Hospitalizations before and after initiation of chronic hemodialysis
Department of Surgery, University of New Mexico School of Medicine, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.Hemodialysis International (Impact Factor: 1.24). 05/2011; 15(3):341-9. DOI: 10.1111/j.1542-4758.2011.00551.x
Hospitalization rate is high in patients on chronic hemodialysis (HD). We investigated whether initiation of HD changes the rate and length of hospitalization. We analyzed hospitalizations in HD patients in one hospital over 15 years. We compared annual rate and length of hospitalizations, both presented as mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) between the pre-HD and HD period. Three hundred ninety-two patients, 98% men, 59% diabetic, and 66.3 ± 11.2 years old at the onset of HD, had 1016 hospitalizations in the pre-HD period (60.0 ± 42.9 months) and 1627 hospitalizations in the HD period (32.5 ± 25.9 months). Higher values were found in the HD than the pre-HD period for rate, (pre-HD 0.557 [95% CI 0.473-0.611], HD 2.198 [95% CI 1.997-2.399] admissions/[patient-year], P<0.001) and length (pre-HD 4.63 [95% CI 3.71-5.55], HD 28.07 [95% CI 23.55-32.59] days/patient-year], P<0.001) of hospitalizations for all causes, cardiac disease, infections, vascular access, peripheral vascular disease, metabolic disturbances, gastrointestinal diseases, and miscellaneous conditions, mainly respiratory illness and malignancy. Similar differences were found when we compared the year before and the year after the start of HD. Diabetics had higher all cause rate and length of hospitalizations than non-diabetics in the pre-HD and HD periods. The rate and length of hospitalizations was higher in the HD than the pre-HD period for both HD-specific conditions and conditions encountered in both HD and general populations. Study of factors specific to HD that may affect these conditions should constitute the first step toward improving the morbidity of patients on HD.
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ABSTRACT: Bacteremia from central venous catheter (CVC) infection causes morbidity and mortality in patients on hemodialysis (HD). Diagnosis of the infection can be difficult and may require special imaging. A 70-year-old man with diabetic nephropathy was on HD for 11 months through a permanent CVC. Because of symptomatic osteoporosis, he had kyphoplasty in three lumbar vertebrae (L2, L3, L4) 6 months after starting HD. Severe back pain persisted after kyphoplasty. Throughout the HD period, the exit site of the CVC had a clean appearance, there was no fever, and blood leukocyte counts were normal. During the 11th month of HD, he complained of subjective fever at home. Blood count revealed normal leukocyte count with neutrophilic predominance and blood cultures grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Echocardiogram revealed no heart valve vegetations, but irregular thickening of the CVC wall. Fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG-PET-CT) revealed severe inflammation of the CVC wall and a picture consistent with osteomyelitis and severe destruction of the body of the 11th thoracic vertebra. He was treated with intravenous vancomycin and removal of the CVC, the wall of which was grossly inflamed and grew in culture MRSA. Three weeks later, he discontinued HD because of persistent severe back pain. CVC infection with bacteremia and remote infectious foci having grave sequelae can develop in HD patients with paucity of clinical manifestations. FDG-PET-CT is a useful imaging tool in establishing the presence and extent of both the CVC infection and remote metastatic infectious foci.
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ABSTRACT: Background: The utility of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and glycated albumin (GA) in diabetic dialysis patients remains unknown. GA was previously associated with all-cause hospitalization and patient survival. Relationships between GA, HbA1c, and casual plasma glucose (PG) with cause-specific cardiovascular (CV) disease, infectious disease (ID), and vascular access- (VA) related hospitalization rates and length of stay (LOS) were assessed. Methods: 444 prevalent diabetic dialysis patients had monthly PG, quarterly GA, and all HbA1c values recorded for 2.33 years; hospitalizations within 17 and 30 days of testing were evaluated. Best-fit, time-dependent Cox models were constructed in unadjusted, case-mix-adjusted (age, sex, race, BMI, diabetes duration, dialysis vintage), and case-mix- plus lab-adjusted (hemoglobin, albumin, phosphorus) models. Results: Mean ± SD diabetes duration was 18.5 ± 10.8 years and dialysis vintage 2.9 ± 2.6 years. In fully adjusted models, CV hospitalization rates were associated with increasing GA (HR 1.32; 95% CI 1.11-1.57; p = 0.002 at 17 days; HR 1.21; p = 0.02 at 30 days) and PG (HR 1.10; 95% CI 1.02-1.17; p = 0.01 at 17 days; HR 1.07; p = 0.03 at 30 days), not HbA1c (HR 1.24; 95% CI 0.89-1.73; p = 0.21 at 17 days; HR 1.26; p = 0.10 at 30 days). LOS for CV admissions was positively associated with GA (HR 1.18; 95% CI 1.01-1.39; p = 0.03), not PG (HR 1.04; 95% CI 0.99-1.10; p = 0.15) or HbA1c (HR 1.03; 95% CI 0.92-1.15; p = 0.21). Admissions due to ID and VA complications (and LOS) did not correlate with these assays. Conclusions: Improved glycemic control based on GA and PG predicted CV-related hospitalizations; GA also predicted CV hospitalization LOS. HbA1c did not predict cause-specific hospitalizations in dialysis populations.
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ABSTRACT: The number of elderly persons with end-stage renal disease is increasing with many requiring hospitalizations. This study examines the causes and predictors of hospitalization in older hemodialysis patients. We reviewed hospitalizations of older (≥65 years) incident chronic hemodialysis patients initiating therapy between January 1, 2007 and December 31, 2009 under the care of a single Midwestern United States dialysis provider. Of 125 patients, the mean age was 76±7 years and 72% were male. At first dialysis, 68% used a central venous catheter (CVC) and 51% were in the hospital. Mean follow-up was 1.8±1.0 years. At least one hospitalization occurred in 89 (71%) patients and half of all patients were hospitalized once within the first 223 days. Total hospital admission rate was 1.48 per patient year with hospital days totaling 8.54 days per patient year. The three most common reasons for first admission were cardiac (33%), infection (18%) and gastrointestinal (12%). Predictors of future hospitalization included the first dialysis occurring in hospital (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.3, p=0.0005) and the use of a CVC at first HD (HR 2.6, CI 1.6-4.4, p <.0001). Hospitalizations are common in older incident hemodialysis patients. Access preparation and overall burden of illness leading to the initial hospitalization appear to play a role. Identification of additional factors associated with hospitalization will allow for focused interventions to reduce hospitalization rates and increase the value of care.
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