Induced Migration of Dental Pulp Stem Cells for in vivo Pulp Regeneration

Center for Craniofacial Regeneration (CCR), Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science, Columbia University Medical Center, Columbia University, 630 W. 168 St. – PH7E-CDM, New York, NY 10032, USA.
Journal of dental research (Impact Factor: 4.14). 05/2011; 90(8):1013-8. DOI: 10.1177/0022034511408426
Source: PubMed


Dental pulp has intrinsic capacity for self-repair. However, it is not clear whether dental pulp cells can be recruited endogenously for regenerating pulp tissues, including mineralizing into dentin. This work is based on a hypothesis that dental pulp stem/progenitor cells can be induced to migrate by chemotactic cytokines and act as endogenous cell sources for regeneration and mineralization. Dental stem cells (DSCs) were isolated from adult human tooth pulp and seeded on the surfaces of 3D collagen gel cylinders that were incubated in chemically defined media with stromal-derived factor-1α (SDF1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), or bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7). Significantly more cells were recruited into collagen gel by SDF1 or bFGF than without cytokines in 7 days, whereas BMP7 had little effect on cell recruitment. BMP7, however, was highly effective, equally to dexamethasone, in orchestrating mineralization of cultured DSCs. Cell membrane receptors for SDF1, bFGF, and BMP7 were up-regulated in treated DSCs. Upon in vivo delivery, bFGF induced re-cellularization and re-vascularization in endodontically treated human teeth implanted into the dorsum of rats. Thus, endogenous dental pulp cells, including stem/progenitor cells, may be recruited and subsequently differentiated by chemotaxis of selective cytokines in the regeneration of dental pulp.

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    • "Nanomaterials specifically able to attract DPSC to the injured site from the healthy part of the pulp can also be very interesting to develop[6,7,19,20]. Some authors showed than SFD-1 (stromal cell-derived factor-1) and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor) are good molecules to induce this "cell homing" of DPSC[26]. PDGF (platelet-derived growth factor) and bFGF also promote the recruitment of local host competent cells for dental pulp regeneration[27]. The bone morphogenetic proteins also play an important role in the biology of pulp cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: The vitality of the pulp is fundamental to the functional life of the tooth. For this aim, active and living biomaterials are required to avoid the current drastic treatment, which is the removal of all the cellular and molecular content regardless of its regenerative potential. The regeneration of the pulp tissue is the dream of many generations of dental surgeons and will revolutionize clinical practices. Recently, the potential of the regenerative medicine field suggests that it would be possible to achieve such complex regeneration. Indeed, three crucial steps are needed: the control of infection and inflammation and the regeneration of lost pulp tissues. For regenerative medicine, in particular for dental pulp regeneration, the use of nano-structured biomaterials becomes decisive. Nano-designed materials allow the concentration of many different functions in a small volume, the increase in the quality of targeting, as well as the control of cost and delivery of active molecules. Nanomaterials based on extracellular mimetic nanostructure and functionalized with multi-active therapeutics appear essential to reverse infection and inflammation and concomitantly to orchestrate pulp cell colonization and differentiation. This novel generation of nanomaterials seems very promising to meet the challenge of the complex dental pulp regeneration.
    No preview · Article · Nov 2015 · Materials
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    • "Donor-matched alveolar bone chips were cut into minute pieces per our prior methods (Yang et al. 2010; Suzuki et al. 2011). Both DPCs and ABCs were isolated and cultured in low-glucose Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) (Gibco BRL, OR, USA) containing 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum; Gibco BRL) per our prior methods (Yang et al. 2010; Suzuki et al. 2011). Cells were seeded into 10-cm culture plates with low-glucose DMEM supplied with 10% FBS. "
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    ABSTRACT: Dentin in permanent teeth rarely undergoes resorption in development, homeostasis, or aging, in contrast to bone that undergoes periodic resorption/remodeling. The authors hypothesized that cells in the mesenchymal compartment of dental pulp attenuate osteoclastogenesis. Mononucleated and adherent cells from donor-matched rat dental pulp (dental pulp cells [DPCs]) and alveolar bone (alveolar bone cells [ABCs]) were isolated and separately cocultured with primary rat splenocytes. Primary splenocytes readily aggregated and formed osteoclast-like cells in chemically defined osteoclastogenesis medium with 20 ng/mL of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and 50 ng/mL of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Strikingly, DPCs attenuated osteoclastogenesis when cocultured with primary splenocytes, whereas ABCs slightly but significantly promoted osteoclastogenesis. DPCs yielded ~20-fold lower RANKL expression but >2-fold higher osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression than donor-matched ABCs, yielding a RANKL/OPG ratio of 41:1 (ABCs:DPCs). Vitamin D3 significantly promoted RANKL expression in ABCs and OPG in DPCs. In vivo, rat maxillary incisors were atraumatically extracted (without any tooth fractures), followed by retrograde pulpectomy to remove DPCs and immediate replantation into the extraction sockets to allow repopulation of the surgically treated root canal with periodontal and alveolar bone-derived cells. After 8 wk, multiple dentin/root resorption lacunae were present in root dentin with robust RANKL and OPG expression. There were areas of dentin resoprtion alternating with areas of osteodentin formation in root dentin surface in the observed 8 wk. These findings suggest that DPCs of the mesenchymal compartment have an innate ability to attenuate osteoclastogenesis and that this innate ability may be responsible for the absence of dentin resorption in homeostasis. Mesenchymal attenuation of dentin resorption may have implications in internal resorption in the root canal, pulp/dentin regeneration, and root resorption in orthodontic tooth movement. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.
    Full-text · Article · Mar 2015 · Journal of Dental Research
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    • "SDF-1, as a chemoattractant to host stem cells, has been widely explored in heart, brain, kidney, bone and tooth [15], [35]–[37]. In this study, we investigated SDF-1 effects on bone formation both ectopically and in critical-sized bone defects. "
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    ABSTRACT: Host blood circulating stem cells are an important cell source that participates in the repair of damaged tissues. The clinical challenge is how to improve the recruitment of circulating stem cells into the local wound area and enhance tissue regeneration. Stromal-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been shown to be a potent chemoattractant of blood circulating stem cells into the local wound microenvironment. In order to investigate effects of SDF-1 on bone development and the repair of a large bone defect beyond host self-repair capacity, the BMP-induced subcutaneous ectopic bone formation and calvarial critical-sized defect murine models were used in this preclinical study. A dose escalation of SDF-1 were loaded into collagen scaffolds containing BMP, VEGF, or PDGF, and implanted into subcutaneous sites at mouse dorsa or calvarial critical-sized bone defects for 2 and 4 weeks. The harvested biopsies were examined by microCT and histology. The results demonstrated that while SDF-1 had no effect in the ectopic bone model in promoting de novo osteogenesis, however, in the orthotopic bone model of the critical-sized defects, SDF-1 enhanced calvarial critical-sized bone defect healing similar to VEGF, and PDGF. These results suggest that SDF-1 plays a role in the repair of large critical-sized defect where more cells are needed while not impacting de novo bone formation, which may be associated with the functions of SDF-1 on circulating stem cell recruitment and angiogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · PLoS ONE
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