Gram-Scale Synthesis of Iejimalide B
Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, 45470 Mülheim/Ruhr, Germany.Chemistry - A European Journal (Impact Factor: 5.73). 06/2011; 17(25):6964-72. DOI: 10.1002/chem.201100178
Iejimalide B (2) is the most promising member of a small family of marine polyene macrolides endowed with remarkably selective activity against human cancer cell lines. As this product, however, is hardly available from the natural sources, a detailed evaluation requires the development of an efficient and practical synthetic approach. This challenge has now been met by adapting the first total synthesis of 2 previously reported by our group to the needs of high material throughput. Redesigning the access routes to the five required building blocks in combination with a careful optimization of the fragment coupling processes provided gram amounts of this valuable compound in a sequence of no more than 16 linear steps with an overall yield of about 7%. Key elements of the successful strategy include: i) three hydrostannylation processes of elaborate terminal alkynes with "lower order" stannyl cuprates, ii) a Brown allylation, a Noyori transfer hydrogenation, and a Marshall propargylation to set the chiral centers at C9, C17, C22 and C23, and iii) a modified Takai-Utimoto olefination for the preparation of the very labile skipped 1,4-diene flanking the ester group. The assembly process benefited from a particularly mild protocol for the Stille cross-coupling previously developed in this laboratory, which clearly outperformed the alternative Suzuki reaction in terms of yield and scalability. The 24-membered macrocyclic frame was forged by a remarkably selective ring-closing metathesis reaction (RCM), in which two out of the ten double bonds present in the cyclization precursor were selectively activated with the aid of a second-generation Grubbs catalyst.
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ABSTRACT: Systematic variation of all substructures embedded into the framework of iejimalide B (2) led to a panel of synthetic analogues of this polyunsaturated macrolide, featuring structural modifications that are not accessible by derivatization of the natural lead compound itself. The assessment of the cytotoxicity of these compounds with the aid of a monolayer proliferation assay (12 human tumor cell lines in vitro) as well as a colony formation assay (24 human tumor xenografts ex vivo) revealed the exceptional potency of 2 and several of its synthetic congeners, with IC(50) values in the picomolar range for the most sensitive cell lines. Whereas structural modifications of the macrocycle or of the side chain generally lead to a decrease in activity, changes of the peptidic terminus are not only well accommodated but engender increased tumor selectivity as well. 2 and two of the most promising analogues were selected for in vivo studies in mice, in which their activity against human tumor xenografts of breast cancer (MAXF 401) and prostate cancer (PRXF PC-3M) was tested. In contrast to a previous report in the literature however, which had claimed in vivo activity for the parent iejimalides, these tests did not show a significant therapeutic effect against the chosen solid tumors upon intraperitoneal administration.
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ABSTRACT: A one-flask reaction sequence comprising ring closing metathesis (RCM) of butenoates derived from allylic alcohols and a base-mediated ring opening gives 2Z,4E-configured dienoic acids in high yields and stereoselectivities. Application of the method to the synthesis of the natural product fusanolide A suggests that the originally published structure was erroneously assigned and should be revised. Ring closing metathesis (RCM) of butenoates derived from allylic alcohols can be combined with base-induced ring opening in a one-flask sequence. In this way, dienoic acids become accessible in an operationally simple procedure in very high yields and excellent stereoselectivities, with the tether remaining in the product as a valuable functional group for further transformations.
Article: Marine natural products[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Covering: 2010. Previous review: Nat. Prod. Rep., 2011, 28, 196. This review covers the literature published in 2010 for marine natural products, with 895 citations (590 for the period January to December 2010) referring to compounds isolated from marine microorganisms and phytoplankton, green, brown and red algae, sponges, cnidarians, bryozoans, molluscs, tunicates, echinoderms, mangroves and other intertidal plants and microorganisms. The emphasis is on new compounds (1003 for 2010), together with the relevant biological activities, source organisms and country of origin. Biosynthetic studies, first syntheses, and syntheses that lead to the revision of structures or stereochemistries, have been included.
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