Dietary supplement use among U.S. adults has increased since NHANES III (1988–1994)

CDC's NCHS, Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys , Hyattsville, Maryland 20782, USA.
NCHS data brief 04/2011; 61(61):1-8.
Source: PubMed


KEY FINDINGS: Use of dietary supplements is common among the U.S. adult population. Over 40% used supplements in 1988-1994, and over one-half in 2003-2006. Multivitamins/multiminerals are the most commonly used dietary supplements, with approximately 40% of men and women reporting use during 2003-2006. Use of supplemental calcium increased from 28% during 1988-1994 to 61% during 2003-2006 among women aged 60 and over. Use of supplements containing folic acid among women aged 20-39 did not increase since 1988-1994. In 2003-2006, 34% of women aged 20-39 used a dietary supplement containing folic acid. Use of dietary supplements containing vitamin D increased from 1988-1994 through 1999-2002 for men and women in most age groups. Dietary supplements can contain nutrients in amounts as high as or higher than the Institute of Medicine's Recommended Dietary Reference Intakes, therefore contributing substantially to total nutrient intake. Dietary supplements are widely available to U.S. consumers, and monitoring their use over time is an important component of the National Nutrition Monitoring System. Failure to include these nutrients when assessing the adequacy of diets and nutrition in the U.S. population may lead to inaccurate and misleading results. This report provides estimates of dietary supplement use for specific population groups over time. In addition to overall use of dietary supplements, this report focuses on estimates for specific nutrients consumed through dietary supplement use.

Download full-text


Available from: Regan L Bailey, Mar 18, 2014
  • Source
    • "DHS contain one or more, or a combination of the following ingredients: a vitamin, a mineral, an amino acid, herbs or botanicals. The DHS use among adults In United States has increased from over 40% for the period 1988 to 1994 to over one-half for 2003 to 2006 period [4]. In Singapore, selfreported intakes from the 2004 National Nutrition Survey indicated that 34.3% of Singaporeans consume DHS. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dietary health supplements (DHS)-drug interaction risk may be greater in patients requiring numerous medications; yet little is known about DHS use in hospitalized patients. This study aims to characterize patients who use DHS, to evaluate the association between DHS use and socio-demographic, lifestyle and dietary habits; and to investigate whether users report DHS use to healthcare professionals (HCPs). Patients admitted to the medical wards, with age ≥21 years, medically stable, cognitively intact and conversant in English, Mandarin or Malay language were interviewed by a dietitian. Of the 100 patients surveyed, up to 42% were DHS users. They tend to be non-smokers (98%) (p = 0.02) with higher daily fruit intake of at least two servings (31%) (p = 0.02), daily milk intake of at least one cup (21%) (p = 0.03) and whole grain bread intake of at least once a day (31%) (p < 0.05) when compared with non-users. DHS were mostly used for general well being, disease prevention and treatment. However, more than half of the users did not inform HCPs about DHS use as they were not asked by HCPs. Our findings have important implication by raising concern for DHS–drug interaction given the low disclosure rate of DHS use and poor inquiring by HCPs.
    Preview · Article · Oct 2014 · PharmaNutrition
  • Source
    • "Similar findings have been shown internationally. In an analysis of the NHANES III study, Gahche showed that the use of dietary supplements containing vitamin D increased from 29.7% of individuals in 1988–1994 to as high as 56.3% in women aged 60 and over in 2003–2006, whereas, in individuals aged 20–39, the rate remained around 22–26% for males and 30–34% for females [15]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High rates of vitamin D deficiency and testing have been reported in Australia, yet there are few reports regarding vitamin D supplement use. Australian wholesale sales data was obtained for vitamin D supplements for the period 2000–2011. There has been a threefold increase in supplement sales over the past decade, whereby over A$94 million supplements containing vitamin D in Australia were sold during the year 2010. There were eighty-nine manufacturers that produce a variety of 195 vitamin D products. The amount of vitamin D in these products varies considerably, from 40 to 1000 IU per unit, although supplements containing only vitamin D had the highest amount of vitamin D. There was a trend for sales to increase in winter months. Given the potential public health benefits of vitamin D, there is an urgent need for a better understanding of supplementation use and for the development of supplementation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of nutrition and metabolism
  • Source
    • "Military personnel use DSs for a variety of reasons including compensation for presumed inadequacy of their diet, prevention of illness, improving mental health, increasing energy levels, and overcoming feelings of psychological stress.3,6 Similarly, civilians report the use of DSs to reduce physical and mental stress, anxiety, and fatigue, as well as to increase energy levels.2,7–10 Despite these reports, little research has examined the relationship of DS use to psychological status in healthy populations. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: AbstractApproximately 60% of Armed Forces personnel regularly consume dietary supplements (DSs). We investigated the association of mood and health behaviors with multiple classes of DSs in military and Coast Guard personnel (N = 5536). Participants completed a survey of DS use and the Quick Mood Scale to assess mood domains of wakeful-drowsiness, relaxed-anxious, cheerful-depressed, friendly-aggression, clearheaded-confused, and well coordinated–clumsy. Supplements were categorized as multivitamin/minerals (MVM), individual vitamin/minerals, protein/amino acid supplements (PS), combination products (C), herbals (H), purported steroid analogs, (S) and other (O). One-way analyses of covariance assessed associations of DSs and perceived health behavior with mood controlling for age. Logistic regression determined associations between DS use and health behavior. Users of MVM and PS reported feeling significantly (P < 0.05) more awake, relaxed, cheerful, clearheaded, and coordinated. Participants using PS and S reported feeling less friendly (more aggressive, P < 0.02). Users of MVM and PS were more likely to report their general health, eating habits, and fitness level as excellent/good (P < 0.05). Participants reporting health behaviors as excellent/good were more (P < 0.01) awake, relaxed, cheerful, friendly, clearheaded, and coordinated. As no known biological mechanisms can explain such diverse effects of MVM and PS use on multiple mood states, health, eating habits, and fitness, we hypothesize these associations are not causal, and DS intake does not alter these parameters per se. Preexisting differences in mood and other health-related behaviors and outcomes between users versus nonusers of DSs could be a confounding factor in studies of DSs.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Show more