Clinical lar approaches to well differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcoma

Sarcoma Disease Management Program, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY 10065, USA.
Current opinion in oncology (Impact Factor: 4.47). 07/2011; 23(4):373-8. DOI: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e32834796e6
Source: PubMed


Liposarcoma, a rare disease, is classified into five histologic subtypes. These include well differentiated liposarcoma (WDLS) and dedifferentiated liposarcoma (DDLS), both characterized by chromosome 12q13-15 amplification. This review will focus on the clinical management of WDLS and DDLS and examine recent molecular studies that have the potential to affect clinical management.
Outcome of patients with WDLS and DDLS depends on completeness of surgical resection as well as tumor location and histologic subtype. Risk of recurrence is high for patients with dedifferentiated histology or retroperitoneal location. We now understand that surgical outcomes are poor for patients with rapidly growing or incompletely resectable tumors, so these patients should be managed nonoperatively. Radiation and chemotherapy have low response rates in WDLS and DDLS, but novel agents targeted at chromosome 12 gene products MDM2 and CDK4 have shown promise in preclinical studies and are being tested in clinical trials. Cell line, tissue microarray, and genomic analyses have identified additional targets including ZIC1, TOP2A, AURKA, and IGF-1R, which could form the basis of future therapies.
Although complete surgical resection is currently the most effective treatment for WDLS and DDLS, the majority of patients with retroperitoneal liposarcoma will eventually have recurrence and die of disease. It is hoped that a multimodality approach, which incorporates targeted therapies and complete surgical resection, will significantly improve patient outcomes.

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    • "A hallmark of ALT and DDLPS is the genomic amplification of the MDM2 gene [5]. This can be detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and may facilitate diagnosis [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Liposarcoma is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma. Well differentiated liposarcoma may progress into dedifferentiated liposarcoma with pleomorphic histology. A minority additionally features myogenic, osteo- or chondrosarcomatous heterologous differentiation. Genomic amplification of the Mouse double minute 2 homolog (MDM2) locus is characteristic for well differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. Detection of MDM2 amplification may supplement histopathology and aid to distinguish liposarcoma from other soft tissue neoplasia. Case presentation Here we present two cases of dedifferentiated liposarcoma with challenging presentation. Case 1 features a myogenic component. As the tumour infiltrated the abdominal muscles and showed immunohistochemical expression of myogenic proteins, rhabdomyosarcoma had to be ruled out. Case 2 has an osteosarcomatous component resembling extraosseous osteosarcoma. The MDM2 status was determined in both cases and helped making the correct diagnosis. Overexpression of MDM2 and co-overexpression of Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 is demonstrated by immunohistochemistry. The underlying MDM2 amplification is shown by fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Since low grade osteosarcoma may also harbour MDM2 amplification it is emphasised that the amplification has to be present in the lipomatous parts of the tumour to distinguish liposarcoma from extraosseous osteosarcoma. Conclusions The two cases exemplify challenges in the diagnoses of dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Liposarcoma often has pleomorphic histology and additionally may feature heterologous components that mimic other soft tissue neoplasms. Amplification of MDM2 is characteristic for well differentiated and dedifferentiated liposarcomas. Determination of the MDM2 status by in situ hybridisation may assist histopathology and help to rule out differential diagnoses.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2014 · BMC Clinical Pathology
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    • "In conclusion, as the exact efficacy of chemotherapy in liposarcoma has not been clearly established, with the failure rate being high [1], [35], the results showed of this study suggest that chemotherapy drugs, when combined with PIK3 inhibitor PI-103 combination may prove an effective approach for the treatment of liposarcoma. "
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    ABSTRACT: While liposarcoma is the second most common soft tissue malignant tumor, the molecular pathogenesis in this malignancy is poorly understood. Our goal was therefore to expand the understanding of molecular mechanisms that drive liposarcoma and identify therapeutically-susceptible genetic alterations. We studied a cohort of high-grade liposarcomas and benign lipomas across multiple disease sites, as well as two liposarcoma cell lines, using multiplexed mutational analysis. Nucleic acids extracted from diagnostic patient tissue were simultaneously interrogated for 150 common mutations across 15 essential cancer genes using a clinically-validated platform for cancer genotyping. Western blot analysis was implemented to detect activation of downstream pathways. Liposarcoma cell lines were used to determine the effects of PI3K targeted drug treatment with or without chemotherapy. We identified mutations in the PIK3CA gene in 4 of 18 human liposarcoma patients (22%). No PIK3CA mutations were identified in benign lipomas. Western blot analysis confirmed downstream activation of AKT in both PIK3CA mutant and non-mutant liposarcoma samples. PI-103, a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor, effectively inhibited the activation of the PI3K/AKT in liposarcoma cell lines and induced apoptosis. Importantly, combination with PI-103 treatment strongly synergized the growth-inhibitory effects of the chemotherapy drugs doxorubicin and cisplatin in liposarcoma cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway is an important cancer mechanism in liposarcoma. Targeting the PI3K/AKT/pathway with small molecule inhibitors in combination with chemotherapy could be exploited as a novel strategy in the treatment of liposarcoma.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · PLoS ONE
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    • "WDLS occur commonly in the retroperitoneum and in the extremities, but can also occur in the mediastinum and paratesticular region [7]. WDLS tumors in the retroperitoneum or mediastinum are more likely to recur than tumors at other sites with this frequent recurrence resulting in death from local effects of the disease [2], [4]. While WDLS does not typically metastasize, it can dedifferentiate and progress to a more aggressive and potentially metastatic tumor [2], [4]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Liposarcoma is the most common soft tissue sarcoma, but little is known about the genomic basis of this disease. Given the low cell content of this tumor type, we utilized flow cytometry to isolate the diploid normal and aneuploid tumor populations from a well-differentiated liposarcoma prior to array comparative genomic hybridization and whole genome sequencing. This work revealed massive highly focal amplifications throughout the aneuploid tumor genome including MDM2, a gene that has previously been found to be amplified in well-differentiated liposarcoma. Structural analysis revealed massive rearrangement of chromosome 12 and 11 gene fusions, some of which may be part of double minute chromosomes commonly present in well-differentiated liposarcoma. We identified a hotspot of genomic instability localized to a region of chromosome 12 that includes a highly conserved, putative L1 retrotransposon element, LOC100507498 which resides within a gene cluster (NAV3, SYT1, PAWR) where 6 of the 11 fusion events occurred. Interestingly, a potential gene fusion was also identified in amplified DDR2, which is a potential therapeutic target of kinase inhibitors such as dastinib, that are not routinely used in the treatment of patients with liposarcoma. Furthermore, 7 somatic, damaging single nucleotide variants have also been identified, including D125N in the PTPRQ protein. In conclusion, this work is the first to report the entire genome of a well-differentiated liposarcoma with novel chromosomal rearrangements associated with amplification of therapeutically targetable genes such as MDM2 and DDR2.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2014 · PLoS ONE
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