rate how they feel using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Several such ques-
tionnaires exist, each with its own strengths and weaknesses. The following are
most commonly used.
The Biphasic Alcohol Effects Scales (BAES) was speciﬁcally designed to
measure the stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol (Martin et al. 1993). The
BAES assesses subjects’ experience of seven subjective states associated with
stimulation (elated, energized, excited, stimulated, talkative, up, and vigorous) and
seven states associated with sedation (difﬁculty concentrating, down, heavy head,
inactive, sedated, slow thoughts, and sluggish). Subjects rate their experience of
each state from ‘‘not at all’’ to ‘‘extremely’’ on a scale from 0 to 10. Their ratings
of stimulation and sedation are each summed into numerical scores which can be
compared with a baseline score and analyzed mathematically. Studies have con-
ﬁrmed the reliability and validity of the BAES as a measure of alcohol-induced
stimulation and sedation (Martin et al. 1993; Earleywine and Erblich 1996; Rueger
et al. 2009).
The Proﬁle of Mood States (POMS) measures natural mood states (e.g.
‘‘cheerful’’ and ‘‘grouchy’’), on a ﬁve point scale from ‘‘not at all’’ to ‘‘extremely’’
(Speilber 1972). Several studies have shown that the POMS is sensitive to drug or
alcohol-induced changes in mood (Johanson and Uhlenhuth 1980; Johanson and de
Wit 1989; Nagoshi et al. 1991). Though the POMS measures some mood states
probably irrelevant to stimulation and sedation (e.g. ‘‘lonely’’ and ‘‘sympathetic’’),
self-report of ‘‘elation’’ and ‘‘vigor’’ intuitively reﬂects stimulation and is asso-
ciated with physiological stimulation (Conrod et al. 2001), preference for alcohol
over placebo in a laboratory setting, and increased drinking behavior outside the
lab (de Wit et al. 1987).
The Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) measures the effects of
speciﬁc classes of drugs (Martin et al. 1971), and has been shown to do so sen-
sitively and reliably (Fischman and Foltin 1991). The ARCI consists of several
dozen true/false statements, categorized by class of drugs. Subjects’ answers in
each category are summed to a scale score. The stimulant effects of alcohol can be
measured using the Amphetamine scale, alcohol-induced euphoria can be mea-
sured using the Morphine-Benzedrine Group scale, and sedative effects can be
measured using the Pentobarbital-Chlorpromazine-Alcohol Group scale (King
et al. 2002).
The Drug Effects Questionnaire (DEQ) measures general drug effects and drug
liking, though it does not measure stimulation and sedation directly. Subjects
answer questions like ‘‘Do you feel any drug effects?’’ and ‘‘Would you want more
of what you consumed, right now?’’ Rather than using a numerical scale, subjects
indicate their response by drawing a mark on a 100 mm line, each end of which
represents an extreme answer. The position of the mark is converted to a scaled
score (King et al. 2002).
The Subjective High Assessment Scale (SHAS) was designed to measure
subjective experience of drug or alcohol-induced intoxication (Judd et al. 1977a,b).
The original version required subjects to answer 38 questions about their sub-
jective state on a six point scale. Schuckit et al. have used a revised 13-item
Stimulant and Sedative Effects of Alcohol 491