 a 0.87 a 0.67 a 0.69 b
RSIV10.0 1.50 a 0.85 b 0.65 b 0.71 b
OB2.5 1.32 c 0.87 a 0.66 b 0.68 b
OB5.0 1.34 c 0.85 b 0.64 b 0.69 b
OB7.5 1.22 d 0.85 b 0.64 b 0.66 c
OB10.0 1.22 d 0.82 c 0.61 c 0.62 c
IN2.5 1.06 e 0.87 a 0.68 a 0.63 c
IN5.0 1.08 e 0.87 a 0.69 a 0.64 c
IN7.5 1.24 d 0.85 b 0.69 a 0.66 c
IN10.0 1.22 d 0.82 c 0.68 a 0.69 b
a
Resistant starch type II enriched pasta (RSII), Resistant Starch type IV
enriched pasta (RSIV), Oat bran enriched pasta (OB), and Inulin enriched
pasta (IN).
Values are the average of triplicate measurements on the duplicate sample.
Values followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly
different (p>0.05).
Table 2. Color parameters of fiber enriched pasta.
Samples
a
L*b*a*
Control 70.4 c 14.0 f 0.49 f
RSII2.5 71.1 c 14.3 e 0.55 f
RSII5.0 72.0 a 13.9 f 0.46 F
RSII7.5 71.8 a 14.3 e 0.51 f
RSII10.0 71.8 a 13.8 g 0.25 d
RSIV2.5 70.0 d 14.0 f 0.12 c
RSIV5.0 70.0 d 13.0 i 0.24 d
RSIV7. 5 69.9 d 11.5 j 0.38 e
RSIV10.0 69.7 d 10.8 k 0.41 e
OB2.5 69.3 e 16.8 d 0.39 e
OB5.0 68.1 f 18.9 c 0.11 c
OB7.5 67.4 g 20.4 b 0.05 b
OB10.0 66.5 h 21.8 a 0.37 a
IN2.5 71.1 b 13.6 g 0.41 e
IN5.0 71.4 a 13.2 h 0.48 f
IN7.5 71.0 b 13.4 g 0.52 f
IN10.0 71.3 b 13.1 h 0.52 f
a
Resistant starch type II enriched pasta (RSII), Resistant Starch type IV
enriched pasta (RSIV), Oat bran enriched pasta (OB) and Inulin enriched
pasta (IN).
Values are the average of triplicate measurements on the duplicate sample.
Values followed by the same letter within a column are not significantly dif-
ferent (p>0.05).
6M.C. BUSTOS ET AL.
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gelatinized starch granules which appear to be inte-
grated in a developed protein matrix to form a compact
structure, with a few starch granules no gelatinized
(Figure 2(a)). Pasta with addition of RSII (Figure
2(b)) presented an internal structure with a further
dense proteinpolysaccharidestarch matrix compared
to control, gelatinized and no gelatinized starch granules
were also present.
Figure 2. Typical scanning electron microscopy images obtained on the control sample (a) and samples having
10% of RSII, RSIV, and OF (b, c and d, respectively).
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
RSII RSI O B IN
P
rotein losses (%)
Control 2.5% 5.0% 7.5% 10.0%
BBBB
C
B
CCCDDD
A
B
BCC
B
Figure 3. Protein losses of cooked fiber enriched pasta. Control sample presented a protein loss value of 2.19%.
Columns with the same letters are not significantly different ( p<0.05).
Technological Quality of Pasta 7
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RSIV-enriched pasta micrographs (Figure 2(c))
showed a protein matrix similar to control sample, but
the degree of gelatinization of starch granules seem to be
higher in this enriched pasta.
In contrast to this observation, pasta with OF micro-
graphs (Figure 2(d)) presented a weaker protein
network, starch granules were not completely embedded
in that film and OFs appear not to be associated with
protein matrix. Many holes were also apparent between
protein and starch granules.
These results agrees with results obtained in the cook-
ing properties evaluation for all types of fiber-enriched
pasta.
Nutritional Parameters
The evaluation of the nutritional quality of fiber-
enriched pasta is important to relate this product with
healthy properties. One aspect of nutritional evaluation
in products like pasta is to analyze which types of nutri-
ents are lost during cooking; because of this, protein
losses were evaluated (Figure 3). RSII-enriched pasta
showed protein losses not significantly different from
control (except for 10%). This agrees with the idea
that RS increases cooking quality of pasta, inhibiting
the leaching of solids to cooking water reported by
Sozer et al. (2007).
Pasta with RSIV showed a decrease in protein losses
with increased levels of substitution. This may be
because the RSIV integrates into the structure encapsu-
lating the native starch, which agrees with the results
obtained for cooking properties.
Oat bran-enriched pasta showed, at low degrees of
substitution (2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5%), lower protein
losses during cooking, when compared to control. This
may be because this type of fiber generates a semisolid
network that inhibits protein losses. At 10% of sub-
stitution, protein losses increased dramatically because
the fiber added generated an important disruption in
the protein network. All these observations agree with
the results obtained in the cooking properties evaluation.
Pasta with inulin addition presented a significant
decrease in protein losses during cooking at 7.5% and
10.0% because inulin hydrates quickly, making starch
and protein fractions of the pasta more discrete and
less incorporated into a matrix. During cooking, all
inulin is leached to cooking water; the starch is not
encapsulated and may form a ‘starchy’ layer at the sur-
face of the product (Tudorica
˘et al., 2002) that restricts
leaching of proteins.
Total dietary fiber contents were determined in RSII,
RSIV and OB; inulin enriched pasta was not analyzed
because no inulin was present in cooked pasta (Figure 4).
Total dietary fiber values (g/100 g pasta) ranged from
6.4% (for 2.5% of substitution with RSIV) to 14.3%
(for 10% of substitution with OB), with a control
sample showing a value of 5.1% of total dietary fiber.
Addition of three different types of insoluble dietary
fiber results in a significant increase in total dietary
fiber contents, when compared to control. This implies
that despite the results obtained in cooking losses, no
significant fiber was lost during cooking.
The dietary fiber content of a normal serving (100 g)
of pasta with 10% addition of any of these insoluble
fibers covers around 37% and 57% of the dietary refer-
ence intakes for fiber in male and female, respectively
(Institute of Medicine of the National Academies, 2005).
CONCLUSION
From the overall results, it could be concluded that
the addition of fibers to wheat flour modifies the quality
of pasta. This study confirms that the addition of inulin,
a soluble fiber, negatively alters the structure of pasta
and that during cooking all the fiber is lost in cooking
water, giving a poor quality product with high cooking
losses. In consequence, the inclusion of inulin in prod-
ucts cooked in boiling water should be avoided because
it lacks a technological or nutritional support.
At the same time, the inclusion of oat bran into pasta
positively affects the cooking properties of final prod-
ucts up to 5.0% of substitution. Conversely, although
RSs are considerable insoluble dietary fibers, their inclu-
sion into pasta results in pasta with improved final qual-
ity, very low cooking losses and increased hardness.
Pasta in which resistant starches (RSII and RSIV) and
oat bran replaced 10% and 5% of wheat flour, respec-
tively, were considered acceptable and could be labeled
as ‘good’ fiber sources, since they provide 11.8% for
RSII, 12.2% for RSIV and 14.3% for OF of total die-
tary fiber, compared to the 5.1% in the all wheat pasta.
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
RSII RSI OB
Total dietary fibre content (%)
Control 2.5% 5.0% 7.5% 10.0%
H
F
E
C
B
G
E
C
B
F
D
B
A
Figure 4. Total dietary fiber of cooked insoluble
enriched pasta. Control sample presented a total
dietary fiber value of 5.1%. Columns with the same
letters are not significantly different ( p<0.05).
8M.C. BUSTOS ET AL.
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The production of food products with good tech-
nological quality and high fiber content represents a
contribution to dietary improvement in the general pop-
ulation. Considering the physiological effects of insolu-
ble fiber, its incorporation into pasta has the potential to
regulate glycemic response without compromising the
quality of the final product. Further work is required
to identify clearly the interactions between insoluble
fiber and proteinstarch matrix and how this affects
starch degradation and reduction in glucose release.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank Agencia Nacional de Promocio
´n
Cientı
´fica y Tecnolo
´gica (ANPCyT) and CYTED proj-
ect (PANXTODOS P106AC0301) for providing finan-
cial assistance and Gelfix S.A. (Argentina) and Saporiti
S.A. (Argentina) for providing fiber samples.
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Technological Quality of Pasta 9
1
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... This event was exposed by Wojtowicz and Moscicki [38] as well as Bouacida et al. [16]. Bustos et al. [6] showed that the extra oat bran disrupted the formation of the protein-starch matrix of the pasta, leading to lower values of firmness. The decrease in pasta firmness could be associated with the role of non-gluten proteins or the insoluble fiber present in the plant material (by-products), which might interfere with the continuity of the gluten matrix, probably making it weaker [25,39]. ...
... Byproducts have an apparent effect on the a* value, leading to a greener hue in the pasta. This enhancement in greenness could be due to the lignin component that composes fiber; lignin has an aromatic structure and might cause more Maillard reactions with other components in the food matrix [6]. Therefore, the pastas enriched with by-products have a darker tint. ...
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... These results related to the fact that WB and seeds flours are not white, so that the L* parameter decreases with the fiber substitution. This result was in agreement with the previous findings (Bustos et al., 2011;Makhlouf et al., 2019) in which a significant decrease in L* value was observed when fiber was incorporated in pasta formulations. But, there was no noticeable difference in lightness between formulations containing WB, QSS, and WSS in cooked pasta. ...
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In recent years, dietary fibers have attracted a lot of attention as they reduce calories and witness the glycemic index. In this study, wheat bran (WB) and mucilaginous seeds flour (Qodume Shirazi seeds [QSS], wild sage seeds [WSS]) as sources of insoluble and soluble dietary fiber were used for pasta enrichment (50% WB, 45% WB–5% seed flour, and 40% WB–10% seed flour). The cooking properties, microstructural, textural, glycemic index, and sensory properties of pasta samples were evaluated. Fiber ingredients increased moisture content, cooking loss, and ash of pasta samples. In contrast, swelling indexing, optimum cooking time, and water absorption decreased. The samples containing high fiber had a darker appearance with a stiffer structure. Microstructure confirmed the presence of a developed protein matrix in the witness sample. But by substitution of the WB, a heterogeneous and dense network with small and large cells formed. The mucilaginous seed flours (WB–QSS and WB–WSS samples) improved the uniformity of pasta microstructure in comparison with WB sample. WB pasta samples reduced all sensory scores, but adding seed flours had a more noticeable influence on increasing the sensory properties. The presence of QSS and WSS resulted in more starchy and elastic texture. By using mucilaginous seeds flour in the production of high-fiber pasta, the glycemic index decreased more noticeably. This investigation indicates the positive impact of mucilaginous seeds, especially WSS, on pasta sensorial properties, in line with a strong influence on technological characteristics and decreasing the glycemic index. Practical Application This study determined a practical approach to produce high-fiber pasta by applying mucilaginous seeds with the improvement of technological and sensory properties.
Article
Dietary fiber intakes in Western societies are concerningly low and do not reflect global recommended dietary fiber intakes for chronic disease prevention. Resistant starch (RS) is a fermentable dietary fiber that has attracted research interest. As an isolated ingredient, its fine particle size, relatively bland flavor, and white appearance may offer an appealing fiber source to the Western palate, accustomed to highly refined, processed grains. This review aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the current knowledge (classification, production methods, and characterization methods), health benefits, applications, and acceptability of RS. It further discusses the present market for commercially available RS ingredients and products containing ingredients high in RS. The literature currently highlights beneficial effects for dietary RS supplementation with respect to glucose metabolism, satiety, blood lipid profiles, and colonic health. An exploration of the market for commercial RS ingredients indicates a diverse range of products (from isolated RS2, RS3, and RS4) with numerous potential applications as partial or whole substitutes for traditional flour sources. They may increase the nutritional profile of a food product (e.g., by increasing the fiber content and lowering energy values) without significantly compromising its sensory and functional properties. Incorporating RS ingredients into staple food products (such as bread, pasta, and sweet baked goods) may thus offer an array of nutritional benefits to the consumer and a highly accessible functional ingredient to be greater exploited by the food industry.
Article
The formulation of semolina pasta with reduced starch digestibility is of prime importance to deal with the adverse effects of the intake of rapidly digested carbohydrates on human health. This work focused on the effects of the production method (extrusion and lamination) and the addition of commercial Type 2 resistant starch (RS) on the molecular organization and in vitro starch digestibility of semolina pasta. Semolina was substituted with different levels of Type 2 RS for assessing the effect of this dietary fiber. The RS addition reduced the protein solubility and accessible thiols groups, with extruded pasta having higher protein solubility and lower accessible thiols than laminated pasta. Starch ordered structures increased with the RS addition. The increase of the RS in the pasta formulation resulted in a higher α-helix content and decreased β-sheet structures. In vitro starch digestibility was higher for extruded pasta, whilst the levels of RDS and SDS fractions decreased with the addition of RS. It was concluded that the preparation method in combination with RS addition has a determinant impact on the molecular organization and in vitro starch digestibility of semolina-based pasta, providing new insights on the possibilities of improving the health-beneficial features of this widely consumed product.
Article
In this study, two different lupin flour obtained from debittered seeds by ultrasound application and traditional method (at 0-20% ratios), and resistant starch type 4 (RS4) (at 0-10% ratios) were used in pasta preparation to improve its nutritional quality. Experiments conducted at (2x4x3)x2 factorial design. Use of ultrasound-treated lupin flour in pasta revealed similar chemical, thermal and sensory properties to lupin flour debittered by traditional method. The replacement of semolina with lupin flour enhanced protein, dietary fiber and mineral content of pasta. Addition of lupin flour or RS4 increased cooking loss and firmness values of pasta. Pasta containing 20% lupin flour and 10% RS4 had higher gelatinization onset temperature values, and lower enthalpy than 100% semolina pasta. Use of RS4 in pasta reduced in vitro glycemic index without having any adverse effect on the sensory properties. The current findings indicate that it is possible to produce pasta with acceptable cooking quality and sensory properties and improved nutritional quality by adding 15% ultrasound treated-lupin flour+5-10% RS4.
Article
Light and dark buckwheat, amaranth, and lupin flours were substituted for extra fancy and fancy durum wheat flours at 5, 15, 25, and 30% to produce multigrain pastas. The samples were analyzed for color, cooked weight, firmness, cooking loss (total solids) and total carbohydrate loss in the cooking water, in vitro protein digestibility, lysine content, and sensory attributes. Color scores of spaghetti containing light buckwheat and amaranth decreased as the substitution level increased. Color scores of dry spaghetti containing lupin remained constant at all substitution levels (10.3 average). The optimum cooking time of spaghetti was similar in all samples, about 11.3 min. The majority of the samples exhibited acceptable cooked weights of about three times the dry weight. The cooking loss ranged from 7,2 to 8.0%, significantly higher than that of the controls but still at acceptable levels. Samples containing dark buckwheat and amaranth showed significantly lower firmness values than the control durum-flour spaghettis. Total carbohydrate in the cooking water was independent of substitution level within a flour. Samples in which amaranth was substituted for durum showed the highest total carbohydrate in the water (2.7%), and those with lupin showed the lowest (1.2%). Lupin containing spaghetti showed higher in vitro protein digestibility content (86.4%) than did the controls and the other composite samples (averages 85.5 and 84.3%, respectively). The lysine content increased as the substitution level increased, and lupin-containing spaghetti showed the highest lysine values (average 3.2 g/100 g of protein). Sensory evaluation showed that changes in texture and flavor were detected at 30% light buckwheat, 15% dark buckwheat, 25% amaranth, and 15% lupin. The results showed that multigrain pasta can be produced with higher leveIs of lysine than commercial pasta made of 100% durum wheat flour and also with acceptable cooking quality and sensory attributes.
Article
Cereal Chem. 79(6):819-825 Resistant starches (RS) were prepared by phosphorylation of wheat, waxy wheat, corn, waxy corn, high-amylose corn, oat, rice, tapioca, mung bean, banana, and potato starches in aqueous slurry ( 33% starch solids, w/w) with 1-19% (starch basis) of a 99:1 (w/w) mixture of sodium trimetaphosphate (STMP) and sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP) at pH 10.5-12.3 and 25-70°C for 0.5-24 hr with sodium sulfate or sodium chloride at 0-20% (starch basis). The RS4 products contain 100% dietary fiber when assayed with the total dietary fiber method of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). In vitro digestion of four RS4 wheat starches showed they contained 13-22% slowly digestible starch (SDS) and 36-66% RS. However after gelatinization, RS levels fell by 7-25% of ungelatinized levels, while SDS levels remained nearly the same. The cross-linked RS4 starches were distinguished from native starches by elevated phosphorus levels, low swelling powers ( 3 g/g) at 95°C, insolubilities (
Article
Cereal Chem. 76(3):417-420 Six oat genotypes were grown in nursery yield trials during 1989-1992 at Lisbon, ND. Groats were analyzed for soluble and insoluble dietary fiber content and composition. Genotype-by-growing year interaction was not significant for soluble or insoluble dietary fiber. Soluble and insoluble dietary fiber differed with genotype (6.0-7.1% and 4.1- 4.9%, respec- tively) and with growing year (6.0-6.9% and 3.9-5.2%, respectively). The genotype-by-growing year interaction was significant for soluble β- glucan content but not for total neutral sugar or uronic acid content of the soluble dietary fiber. Genotypes did vary in total neutral sugar content but not in uronic acid content. The genotype-by-growing year interaction was not significant for total neutral sugar, β-glucan, uronic acid, or Klason lignin content of insoluble dietary fiber. Genotypes did vary in total neutral sugar, β-glucan, and Klason lignin content but not in uronic acid content of insoluble dietary fiber. The neutral sugar content of soluble dietary fiber was composed of glucose, arabinose, xylose, and galactose. The neutral sugar content of insoluble fiber was composed of glucose, arabinose, and xylose. The content and composition of soluble and insoluble dietary fiber varied with oat genotype. Therefore, oat genotypes could be bred for specific dietary fiber content and composition. The health benefits from consumption of dietary fiber from cereal grain has increased interest in oat dietary fiber. Dietary fiber is the portion of plant cells that is not digested in the human small intestine and can affect utilization of food by the body. Physiological effects of dietary fiber partly depend on the extent
Article
The quality of nine spaghetti typologies, produced by using wheat durum semolina as a base plus the addition of buckwheat and durum wheat bran, was investigated. The quality of the produced spaghetti was compared with that of spaghetti made only of durum semolina (CTRL). Tests were run on the samples to determine breakage susceptibility and colour of dry spaghetti, the cooking resistance, instrumental stickiness at optimal cooking time (OCT) and overcooking, the cooking loss and sensorial attributes at the optimal cooking time. Results suggest that the breakage susceptibility decreases with the addition of 15% and 20% bran, the spaghetti dry colour changes with the addition of buckwheat flour and bran compared to the spaghetti made only of durum semolina, while the cooking resistance, instrumental stickiness and the cooking loss, in general, were equal to that of the CTRL. However, the addition of buckwheat flour and bran affected the sensorial attributes differently.
Article
Population studies have shown that whole grain consumption is associated with diminished risk of serious, diet-related diseases, which are major problems in wealthy industrialised economies and are emerging in developing countries with greater affluence. These conditions include coronary heart disease, certain cancers (especially of the large bowel), inflammatory bowel disease and disordered laxation. Carbohydrates are important contributors to the health benefits of whole grains. Insoluble non-starch polysaccharides (NSP, major components of dietary fibre) are effective laxatives. Soluble NSP (especially mixed-link β-glucans) lower plasma cholesterol and so can reduce heart disease risk but the effect is inconsistent. Processing seems to be an important contributor to this variability and other grain components may be involved. However, starch not digested in the small intestine (resistant starch, RS) appears to be as important as NSP to large bowel function. Dietary analysis suggests that some populations (e.g. native Africans) at low risk of diet-related disease through consumption of unrefined cereals may actually have relatively low fibre intakes. While NSP are effective faecal bulking agents, they are fermented to a very variable extent by the large bowel microflora. In contrast, RS seems to act largely through the short chain fatty acids (SCFA) produced by these bacteria. One SCFA (butyrate) appears to be particularly effective in promoting large bowel function and RS fermentation appears to favour butyrate production. Animal studies show that dietary RS lowers diet-induced colonocyte genetic damage and chemically-induced large bowel cancer which correlates with increased butyrate. These effects could contribute to a lower risk of cancer and ulcerative colitis in the long term. Cereal grain oligosaccharide (OS) may also function as prebiotics and increase the levels of beneficial bacteria in the large bowel. Understanding the relationships between NSP, RS and OS and large bowel health will be facilitated by the advent of new molecular technologies to identify the bacterial species involved. The potential for improvements in public health is considerable.
Article
A modified procedure for the determination of amylose in cereal starches and flours based on complex formation between the lectin concanavalin A (Con A) and amylopectin has been developed and characterised. The assay format is suitable for multi-sample analysis, allowing the analysis of up to 20 samples per day. In the procedure, the amylopectin in a solubilised, lipid-free starch sample is precipitated by reaction with Con A and removed by centrifugation. The amylose remaining in the supernatant is then determined after amylolytic hydrolysis to glucose and expressed as a proportion (%) of the glucose derived from amylolytic hydrolysis of the total starch in a separate aliquot of the solubilised sample (i.e. prior to Con A treatment). The Con A procedure correlates well (r>0·993) with existing Con A-based and iodine-based procedures and yields a linear standard curve for starch samples containing from ∼0 to ∼100% amylose. Advantages of this modified Con A procedure for amylose determination include its applicability to flour samples without the need for prior starch purification; it allows the simultaneous estimation of total starch and does not require a calibration curve. Repeated analyses of a set of samples yielded repeatability (within laboratory) relative standard deviations of
Article
Cereal Chem. 79(6):838-842 Stickiness of cooked noodles, generally defined as a maximum force in tension after compression, depends on the compression force, contact area, and physical properties of the noodles. In the conventional method of measuring stickiness, only compression force was set as a standard, neglecting the other probable influencing factors. A modified method was developed for measuring contact area between noodles and a probe, in addition to the compression force. Four specimens with varying starch contents (0, 30, 60, and 90%) were tested to evaluate the new method for measuring cooked noodle stickiness. Contact area calculated from the displacement of probe at the compression condition was not consistent among the noodle samples. A corrected stickiness and a corrected compression force were defined as a simple stickiness directly measured for the contact area and the compression force measured for the contact area, respectively. This method proved to be a more effective means in differentiating the stickiness among noodle samples (than using just com- pression force factors). The order in the corrected stickiness magnitudes among the noodles was consistent regardlessof specimen amount used in the measurements, whereas that of the simple stickiness was inconsistent when different size samples were used. The corrected compression force estimated from a fixed simple compression force, which is a true compression stress, varied among the noodles. Accordingly, the corrected compression force was a more accurate criteria for stickiness measurements than was the simple compression force, which subjects the specimens to only differences in compression for stickiness comparison. The corrected stickiness results showed greater relationship to sensory stickiness and starch content than the simple stickiness measurement.
Article
Light and dark buckwheat, amaranth, and lupin flours were substituted for extra fancy and fancy durum wheat flours at 5, 15, 25, and 30% to produce multigrain pastas. The samples were analyzed for color, cooked weight, firmness, cooking loss (total solids) and total carbohydrate loss in the cooking water, in vitro protein digestibility, lysine content, and sensory attributes. Color scores of spaghetti containing light buckwheat and amaranth decreased as the substitution level increased. Color scores of dry spaghetti containing lupin remained constant at all substitution levels (10.3 average). The optimum cooking time of spaghetti was similar in all samples, about 11.3 min. The majority of the samples exhibited acceptable cooked weights of about three times the dry weight. The cooking loss ranged from 7.2 to 8.0%, significantly higher than that of the controls but still at acceptable levels. Samples containing dark buckwheat and amaranth showed significantly lower firmness values than the control durum-flour spaghettis. Total carbohydrate in the Annual pasta consumption in the United States increased from 11 lb per person in 1975 to 19 lb in 1991 (Duxbury 1992) and is projected to reach 30 lb per person by the year 2000 (Hamblin 1991). In comparison, annual consumption in Italy is 60 lb per capita (Anonymous 1992). cooking water was independent of substitution level within a flour. Samples in which amaranth was substituted for durum showed the highest total carbohydrate in the water (2.7%), and those with lupin showed the lowest (1.2%). Lupin-containing spaghetti showed higher in vitro protein digestibility content (86.4%) than did the controls and the other composite samples (averages 85.5 and 84.3%, respectively). The lysine content increased as the substitution level increased, and lupin- containing spaghetti showed the highest lysine values (average 3.2 g/l00 g of protein). Sensory evaluation showed that changes in texture and flavor were detected at 30% light buckwheat, 15% dark buckwheat, 25% amaranth, and 15% lupin. The results showed that multigrain pasta can be produced with higher levels of lysine than commercial pasta made of 100% durum wheat flour and also with acceptable cooking quality and sensory attributes.