Article

Astaxanthin: A Potential Therapeutic Agent in Cardiovascular Disease

Renal Research Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital and The University of Queensland School of Medicine, Butterfield Street, Brisbane, Queensland 4029, Australia.
Marine Drugs (Impact Factor: 2.85). 12/2011; 9(3):447-65. DOI: 10.3390/md9030447
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Astaxanthin is a xanthophyll carotenoid present in microalgae, fungi, complex plants, seafood, flamingos and quail. It is an antioxidant with anti-inflammatory properties and as such has potential as a therapeutic agent in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Synthetic forms of astaxanthin have been manufactured. The safety, bioavailability and effects of astaxanthin on oxidative stress and inflammation that have relevance to the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, have been assessed in a small number of clinical studies. No adverse events have been reported and there is evidence of a reduction in biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation with astaxanthin administration. Experimental studies in several species using an ischaemia-reperfusion myocardial model demonstrated that astaxanthin protects the myocardium when administered both orally or intravenously prior to the induction of the ischaemic event. At this stage we do not know whether astaxanthin is of benefit when administered after a cardiovascular event and no clinical cardiovascular studies in humans have been completed and/or reported. Cardiovascular clinical trials are warranted based on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties, the safety profile and preliminary experimental cardiovascular studies of astaxanthin.

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Available from: Robert G Fassett
    • "The predominant form of these compounds in nature is the trans-configuration, but also cis-configuration, with different biological properties, exists, when trans/cis-isomerization takes place [5]. Apart from functioning as natural pigments, carotenoids are considered bioactive compounds, as they exhibit an antioxidant and antiaging activity, play a preventive role against tissue damages and chronic diseases, especially in eye [6] [7] and cardiovascular diseases [8] [9], diabetes [10] [11] and certain types of cancer [12] [13], protect foods from degradation and stabilize them and moreover, can be used as constituents in functional food products. Marine organisms are an important natural source of carotenoids. "
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    ABSTRACT: High-energy assisted extraction techniques, like ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave assisted extraction (MAE), are widely applied over the last years for the recovery of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, antioxidants and phenols from foods, animals and herbal natural sources. Especially for the case of xanthophylls, the main carotenoid group of crustaceans, they can be extracted in a rapid and quantitative way with the use of UAE and MAE. Response surface methodology (RSM) is used for the optimization of extraction methodologies, also being applied to optimize high energy techniques. Three independent variables, namely extraction time, ultrasound or microwave power and solvent/material ratio, were investigated for both methods by employing a 16-run three-level Box-Behnken design (BBD). Considering the extraction efficiency for carotenoids from Aristeus antennatus shrimp, the selected conditions for UAE were 5min, 600W and 10:1mLg(-1). Acetone was the solvent of choice for the extraction procedure. For MAE, the best experimental values were 7min, 30W and 20:1mLg(-1) using n-hexane:acetone:ethanol 2:1:1 (v/v/v) as extraction solvent. The determination of total carotenoid yield was carried out using the spectophotometric calibration curve (A=0.1646(±0.0061)C-0.005(±0.022), R(2)=0.996, n=3) of a standard mix solution of canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin and lutein at 452.1nm. Under the selected conditions, the yield of total carotenoids for UAE was 23.4(±2.3) and 6.73(±0.56)mg of carotenoids per 100g dry sample for the head and the body of shrimp, while for MAE was 23.92(±0.63) and 13.3(±1.1)mg of carotenoids per 100g dry sample, respectively. The recovery of both methods was calculated between 60 and 105%. The results indicate that high-energy extraction techniques are faster, less laborious, more repeatable and reproducible methods than the conventional approaches for the quantitative recovery of sensitive bioactive compounds. Moreover, the recovery of a high-added value group of bioactive molecules from natural sources, such as carotenoids, can constitute a profitable and valuable commercial alternative, as these compounds can be used as dietary supplements, food color enhancers and additives in animal feeds, functional foods, preservatives, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    No preview · Article · Apr 2015 · Analytica Chimica Acta
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    • "Carotenoids are classified, according to their chemical structure, into carotenes and xanthophylls. Carotenes include b-carotene and lycopene, and xanthophylls include lutein, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, capsorubin and astaxanthin (Fassett & Coombes 2011). Astaxanthin (3,3 0 -dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4 0 -dione) is a xanthophyll that contains two oxygenated (OH) hydroxyl groups on each ring structure, which are responsible for its enhanced antioxidant features (Guerin et al. 2003; Takahashi et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the agronomical and chemical characterization of 13 Sicilian biotypes of Thymbra capitata (L.) Cav., grown under the same agricultural and environmental condition, are reported. The main morpho-productive parameters and quali-quantitative profile of essential oils were determined. The essential oils were analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and Principal Component Analysis statistical methods were used to group biotypes according to the essential oils chemical composition. The essential oil yield ranged between 4.6 and 8.1 (v/w). 38 essential oil compounds have been identified. The compounds mostly represented were: α-Pinene, Myrcene, α-Terpinene, p-Cymene, γ-Terpinene, Borneol, Carvacrol and β-Caryophyllene. In all biotypes the Carvacrol (67.4-79.5%) was the main compound, confirming that Thymbra capitata is a carvacrol chemotype. The results showed that all Sicilian Thymbra biotypes have a good adaptation to the climatic conditions of the test environment.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Natural Product Research
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    • "Carotenoids are classified, according to their chemical structure, into carotenes and xanthophylls. Carotenes include b-carotene and lycopene, and xanthophylls include lutein, canthaxanthin, zeaxanthin, violaxanthin, capsorubin and astaxanthin (Fassett & Coombes 2011). Astaxanthin (3,3 0 -dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4 0 -dione) is a xanthophyll that contains two oxygenated (OH) hydroxyl groups on each ring structure, which are responsible for its enhanced antioxidant features (Guerin et al. 2003; Takahashi et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of astaxanthin (3,3'-dihydroxy-s-carotene-4,4'-dione) on alcohol-induced morphological changes in Carassius auratus, as an experimental model, was determined. The yeast Phaffia rhodozyma was used as a source of astaxanthin. The animals were divided into three groups for 30 days: one group was treated with ethanol at a dose of 1.5% mixed in water, the second one with EtOH 1.5% and food enriched with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma, and the third was a control group. After a sufficient experimental period, the samples were processed using light microscopy and evaluated by histomorphological and histochemical staining, and the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis, using a wide range of antibodies, such as calbindin, vimentin and alpha-smooth muscle actin. The results show that the alcoholic damage in the kidney led to hypoxia. In contrast, the group fed with astaxanthin from P. rhodozyma showed a normal morphological picture, with better glomeruli organisation and the presence of the area of filtration. Furthermore, the immunohistochemistry has confirmed these results.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2014 · Natural Product Research
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