Fat caves: caveolae, lipid trafficking and lipid metabolism in adipocytes. Trends Endocrinol Metab

Department of Biochemistry Boston University School of Medicine, 72 East Concord St., Boston, MA 02118, USA.
Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism (Impact Factor: 9.39). 05/2011; 22(8):318-24. DOI: 10.1016/j.tem.2011.04.001
Source: PubMed


Caveolae are subdomains of the eukaryotic cell surface, so named because they resemble little caves, being small omega-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane into the cytosol. They are present in many cell types, and are especially abundant in adipocytes, in which they have been implicated as playing a role in lipid metabolism. Thus, mice and humans lacking caveolae have small adipocytes and exhibit lipodystrophies along with other physiological abnormalities. In this review, we examine the evidence supporting the role of caveolae in adipocyte lipid metabolism in the context of the protein and lipid composition of these structures.

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Available from: Libin Liu, Jun 13, 2014
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    • "Cav1-null adipocytes also exhibit increased ROS (Asterholm et al., 2012) and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis (Ding et al., 2014). In addition to nutrient handling, caveolae are also sites of membrane receptor clustering, e.g., for insulin, -AR, and adiponectin signaling (Pilch and Liu, 2011; Wang et al., 2014). Adipocytes may, therefore, serve as a model for better understanding the many roles of caveolae that are highly relevant across other areas of cell biology. "
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    ABSTRACT: Adipose tissue is a complex, multicellular organ that profoundly influences the function of nearly all other organ systems through its diverse metabolite and adipokine secretome. Adipocytes are the primary cell type of adipose tissue and play a key role in maintaining energy homeostasis. The efficiency with which adipose tissue responds to whole-body energetic demands reflects the ability of adipocytes to adapt to an altered nutrient environment, and has profound systemic implications. Deciphering adipocyte cell biology is an important component of understanding how the aberrant physiology of expanding adipose tissue contributes to the metabolic dysregulation associated with obesity. © 2015 Rutkowski et al.
    Preview · Article · Mar 2015 · The Journal of Cell Biology
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    • "These cup-shaped invaginations of the plasma membrane are expressed in many cell types and are most abundant in adipocytes, endothelial and smooth muscle cells (reviewed in [3], [4], [5]). Caveolae have been suggested to play a role in a variety of pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease and loss of caveolae causes muscular and lipodystrophies, insulin resistance and cardiovascular defects amongst a variety of other abnormalities (reviewed in [5]). Recently it has been suggested caveolae also plays a role as mechanosensor [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The cavins are a family of proteins associated with caveolae, cavin-1, -2 and -3 being widely expressed while cavin-4 is restricted to striated muscle. Deletion of cavin-1 results in phenotypes including metabolic changes consistent with adipocyte dysfunction, and caveolae are completely absent. Deletion of cavin-2 causes tissue-specific loss of caveolae. The consequences of cavin-3 deletion are less clear, as there are divergent data on the abundance of caveolae in cavin-3 null mice. Here we examine the consequences of cavin-3 deficiency in vivo by making cavin-3 knockout mice. We find that loss of cavin-3 has minimal or no effects on the levels of other caveolar proteins, does not appear to play a major role in formation of protein complexes important for caveolar morphogenesis, and has no significant effect on caveolae abundance. Cavin-3 null mice have the same body weight and fat mass as wild type animals at ages 8 through 30 weeks on both normal chow and high fat diets. Likewise, the two mouse strains exhibit identical glucose tolerance tests on both diets. Microarray analysis from adipose tissue shows that the changes in mRNA expression between cavin-3 null and wild type mouse are minimal. We conclude that cavin-3 is not absolutely required for making caveolae, and suggest that the mechanistic link between cavin-3 and metabolic regulation remains uncertain.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "Caveole is a nanosized, conelike invagination in the cytosol direction of liquiddordering of the memm brane fragment. It is determined by the polymerizaa tion of the specific protein caveolin (Pilch, Liu, 2011; Sowa, 2012). Caveolae may fuse into larger structures with a size more than 150 nm (Scherer et al., 1994). "
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    ABSTRACT: Working out of the role of lipids incorporated into membranes and the formation of a new view on the morphology, organization, and functioning of membranes has in the recent past taken place thanks to active study of the basic membrane clusters, rafts. In this overview, current data on the morphology and biophysical and biochemical features of rafts are summarized and the structure, form, and basic marker proteins of functional microdomains are described.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2013 · Cell and Tissue Biology
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