Hepatocyte Proliferation and Hepatomegaly Induced by Phenobarbital and 1,4-Bis [2-(3,5-Dichloropyridyloxy)] Benzene Is Suppressed in Hepatocyte-Targeted Glypican 3 Transgenic Mice

Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, USA.
Hepatology (Impact Factor: 11.06). 08/2011; 54(2):620-30. DOI: 10.1002/hep.24417
Source: PubMed


Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored, cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Loss-of-function mutations of GPC3 cause Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome characterized by overgrowth of multiple organs, including liver. Our previous study showed that in GPC3 transgenic (TG) mice, hepatocyte-targeted overexpression of GPC3 suppresses hepatocyte proliferation and liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and alters gene expression profiles and potential cell cycle-related proteins. This study investigates the role of GPC3 in hepatocyte proliferation and hepatomegaly induced by the xenobiotic mitogens phenobarbital (PB) and TCPOBOP (1, 4-bis [2-(3, 5-dichloropyridyloxy)] benzene). Wildtype (WT) and GPC3 TG mice were given 0.1% PB in drinking water for 10 days or a single dose of TCPOBOP (3 mg/kg) by oral gavage. At day 5 the WT mice showed a 2.2- and 3.0-fold increase in liver weight, whereas the GPC3 TG mice showed a 1.3- and 1.6-fold increase in liver weight after PB and TCPOBOP administration, respectively. There was a significant suppression of proliferative response in the GPC3 TG mice, as assessed by percent of Ki67-positive hepatocyte nuclei. Moreover, gene array analysis showed a panel of changes in the gene expression profile of TG mice, both before and after administration of the xenobiotic mitogens. Expression of cell cycle-related genes in the TG mice was also decreased compared to the WT mice. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that in GPC3 TG mice, hepatocyte-targeted overexpression of GPC3 plays an important role for regulation of liver size and termination of hepatocyte proliferation induced by the xenobiotic mitogens PB and TCPOBOP, comparable to the effects seen in the GPC3 TG mice during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.

Download full-text


Available from: Wendy M Mars, Sep 22, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible 45 (Gadd45) proteins act in many cellular processes. In the liver, Gadd45b (encoding Gadd45β) is the gene most strongly induced early during both compensatory regeneration and drug-induced hyperplasia. The latter response is associated with the dramatic and rapid hepatocyte growth that follows administration of the xenobiotic TCPOBOP (1,4-bis[2-(3,5)-dichoropyridyloxy] benzene), a ligand of the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Here, we have shown that Gadd45b-/- mice have intact proliferative responses following administration of a single dose of TCPOBOP, but marked growth delays. Moreover, early transcriptional stimulation of CAR target genes was weaker in Gadd45b-/- mice than in wild-type animals, and more genes were downregulated. Gadd45β was then found to have a direct role in transcription by physically binding to CAR, and TCPOBOP treatment caused both proteins to localize to a regulatory element for the CAR target gene cytochrome P450 2b10 (Cyp2b10). Further analysis defined separate Gadd45β domains that mediated binding to CAR and transcriptional activation. Although baseline hepatic expression of Gadd45b was broadly comparable to that of other coactivators, its 140-fold stimulation by TCPOBOP was striking and unique. The induction of Gadd45β is therefore a response that facilitates increased transcription, allowing rapid expansion of liver mass for protection against xenobiotic insults.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2011 · The Journal of clinical investigation
  • Source

    Full-text · Chapter · Feb 2012
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent evidence has contradicted the prevailing view that homeostasis and regeneration of the adult liver are mediated by self duplication of lineage-restricted hepatocytes and biliary epithelial cells. These new data suggest that liver progenitor cells do not function solely as a backup system in chronic liver injury; rather, they also produce hepatocytes after acute injury and are in fact the main source of new hepatocytes during normal hepatocyte turnover. In addition, other evidence suggests that hepatocytes are capable of lineage conversion, acting as precursors of biliary epithelial cells during biliary injury. To test these concepts, we generated a hepatocyte fate-tracing model based on timed and specific Cre recombinase expression and marker gene activationin all hepatocytes of adult Rosa26 reporter mice with an adenoassociated viral vector. We found that newly formed hepatocytes derived from preexisting hepatocytes in the normal liver and that liver progenitor cells contributed minimally to acute hepatocyte regeneration. Further, we found no evidence that biliary injury induced conversion of hepatocytes into biliary epithelial cells. These results therefore restore the previously prevailing paradigms of liver homeostasis and regeneration. In addition, our new vector system will be a valuable tool for timed, efficient, and specific loop out of floxed sequences in hepatocytes. (HEPATOLOGY 2012.).
    Preview · Article · Jun 2012 · Hepatology
Show more