Article

Local Macrophage Proliferation, Rather than Recruitment from the Blood, Is a Signature of TH2 Inflammation

Centre for Immunity, Infection and Evolution, and the Institute for Immunology and Infection Research, School of Biological Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JT, UK.
Science (Impact Factor: 33.61). 06/2011; 332(6035):1284-8. DOI: 10.1126/science.1204351
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

A defining feature of inflammation is the accumulation of innate immune cells in the tissue that are thought to be recruited
from the blood. We reveal that a distinct process exists in which tissue macrophages undergo rapid in situ proliferation in
order to increase population density. This inflammatory mechanism occurred during T helper 2 (TH2)–related pathologies under the control of the archetypal TH2 cytokine interleukin-4 (IL-4) and was a fundamental component of TH2 inflammation because exogenous IL-4 was sufficient to drive accumulation of tissue macrophages through self-renewal. Thus,
expansion of innate cells necessary for pathogen control or wound repair can occur without recruitment of potentially tissue-destructive
inflammatory cells.

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    • "2 cells are the membrane glycoprotein CD200r , which is expressed on M2a cells and the scavenger receptor CD163 , which is expressed on M2c cells ( Koning et al . , 2010 ; Ambarus et al . , 2012 ) . Interestingly , proliferation of M2 macrophages rather than recruitment from the blood has recently been suggested to be important for Th2 responses ( Jenkins et al . , 2011 ) . Other important markers may include arginase - 1 ( Arg - 1 ) ( Mills and Ley , 2014 ) . Monocytes may also differentiate into dendritic cells ( DC ) , which are professional antigen - presenting cells ( APCs ) bridging the innate and adaptive immune system through activation and expansion of T cells ( Coombes and Powrie , 2008 ) . I"

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    • "Hepatic macrophages can arise either from bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes or from selfrenewing endogenous cells in the liver, termed Kupffer cells [7]. Although an oversimplification given their complex function, two distinct in vitro macrophage phenotypes have been described; M1 (pro-inflammatory ) and M2 (anti-inflammatory) [8]. "
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    • "2 cells are the membrane glycoprotein CD200r , which is expressed on M2a cells and the scavenger receptor CD163 , which is expressed on M2c cells ( Koning et al . , 2010 ; Ambarus et al . , 2012 ) . Interestingly , proliferation of M2 macrophages rather than recruitment from the blood has recently been suggested to be important for Th2 responses ( Jenkins et al . , 2011 ) . Other important markers may include arginase - 1 ( Arg - 1 ) ( Mills and Ley , 2014 ) . Monocytes may also differentiate into dendritic cells ( DC ) , which are professional antigen - presenting cells ( APCs ) bridging the innate and adaptive immune system through activation and expansion of T cells ( Coombes and Powrie , 2008 ) . I"
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