Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Uptake and Location of Vaccination for 2009-H1N1 and Seasonal Influenza
To learn more about racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination during the 2009-H1N1 pandemic, we examined nationally representative survey data of US adults. We found disparities in 2009-H1N1 vaccine uptake between Blacks and Whites (13.8% vs 20.4%); Whites and Hispanics had similar 2009-H1N1 vaccination rates. Physician offices were the dominant location for 2009-H1N1 and seasonal influenza vaccinations, especially among minorities. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of how communication methods and vaccine distribution strategies affect vaccine uptake within minority communities.
Available from: Suresh Rewar
- "For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within two days of symptoms). The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with swine influenza viruses; However, the majority of people infected with the virus make a full recovery without requiring medical attention or antiviral drugs  . The virus isolated in the 2009 outbreak has been found resistant to Amantadine and Rimantadine  IX. "
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ABSTRACT: Influenza has been recognized as a respiratory disease in swine since its first appearance concurrent with the 1918 ''Spanish flu'' human pandemic. All influenza viruses of significance in swine are type A, subtype H1N1, H1N2, or H3N2 viruses. Swine Influenza is a respiratory disease of pig caused by Type A influenza viruses. Influenza A causes moderate to severe illness and affects all age groups. The virus infects humans and other animals. Influenza A viruses are perpetuated in nature by wild birds, predominantly waterfowl. The WHO declared the H1N1 pandemic on June 11, 2009, after more than 70 countries reported 30000 cases of H1N1 infection. In 2015 the instances of Swine Flu substantially increased to five year highs with over 10000 cases reported and 774 deaths in India. The CDC recommends real time PCR as the method of choice for diagnosing H1N1. Prevention of swine influenza has three components: prevention in swine, prevention of transmission to humans, and prevention of its spread among humans. If a person becomes sick with swine flu, antiviral drugs can make the illness milder and make the patient feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. The CDC recommends the use of Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) or Zanamivir (Relenza) for the treatment. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.
Available from: Elena Savoia
- "In particular, studies found spread of rumors of vaccine unsafety in the African American communities that countered the health departments’ recommendations and decreased vaccine demand; collaboration with community based organizations such as churches in the dissemination of the messages has been recommended as a way to overcome issues of trust from such communities
[21,58]. On the other hand, in contrast to the usually low acceptance rate of seasonal flu vaccine, the Hispanic population in the United States was found to be more likely to get the H1N1 vaccine
[17,58,66,67]. The fact that the original H1N1 cases were first identified in Mexico likely caused this segment of the population to be aware of the risk of infection and have a different pandemic experience compared to other ethnic groups. "
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During public health emergencies, public officials are busy in developing communication strategies to protect the population from existing or potential threats. However, a population's social and individual determinants (i.e. education, income, race/ethnicity) may lead to inequalities in individual or group-specific exposure to public health communication messages, and in the capacity to access, process, and act upon the information received by specific sub-groups- a concept defined as communication inequalities.The aims of this literature review are to: 1) characterize the scientific literature that examined issues related to communication to the public during the H1N1 pandemic, and 2) summarize the knowledge gained in our understanding of social determinants and their association with communication inequalities in the preparedness and response to an influenza pandemic.
Articles were searched in eight major communication, social sciences, and health and medical databases of scientific literature and reviewed by two independent reviewers by following the PRISMA guidelines. The selected articles were classified and analyzed in accordance with the Structural Influence Model of Public Health Emergency Preparedness Communications.
A total of 118 empirical studies were included for final review. Among them, 78% were population-based studies and 22% were articles that employed information environment analyses techniques. Consistent results were reported on the association between social determinants of communication inequalities and emergency preparedness outcomes. Trust in public officials and source of information, worry and levels of knowledge about the disease, and routine media exposure as well as information-seeking behaviors, were related to greater likelihood of adoption of recommended infection prevention practices. When addressed in communication interventions, these factors can increase the effectiveness of the response to pandemics.
Consistently across studies, a number of potential predictors of behavioral compliance to preventive recommendations during a pandemic were identified. Our findings show the need to include such evidence found in the development of future communication campaigns to ensure the highest rates of compliance with recommended protection measures and reduce communication inequalities during future emergencies.
Available from: Natasha S Crowcroft
- "There may also be differential access to information regarding the risks associated with influenza as well as preventive measures. For example, we have evidence from seasonal vaccination programs that certain ethnic groups are less likely to receive seasonal influenza vaccines [24,25]. "
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ABSTRACT: Novel risk factors were associated with the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 virus (pH1N1). Ethnicity was among these risk factors. Ethnic disparities in hospitalization and death due to pH1N1 were noted. The purpose of this study is to determine whether there are ethnic disparities in acquiring the 2009 pandemic H1N1.
We conducted a test-negative case-control study of the risk of pH1N1 infection using data from Ontario, Canada. Cases were laboratory confirmed to have influenza using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and controls were obtained from the same population and were RT-PCR negative. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the association between ethnicity and pH1N1 infection, while adjusting for demographic, clinical and ecological covariates.
Adult cases were more likely than controls to be self-classified as East/Southeast Asian (OR = 2.59, 95% CI 1.02-6.57), South Asian (OR = 6.22, 95% CI 2.01-19.24) and Black (OR = 9.72, 95% CI 2.29-41.27). Pediatric cases were more likely to be self-identified as Black (OR = 6.43, 95% CI 1.83-22.59). However, pediatric cases without risk factors for severe influenza infection were more likely to be South Asian (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.11-7.68), Black (OR 16.02, 95% CI 2.85-89.92), and West Asian/Arab, Latin American or Multi-racial groups (OR 3.09 95% CI 1.06-9.00).
pH1N1 cases were more likely to come from certain ethnic groups compared to test-negative controls. Insights into whether these disparities arise due to social or biological factors are needed in order to understand what approaches can be taken to reduce the burden of a future influenza pandemic.
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