Effect of Red Pepper on Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Preliminary Study
Department of Internal Medicine and Gastroenterology, University of Bologna, Via Massarenti 48, 40138 Bologna, Italy. Digestive Diseases and Sciences
(Impact Factor: 2.61).
05/2011; 56(11):3288-95. DOI: 10.1007/s10620-011-1740-9
Abdominal pain, that characterizes irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) together with bloating and disordered defecation, is mainly related to a visceral hypersensitivity due to an increase of TRPV(1) nociceptive nerve fiber activity.
As capsaicin contained in red pepper is able to desensitize the TRPV(1) fibres, we evaluated whether the red pepper oral administration can decrease the symptoms of visceral hypersensitivity in IBS patients.
The study was performed on 50 patients with IBS diagnosed following Rome II criteria. After a 2-week washout period, 23 patients were planned to receive 4 pills/day, for 6 weeks randomly and in a double blind manner, each containing 150 mg of red pepper powder with a coat that dissolves in the colon, and 27 patients placebo. The patients scored each day in a diary the abdominal pain and bloating intensities following the 5-point Likert scale. The weekly symptom mean scores and the final patient subjective evaluation on treatment effectiveness were statistically compared among groups and intra-groups with appropriate tests.
Eight patients dropped from the study: 6 in the red pepper group for abdominal pain and 2 in the placebo group. In 8 patients, the pills were reduced to 2/day, because of the abdominal pain at the onset of treatment. The intra-group comparisons showed that in patients taking red pepper the abdominal pain and bloating mean score values of the last weeks of treatment were significantly improved with respect to pre-treatment values, unlike patients taking placebo. The final patient subjective evaluation on the treatment effectiveness showed that red pepper group scored significantly better than placebo.
The results of this preliminary study indicate that the chronic administration of red pepper powder in IBS patients with enteric-coated pills was significantly more effective than placebo in decreasing the intensity of abdominal pain and bloating and was considered by the patients more effective than placebo.
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- "Similarly, intolerance to gastric distension was documented in patients with functional dyspepsia.6,7 Some attempts have already been made to pharmacologically decrease the visceral hypersensitivity of functional GI disorders, using a number of drugs.8,9 However, the treatment was not satisfactory and the side effects could not be easily overcome. "
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DA-9701 is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model.
Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neonatal colon irritation (CI) using CRD at 1 week after birth (CI group). At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at baseline (i.e., without any drug administration) and after the administration of different doses of DA-9701.
In the absence of DA-9701, the MAP changes after CRD were significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group at all applied pressures. In the control group, MAP changes after CRD were not significantly affected by the administration of DA-9701. In the CI group, however, the administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant decrease in MAP changes after CRD. The administration of DA-9701 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg produced a more significant decrease in MAP changes than the 0.3 mg/kg dose.
The administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "Meanwhile previous studies in IBS patients demonstrated acute chili ingestion can increase abdominal burning, pain and rectal sensation.6,7 Later, Bortolotti et al14 studied the effect of chronic red pepper (0.6 g) in IBS patients. The results revealed chronic red pepper significantly decreased abdominal pain and bloating with respect to pre-treatment but did not to placebo. "
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Whether, chronic chili ingestion can desensitize transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptors in gastrointestinal (GI) tract leading to decrease GI symptoms and sensation in diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) patients has not been well explored. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 6-week chili treatment on postprandial GI symptoms and rectal sensation in response to balloon distention in IBS-D patients.
Sixteen IBS-D patients received placebo or chili capsules before meals 3 times/day for 6 weeks in a randomized, double-blinded, crossover fashion with 4-week washout period. Postprandial GI symptoms were evaluated. All patients underwent a rectal barostat study to evaluate rectal sensory threshold at the end of each treatment.
The maximum postprandial abdominal burning scores were similar between both treatments at baseline (1.4 [0.0–2.0] vs. 1.1 [0.0–2.8], P > 0.05) but were significantly decreased after chili (0.0 [0.0–0.5] vs. 0.3 [0.0–1.6], P < 0.05) at the end of treatment. The chili treatment significantly increased sensory threshold for the first rectal sensation (median [interquartile range]:16 [12–16] mmHg vs. 8 [8–16] mmHg, P < 0.05) however, there was no significant effect on rectal compliance (7.3 ± 1.0 vs. 7.1 ± 1.8 mL/mmHg). Other postprandial GI symptoms did not vary significantly between both treatments at baseline and the end of treatment.
In IBS-D patients, 6-week chili ingestion significantly decreased postprandial abdominal burning and increased the rectal sensory threshold. These findings suggest a desensitization effect of chili ingestion on transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptors in the proximal gut and rectum.
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ABSTRACT: Capsaicin, as a principle active component of Chili peppers, is popularly consumed by many people around the world. Whether capsaicin-induced neuropathy alters the function of sensory neurons is still unknown.
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of epidural capsaicin on nociceptive threshold and neurological functions in a rabbit model.
An intrathecal injection system was set up using a rabbit model. Rabbits were treated with capsaicin at doses of 0.04, 0.10, and 0.20 mg/kg once. The changes in neurological functions and morphology of the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots were determined within 24 hours. Changes in the nociceptive threshold in the hind limbs of the rabbits were observed for 30 days.
Capsaicin's effect on the changing neurological functions was evaluated by the neurological functional scores. The structural changes of spinal cord and spinal nerve roots were observed by hematoxylin and eosin staining and transmission electron microscopy. The nociceptive threshold changes in the rabbits were measured by the responding time for pain induced by a thermostimulation.
The results showed that capsaicin reversed changes in the neurological function of rabbit hindlimbs. In the 0.10 and 0.20 mg/kg groups, structural abnormalities were found in the rabbit's spinal nerves. Capsaicin also significantly increased the pain threshold in rabbits when compared with the control group (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The maximum values of pain threshold were found in the 0.10 mg/kg capsaicin group after 3 days of capsaicin treatment.
With the exception of a potential toxicity, capsaicin may be a potential candidate agent for providing pain relief of both neuropathic and nociceptive conditions.
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