Tacaribe Virus but Not Junin Virus Infection Induces Cytokine Release from Primary Human Monocytes and Macrophages

Institut für Virologie, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (Impact Factor: 4.45). 05/2011; 5(5):e1137. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001137
Source: PubMed


The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV) and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV), in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation.

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    • "The source of these cytokines and chemokines in response to JUNV infection in humans is unclear. No induction of IFN-α, IFN-β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, or TNF-α production was observed in ex vivo cultivated human monocytes and macrophages upon infection with pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV [14]. In contrast, recently we demonstrated type I interferon (IFN) production, IFN stimulated gene expression and STAT1 phosphorylation in JUNV Romero-infected human lung epithelial carcinoma cells. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Arenavirus Junin is the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever. Limited information is available concerning the pathogenesis of this human disease, especially the pathogenesis of acute and late neurological symptoms. Methods In our study we present for the first time cDNA microarray profile of human astrocytes infected with the virulent strain of Junin virus. Transcriptional profiling was confirmed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and cytokine/chemokine/growth factor assay. Results We demonstrated the impact of virus infection on immune/inflammatory response/interferon signaling and apoptosis. Pro-apoptotic response and amplification with time of pro-inflammatory cascade of human astrocytes suggested neurodegenerative dysfunctional reactive astrogliosis in response to Junin virus infection. Conclusion Our results suggest potential pathogenic role of astroglial cells in the development of neurological symptoms and late neurological syndrome during Argentine hemorrhagic fever.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · Virology Journal
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    • "CPE in vitro has been documented previously in mammalian cells infected with non-pathogenic arenaviruses Tacaribe [22] and Pichinde [24]. In agreement with that in the current study we have demonstrated an induction of cell death in human cells upon infection with vaccine strain of JUNV, Candid#1. "
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    ABSTRACT: Junin virus (JUNV) is the etiological agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), a human disease with a high case-fatality rate. It is widely accepted that arenaviral infections, including JUNV infections, are generally non-cytopathic. In contrast, here we demonstrated apoptosis induction in human lung epithelial carcinoma (A549), human hepatocarcinoma and Vero cells upon infection with the attenuated Candid#1 strain of, JUNV as determined by phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation, Caspase 3 (CASP3) activation, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage and/or chromosomal DNA fragmentation. Moreover, as determined by DNA fragmentation, we found that the pathogenic Romero strain of JUNV was less cytopathic than Candid#1 in human hepatocarcinoma and Vero, but more apoptotic in A549 and Vero E6 cells. Additionally, we found that JUNV-induced apoptosis was enhanced by RIG-I signaling. Consistent with the previously reported role of RIG-I like helicase (RLH) signaling in initiating programmed cell death, we showed that cell death or DNA fragmentation of Candid#1-infected A549 cells was decreased upon siRNA or shRNA silencing of components of RIG-I pathway in spite of increased virus production. Similarly, we observed decreased DNA fragmentation in JUNV-infected human hepatocarcinoma cells deficient for RIG-I when compared with that of RIG-I-competent cells. In addition, DNA fragmentation detected upon Candid#1 infection of type I interferon (IFN)-deficient Vero cells suggested a type I IFN-independent mechanism of apoptosis induction in response to JUNV. Our work demonstrated for the first time apoptosis induction in various cells of mammalian origin in response to JUNV infection and partial mechanism of this cell death.
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    ABSTRACT: Junín virus is the causative agent for Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and its natural host is the New World rodent Calomys musculinus. The virus is transmitted to humans by aerosolization, and it is believed that many of the clinical symptoms are caused by cytokines produced by sentinel cells of the immune system. Here we used the Junín virus vaccine strain Candid 1 to determine whether mouse cells could be used to study virus entry and antiviral innate immune responses. We show that Candid 1 can infect and propagate in different mouse-derived cell lines through a low-pH-dependent, transferrin receptor 1-independent mechanism, suggesting that there is a second entry receptor. In addition, Candid 1 induced expression of the antiviral cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha and beta interferon in macrophages, and this induction was independent of viral replication. Using Candid 1, as well as virus-like particles bearing the viral glycoprotein, to infect different primary cells and established macrophage cell lines with deletions in the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, we show that TLR2 is a cellular sensor of both the Parodi and Candid 1 viral glycoproteins. Because Junín virus is highly lethal in humans, the use of an experimentally tractable model system, such as the mouse, could provide a better understanding of the antiviral innate cellular responses to Junín virus and the role of these responses in pathogenesis.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2011 · Journal of Virology
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