Article

Efficacy of Er:YAG laser in the treatment of chronic periodontitis: Systematic review and meta-analysis

Department of Health Sciences, University of L'Aquila, San Salvatore 1, Building Delta 6, 67100, L'Aquila, Italy.
Lasers in Medical Science (Impact Factor: 2.49). 05/2011; 27(3):661-73. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-011-0928-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Scaling root planing (SRP) has been proven efficacious as the traditional treatment approach for chronic periodontitis. However, important limitations such as difficult access in deep pockets, grooves, and furcations have led to the development of new therapeutic strategies. The erbium-doped:yttrium-aluminium-garnet (Er:YAG) laser is one of the most promising laser types for periodontal therapy. Its efficacy in radicular debris removal and root smoothing has been proven in vitro. However, the clinical effectiveness of the Er:YAG laser remains controversial. The aim of the present systematic review was to systemically assess the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser compared to SRP in the treatment of chronic periodontitis. Electronic database searches of MEDLINE, Cochrane Controlled Clinical Trial Register, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, CINAHL, Science Direct, ISI Web of Science, and SCOPUS were performed, as well as hand-searching of relevant journals through December 23, 2010. Quality assessment was made according to the CONSORT guidelines. The systematic review was performed according to the QUOROM statement and Cochrane Collaboration recommendations. Meta-analyses of the clinical attachment level gain, probing depth reduction, and changes in gingival recession were performed using weighted mean differences for continuous data with 95% confidence intervals, nested in a random effect model. No statistically significant differences were found in any of the investigated clinical parameters among the five random controlled trials (RCTs) entered into the study, indicating that there was no evidence of effectiveness. However, significant heterogeneity, a high risk of bias in three of the five included studies, and methodological shortcomings indicate that the results should be considered with caution. Future long-term, well-designed RCTs are needed to assess the scientific evidence of Er:YAG laser efficacy as an alternative treatment strategy to SRP.

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    • "Other authors have supposed that TNF-α can interact with RNA transcription codifying for IRS-1 and GLUT 4, compromising their stability. It could also prevent Tyr phosphorylation of the insulin receptor, inducing hydrogen peroxide formation [22,72]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis -- a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2012 · Nutrition & Metabolism
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    • "This study as well as other studies evaluating the effectiveness of Er:YAG laser have utilized a splitmouth design. Carry-across effects between treatments may be an issue in such studies (Schwarz et al. 2008), contributing to biased results (Hujoel & Rouen 1992, Sgolastra et al. 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this randomized, controlled clinical trial was to compare the clinical and microbiological effects of pocket debridement using erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet (Er:YAG) laser with conventional debridement in maintenance patients. Fifteen patients, all smokers, having at least four teeth with residual probing depth (PD) ≥ 5 mm were recruited. Two pockets in two jaw quadrants were randomly assigned to subgingival debridement using an Er:YAG laser (test) or ultrasonic scaler/curette (control) at 3-month intervals. Relative attachment level (RAL), PD, bleeding on probing and dental plaque were recorded at baseline and at 6 and 12 months. Microbiological subgingival samples were taken at the same time points and analysed using a checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization technique. A significant decrease in PD took place in both treatments from baseline to 12 months (p < 0.01). In the control, the mean initial PD decreased from 5.4 to 4.0 mm at 12 months. For the test, a similar decrease occurred. No significant between-treatment differences were shown at any time point. The mean RAL showed no overall significant inter- or intra-treatment differences (p > 0.05). No significant between-treatment differences were observed in subgingival microbiological composition or total pathogens. The results failed to support that an Er:YAG laser may be superior to conventional debridement in the treatment of smokers with recurring chronic inflammation. This appears to be the first time that repeated Er-YAG laser instrumentation has been compared with mechanical instrumentation of periodontal sites with recurring chronic inflammation over a clinically relevant time period.
    Full-text · Article · May 2012 · Journal Of Clinical Periodontology
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    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis - a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2012 · Nutrition & Metabolism
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