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... A reduction in sleep efficiency and duration seen during intensified training periods may be detrimental to maximising physiological adaptation and muscle recovery [19]. Researchers have suggested that reductions in sleep duration may inhibit muscle growth and recovery [19] and lead to a catabolic environment [20,21] with the potential to attenuate muscular adaptation associated with resistance training [10,20,22]. ...
... A reduction in sleep efficiency and duration seen during intensified training periods may be detrimental to maximising physiological adaptation and muscle recovery [19]. Researchers have suggested that reductions in sleep duration may inhibit muscle growth and recovery [19] and lead to a catabolic environment [20,21] with the potential to attenuate muscular adaptation associated with resistance training [10,20,22]. Reductions in sleep duration are also known to lead to an imbalance in hormones (i.e., Leptin and Grehlin) necessary for the control of appetite, satiety, which has been associated with decreases in resting metabolic rate and increased hunger, and caloric consumption and weight gain [19,21,23], which may impact individual athletes depending on the body composition requirements of the sport and or playing position. ...
... Researchers have suggested that reductions in sleep duration may inhibit muscle growth and recovery [19] and lead to a catabolic environment [20,21] with the potential to attenuate muscular adaptation associated with resistance training [10,20,22]. Reductions in sleep duration are also known to lead to an imbalance in hormones (i.e., Leptin and Grehlin) necessary for the control of appetite, satiety, which has been associated with decreases in resting metabolic rate and increased hunger, and caloric consumption and weight gain [19,21,23], which may impact individual athletes depending on the body composition requirements of the sport and or playing position. ...
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Background: Preseason training optimises adaptations in the physical qualities required in rugby union athletes. Sleep can be compromised during periods of intensified training. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between sleep quantity and changes in physical performance over a preseason phase in professional rugby union athletes. Methods: Twenty-nine professional rugby union athletes (Mean ± SD, age: 23 ± 3 years) had their sleep duration monitored for 3 weeks using wrist actigraphy. Strength and speed were assessed at baseline and at week 3. Aerobic capacity and body composition were assessed at baseline, at week 3 and at week 5. Participants were stratified into 2 groups for analysis: <7 h 30 min sleep per night (LOW, n = 15) and >7 h 30 min sleep per night (HIGH, n = 14). Results: A significant group x time interaction was determined for aerobic capacity (p = 0.02, d = 1.25) at week 3 and for skinfolds at week 3 (p < 0.01, d = 0.58) and at week 5 (p = 0.02, d = 0.92), in favour of the HIGH sleep group. No differences were evident between groups for strength or speed measures (p ≥ 0.05). Conclusion: This study highlights that longer sleep duration during the preseason may assist in enhancing physical qualities including aerobic capacity and body composition in elite rugby union athletes.
... Reduction in sleep quality and duration could impact hormone secretion, which could then lead to an imbalance in muscle metabolism (i.e. between protein synthesis and degradation) [52]. Dattilo et al. (2011) [53] reach the same conclusion indicating the sleep debt as a cause of hormonal changes, such as an increase in cortisol and a reduction in testosterone and growth factor. These changes might lead to muscle loss and atrophy of muscle fibers. ...
... Reduction in sleep quality and duration could impact hormone secretion, which could then lead to an imbalance in muscle metabolism (i.e. between protein synthesis and degradation) [52]. Dattilo et al. (2011) [53] reach the same conclusion indicating the sleep debt as a cause of hormonal changes, such as an increase in cortisol and a reduction in testosterone and growth factor. These changes might lead to muscle loss and atrophy of muscle fibers. ...
Article
Purpose: To examine the relationship between sleep quality and duration and muscle strength among community-dwelling middle-aged and older adults. Methods: A systematic review was conducted from March 2020 until May 2020. Searches were done for peer-reviewed and English-written articles reporting results of studies in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and in article references lists. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses was used as well as the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS) to appraise the methodological quality. Results: Twenty-one cross-sectional, three prospective studies and a total of 92,363 subjects were included. The majority of the included studies are classified as "high quality". Handgrip strength is the main method of muscle strength assessment. Sleep assessment is usually conducted using subjective measures, such as validated sleep scales or self-reported questionnaires. Actigraphy, as an objective measure, is used less often. Most studies support strong evidence on the association between weak muscle strength and poor sleep quality and duration among middle-aged and older adults; whereas the results for the gender-specific association and the impact of short or long sleep duration were inconclusive. Conclusion: This review has identified strong evidence on the relationship between sleep quality and duration and muscle strength among middle-aged and older adults. Health professionals should consider this relationship as a component of geriatric assessment in community practice and geriatric settings. Future rigorous research with a combination of subjective and objective measurements is needed to explore whether gender and specific sleep duration are related to muscle strength.
... Según (Dattilo, et al., 2011) el sueño interviene en los procesos de restauración de la energía, el aprendizaje, la memoria y la cognición. Aunque las funciones de los estados del sueño no se conocen en su totalidad, existe suficiente evidencia que señala una relación con la recuperación de la vigilia anterior y/o prepararse para el funcionamiento adecuado en la posterior vigilia. ...
... Como la perdida de sueño impide la acumulación de proteínas en el musculo, la habilidad del musculo esquelético para adaptarse y recuperarse se ve obstaculizada lo cual llevaría a limitar las adaptaciones al entrenamiento (Halson , 2008), (Samuel, 2008), (Dattilo, et al., 2011). ...
... Según (Dattilo, et al., 2011) el sueño interviene en los procesos de restauración de la energía, el aprendizaje, la memoria y la cognición. Aunque las funciones de los estados del sueño no se conocen en su totalidad, existe suficiente evidencia que señala una relación con la recuperación de la vigilia anterior y/o prepararse para el funcionamiento adecuado en la posterior vigilia. ...
... Como la perdida de sueño impide la acumulación de proteínas en el musculo, la habilidad del musculo esquelético para adaptarse y recuperarse se ve obstaculizada lo cual llevaría a limitar las adaptaciones al entrenamiento (Halson , 2008), (Samuel, 2008), (Dattilo, et al., 2011). ...
Thesis
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Resumen: el sueño participa en diversas funciones biológicas y fisiológicas, asociando su restricción con menor rendimiento en el deporte; sin embargo, se desconoce la cantidad y calidad del sueño en deportistas panamericanos de tenis de mesa. Objetivo: determinar la calidad del sueño, el insomnio y la somnolencia diurna en deportistas de tenis de mesa a nivel panamericano. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal con enfoque cuantitativo. La muestra incluyo 86 deportistas (32 mujeres y 54 hombres) Panamericanos de 16 países (Canadá, USA, Republica Dominicana, México, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Perú, Puerto Rico, Brasil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guatemala y Uruguay). Las variables estudiadas se midieron a través de tres encuestas de sueño: el cuestionario de Calidad del Sueño de Pittsburgh (Calidad y Cantidad de sueño), Cuestionario de severidad del Insomnio (Insomnio) y el cuestionario de Epworth (Somnolencia). Resultados: los deportistas de tenis de mesa a nivel panamericano duermen en promedio 6,9 ± 1,45 horas, un 52,3% de los deportistas presenta Insomnio Sub Clínico (Encuesta de insomnio ≥7) y el 67,4% de los deportistas presenta somnolencia Anómala (Encuesta de Somnolencia de Epworth ≥8), mientras que el 60,5% exhibe perturbaciones de sueño considerado mala calidad del sueño según Pittsbugrh. Conclusión: los deportistas de tenis de mesa a nivel panamericano presentan una baja calidad del sueño e identificamos que poseen perturbaciones del sueño, insomnio sub clínico y somnolencia anómala, situación que podría influir negativamente sobre el rendimiento deportivo.
... Specifically, the brain activity developed during the hours of sleep modifies the organism's functioning; body temperature, specific hormone levels, blood pressure, and respiratory frequency might change [5]. Consequently, these organic changes, the product of brain activity during sleep, intervene in energy restoration processes, learning, memory, and cognition [1,6], favoring a state of recovery of people [7]. However, despite the existing evidence, a considerable number of people sleep fewer hours than necessary (sleep restriction) and have a low sleep quality [8]. ...
... Therefore, and considering that a large part of the population practices this sport, programs have been implemented to increase physical capacities [39], injury prevention [37] and good practices during rest periods [31]. Consequently, evaluating parameters such as sleep quality in athletes, specifically in Chilean professional soccer players, is a priority since good sleep hygiene ensures energy restoration, improves learning, memory, and cognition [1,6]. ...
Article
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Recent research has shown that good sleep quality has a positive effect on physical performance. However, sleep quality in Chilean professional soccer players is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine sleep quality in Chilean professional soccer players. It was a cross-sectional, explanatory study with observable variables. The sample consisted of 94 Chilean male soccer players belonging to four professional clubs. The main variable was the Sleep Quality Index, evaluated through the Pittsburgh questionnaire (Spanish version). After estimating sleep quality individually, the four professional soccer clubs' comparison was performed through a one-factor ANOVA. The Pearson test was used to relate the questionnaire variables; the significance level was p < 0.05. In the global analysis of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, a value of 4.75 ± 2.29 on a scale of 0-21 was observed, with no significant differences between the clubs evaluated (p > 0.05). Based on the results obtained, Chilean male professional soccer players present good sleep quality. However, the high values of "sleep latency" and "sleep disturbances" are indicators that should be worked on by the multidisciplinary team of each professional club. They should develop strategies to improve sleep hygiene, encourage good sleep, and fall asleep efficiently.
... Studies in animal models have shown that lack of sleep reduces circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH) and testosterone, in addition to increasing the concentrations of glucocorticoids (GC) [1,2]. Considering the physiological properties of these hormones, a potentially catabolic environment is generated by SD protocols [3][4][5][6][7]. ...
... In addition, GC reduce the activity of anabolic hormones and protein synthesis pathways in the muscle, including the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt) pathway. Thus, increased GC concentrations can simultaneously reduce the synthesis and increase the degradation of proteins [5,8]. ...
Article
Background previous studies have shown that muscle atrophy is observed after sleep deprivation (SD) protocols; however, the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. Muscle trophism can be modulated by several factors, including energy balance (positive or negative), nutritional status, oxidative stress, the level of physical activity, and disuse. The metabolic differences that exist in different types of muscle fiber may also be the result of different adaptive responses. To better understand these mechanisms, we evaluated markers of oxidative damage and histopathological changes in different types of muscle fibers in sleep-deprived rats. Methods Twenty male Wistar EPM-1 rats were randomly allocated in two groups: a control group (CTL group; n = 10) and a sleep deprived group (SD group; n = 10). The SD group was submitted to continuous paradoxical SD for 96 h; the soleus (type I fibers) and plantar (type II fiber) muscles were analyzed for histopathological changes, trophism, lysosomal activity, and oxidative damage. Oxidative damage was assessed by lipid peroxidation and nuclear labeling of 8-OHdG. Results The data demonstrated that SD increased the nuclear labeling of 8-OHdG and induced histopathological changes in both muscles, being more evident in the soleus muscle. In the type I fibers there was signs of tissue degeneration, inflammatory infiltrate and tissue edema. Muscle atrophy was observed in both muscles. The concentration of malondialdehyde, and cathepsin L activity only increased in type I fibers after SD. Conclusion These data indicate that the histopathological changes observed after 96 h of SD in the skeletal muscle occur by different processes, according to the type of muscle fiber, with muscles predominantly composed of type I fibers undergoing greater oxidative damage and catabolic activity, as evidenced by a larger increase in 8-OHdG labeling, lipid peroxidation, and lysosomal activity.
... Sleep is a vital physiological process as it covers approximately one-third of the human lifespan. Adequate and high-quality sleep is essential for physical restoration [1], memory processing [2] and metabolism [3]. Nowadays, probably due to our hectic lifestyle in modern society, complaints about sleep problems increase dramatically among people. ...
... Although the findings on the association between shift work and musculoskeletal disorders are not conclusive, the probable mechanism can be explained by lack or poor sleep due to shift work. Sleep deprivation increases catabolic hormones such as cortisol, which stimulate protein degradation; therefore, muscle recovery after exercise and injuries would potentially be compromised [25]. In addition, it is suggested that circadian rhythms may control the health and disease of the musculoskeletal system by influencing physical activity, feeding/fasting, body temperature, or hormonal/neuronal control [26]. ...
Article
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A possible association between night shift work and musculoskeletal disorder has been suggested. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of decreased night work on musculoskeletal pain. Difference-in-difference estimation was used to compare changes in musculoskeletal pain between shift workers (N = 122) and non-shift workers (N = 170) in a manufacturing company before and after the introduction of a new shift system eliminating overnight work. Musculoskeletal pain was measured by a questionnaire asking if workers had symptoms in specific body parts, including the neck, shoulder, arm/elbow, wrist/hand, back, and leg/foot, over the past year. Generalized estimating equation models were used to estimate changes in pre- versus post-intervention musculoskeletal pain rates between the treated and control group. In the difference-in-difference (DID) models, prevalence of musculoskeletal pain for shoulder (−10.3%), arm (−12.9%), all sites combined (−9.2%), and upper extremity combined (−14.8%) showed significant decreases from pre- to post-intervention among the treated group (shift workers) compared to the control group (non-shift workers) after controlling for age and weekly working hours. Decreasing night work was related to improvement in musculoskeletal pain in shift workers.
... Sleep is a vital physiological process as it covers approximately onethird of the human lifespan. Adequate and high-quality sleep is essential for physical restoration (Dattilo et al., 2011), memory processing (Stickgold and Walker, 2007) and metabolism (Xie et al., 2013). Nowadays, probably due to our hectic lifestyle in modern society, complaints about sleep problems increase dramatically among people. ...
Article
Background Sleep scoring is an essential but time-consuming process, and therefore automatic sleep scoring is crucial and urgent to help address the growing unmet needs for sleep research. This paper aims to develop a versatile deep-learning architecture to automate sleep scoring using raw polysomnography recordings. Method The model adopts a linear function to address different numbers of inputs, thereby extending model applications. Two-dimensional convolution neural networks are used to learn features from multi-modality polysomnographic signals, a “squeeze and excitation” block to recalibrate channel-wise features, together with a long short-term memory module to exploit long-range contextual relation. The learnt features are finally fed to the decision layer to generate predictions for sleep stages. Result Model performance is evaluated on three public datasets. For all tasks with different available channels, our model achieves outstanding performance not only on healthy subjects but even on patients with sleep disorders (SHHS: Acc-0.87, K-0.81; ISRUC: Acc-0.86, K-0.82; Sleep-EDF: Acc-0.86, K-0.81). The highest classification accuracy is achieved by a fusion of multiple polysomnographic signals. Comparison Compared to state-of-the-art methods that use the same dataset, the proposed model achieves a comparable or better performance, and exhibits low computational cost. Conclusions The model demonstrates its transferability among different datasets, without changing model architecture or hyper-parameters across tasks. Good model transferability promotes the application of transfer learning on small group studies with mismatched channels. Due to demonstrated availability and versatility, the proposed method can be integrated with diverse polysomnography systems, thereby facilitating sleep monitoring in clinical or routine care.
... 9 In addition, better sleep quality is important for muscle recovery and development. 10 This suggests that the current finding does not indicate a relationship between better sleep quality and increased body fat but rather better sleep aiding in the development of healthy, lower-fat mass. ...
Article
Purpose To examine how sleep and physical activity predict body mass index (BMI) in college students. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Medium-sized public university in the Southeastern United States. Subjects 386 undergraduate students (245 females; 18-25 years). Measures Surveys included the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Concise Physical Activity Questionnaire (CPAQ). PSQI provided 5 sleep scores: PSQI Global Score, Sleep Quality Factor Score, Sleep Efficiency Factor Score, Sleep Duration, and Habitual Sleep Efficiency. Height and weight measurements were taken to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). Analysis Correlational analyses were completed first. Linear and moderation regression models using CPAQ as the moderator were used to predict BMI. The Johnson-Neyman technique determined regions of significance where sleep significantly predicted BMI dependent on CPAQ score. Results Sleep Duration significantly predicted BMI ( β = -.385, p = .043) while significant interaction terms predicting BMI were found for Global PSQI ScoreXCPAQ ( β = -.103, p = .015) and Sleep Quality Factor ScoreXCPAQ ( β = -.233, p = .013). Johnson-Neyman analyses demonstrated that better sleep quality (measured by Global PSQI and Sleep Quality Factor Scores) predict lower BMI when exercise levels are low and higher BMI when exercise levels are high. Conclusion At low levels of exercise, better sleep quality significantly predicts lower BMI, suggesting that interventions designed to increase sleep quality could promote healthy weight maintenance in college students.
... Sleep loss may theoretically impede muscle protein synthesis, 60 partially because of increased cortisol, decreased testosterone, IGF-1, and growth hormone. 61 Although the above is all related to muscle repair, many other systems are undoubtedly involved. More research is warranted to explain the mechanistic contributions of sleep on holistic athletic recovery, as well as nuances specifically associated with elite-level sports. ...
Article
Elite athletes and coaches believe sleep is the most important recovery strategy and widely consider it critical to optimal performance. Despite this perceived importance, there are numerous circumstances that can reduce sleep quantity and quality in athletic populations. Because of the effects of sleep loss on various physical, neurophysiological, and cognitive parameters, such perturbations can have consequences for performance and recovery outcomes. Although peer-reviewed literature examining the interaction between sleep, performance, and recovery in athletes is increasing, understanding of these issues remains equivocal. Perhaps most pertinently, the effect of sleep on sport performance does not align with a one-size-fits-all approach and rather depends on numerous factors such as type of sport, scheduling, time of the season, and the intra-individual requirements for sleep. The relationship between brain plasticity and memory, which in turn can influence learning processes and long-term memory consolidation, suggests that sleep may play an important role in learning new skills and tactics for both elite and developing athletes. The aim of this special issue review was to analyze the evidence of sleep loss on sport performance and recovery, with a specific focus on elite athletes. An assessment of these sleep- compromising situations that elite athletes may face during a typical season and practical considerations for alleviating these issues is also provided to further the understanding for medical professionals, scientists, and applied sporting practitioners alike.
... Findings also revealed that, among males, for each one-unit increase in overall stress, sleep duration increased by 22 min. It is surprising that overall stress was not similarly associated with sleep duration in females, as feeling more "worn-out" and "physically exhausted" (i.e., having higher overall stress) may be expected to increase sleep need, as sleep is thought to facilitate recovery partly by replenishing energy stores (Scharf et al., 2008), and promoting tissue repair (Chennaoui et al., 2016;Dattilo et al., 2011). Across all athletes, for each one-unit increase in overall stress, WASO increased by 8 min, which may reflect an anticipatory stress response prior to competition (Van Paridon et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study examined sex differences among endurance athletes in pre-race relationships between sleep, and perceived stress and recovery. Thirty-six athletes completed the Short Recovery and Stress Scale, and had sleep monitored via actigraphy, over four consecutive days prior to an ultra-marathon. Overall, compared with males, females had shorter wake after sleep onset (mean ± SD, 50 ± 23 vs 65 ± 23 min, p = .04) and lower emotional balance (3.9 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.1 arbitrary units, p = .001). The day before the race, females scored higher for all stress-related items (p < 0.05). Among females, higher scores for emotional balance (β = -31 min, p = .01) and negative emotional state (β = -21 min, p < .001) were associated with reduced sleep duration. Among males, higher scores for overall stress were associated with increased sleep duration (β = 22 min, p = .01). Across all athletes, longer sleep duration was associated with improved overall recovery (β = 0.003 arbitrary units, p = .02). Females experienced greater pre-race stress than males, and their sleep duration was associated with emotional factors. The SRSS may help identify female athletes at risk of sleep difficulties prior to competition.
... 16 Reduced sleep quality has been found to damage muscle physiology and impair muscle recovery due to greater protein degradation and disrupted protein synthesis. 17 In short, we believe sleep quality mediates the relationship between unease and physical exercise because increased unease disrupts sleep and decreased sleep quality negatively influences the individual's ability to engage in physical exercise. ...
Article
Sahil Bajaj,1,2 Karina S Blair,1,2 Ru Zhang,1,2 Johannah Bashford-Largo,1,2 Matthew Dobbertin,1,2 R James Blair1,2 1Multimodal Clinical Neuroimaging Laboratory (MCNL), Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, NE, USA; 2Program for Trauma and Anxiety (PTAC), Center for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, Boys Town, NE, USACorrespondence: Sahil BajajCenter for Neurobehavioral Research, Boys Town National Research Hospital, 14015 Flanagan Blvd. Suite #102, Boys Town, NE, USAEmail sahil.bajaj@boystown.org
... This response to a stressor is altered by both environmental and genetic factors. Focusing on the environment, one such factor is lack of sleep, which can impact exercise recovery (Dattilo et al., 2011;Leeder et al., 2012a), and promote the release of stress hormones (Dattilo et al., 2012). This can lead to a reduction in aerobic endurance (Azboy & Kaygisz, 2009) and strength (Souissi et al., 2008) performance, and also increase the inflammatory response (Heffner et al., 2012)-potentially altering training performance and hence adaptation. ...
Thesis
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Variation between individuals in response to a stimulus is a well-established phenomenon. This thesis discusses the drivers of this inter-individual response, identifying three major determinants; genetic, environmental, and epigenetic variation between individuals. Focusing on genetic variation, the thesis explores how this information may be useful in elite sport, aiming to answer the question “Is there utility to genetic information in elite sport?” The current literature was critically analysed, with a finding that the majority of exercise genomics research explains what has happened previously, as opposed to assisting practitioners in modifying athlete preparation and enhancing performance. An exploration of the potential ways in which genetic information may be useful in elite sport then follows, including that of inter- individual variation in response to caffeine supplementation, the use of genetic information to assist in reducing hamstring injuries, and whether genetic information may help identify future elite athletes. These themes are then explored via empirical work. In the first study, an internet-based questionnaire assessed the frequency of genetic testing in elite athletes, finding that around 10% had undertaken such a test. The second study determined that a panel of five genetic variants could predict the magnitude of improvements in Yo-Yo test improvements following a standardised training programme in youth soccer players. The third study demonstrated the effectiveness of a panel of seven genetic variants in predicting the magnitude of neuromuscular fatigue in youth soccer players. The fourth and final study recruited five current or former elite athletes, including an Olympic Champion, and created the most comprehensive Total Genotype Score in the published literature to date, to determine whether their scores deviated significantly from a control population of over 500 non-athletes. The genetic panels were unable to adequately discriminate the elite performers from non-athletes, suggesting that, at this time, genetic testing holds no utility in the identification of future elite performers. The wider utilisation of genetic information as a public health tool is discussed, and a framework for the implementation of genetic information in sport is also proposed. In summary, this thesis suggests that there is great potential for the use of genetic information to assist practitioners in the athlete management process in elite sport, and demonstrates the efficacy of some commercially available panels, whilst cautioning against the use of such information as a talent identification tool. The major limitation of the current thesis is the low sample sizes of many of the experimental chapters, a common issue in exercise genetics research. Future work should aim to further explore the implementation of genetic information in elite sporting environments.
... Sleep has important biological functions in a myriad of physiological processes including learning, memory, and cognition [1,2]. Restricting sleep to less than 6 h per night for four or more consecutive nights has been shown to impair cognitive performance and mood [3], disturb glucose metabolism [4], appetite regulation [5], and immune function [6]. ...
Article
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Background: Disturbed sleep may negatively influence physical health, cognitive performance, metabolism, and general wellbeing. Nutritional interventions represent a potential non-pharmacological means to increase sleep quality and quantity. Objective: (1) Identify an optimal suite of nutritional ingredients and (2) validate the effects of this suite utilising polysomnography, and cognitive and balance tests. Methods: The optimal and least optimal combinations of six ingredients were identified utilising 55 male participants and a Box-Behnken predictive model. To validate the model, 18 healthy, male, normal sleepers underwent three trials in a randomised, counterbalanced design: (1) optimal drink, (2) least optimal drink, or (3) placebo were provided before bed in a double-blinded manner. Polysomnography was utilised to measure sleep architecture. Cognitive performance, postural sway, and subjective sleep quality, were assessed 30 min after waking. Results: The optimal drink resulted in a significantly shorter sleep onset latency (9.9 ± 12.3 min) when compared to both the least optimal drink (26.1 ± 37.4 min) and the placebo drink (19.6 ± 32.0 min). No other measures of sleep, cognitive performance, postural sway, and subjective sleep quality were different between trials. Conclusion: A combination of ingredients, optimised to enhance sleep, significantly reduced sleep onset latency. No detrimental effects on sleep architecture, subjective sleep quality or next day performance were observed.
... includes decompression of spinal canal with or without spinal fusion can be performed to improve their clinical symptoms 6 . Sleep is essential for restoration of physiologic function in addition to learning, memory, and cognition 8,9 . Disturbed sleep not only negatively affects quality of life but also causes mental 10 and physical 11 illness such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cancer, and eventually increases mortality 12 . ...
Article
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Despite the importance of sleep and the evidence on its relationship with various chronic diseases, quality of sleep is not considered in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). This prospective comparative study aimed to investigate the changes in sleep disturbance after treatment in patients with LSS. Patients with LSS and sleep disturbance (n = 201; 147 conservatively treated and 54 patients with surgical treatment) were included. The Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI) was used to evaluate sleep quality. Propensity score matching was used to attenuate the potential bias. Clinical outcome of surgery, as determined by the Oswestry disability index, and the PSQI was compared between the two groups at 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after enrollment. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed to adjust for possible confounders within the matched cohorts. Among the 201 patients, 96 (47.7%) patients were finally matched (48 patients in each group). Sleep quality was initially improved after treatment, regardless of the treatment method. Sleep quality in the surgical group was improved by 6 weeks after surgery and consistently improved during the 6-month follow-up period, despite less use of pain killer. Conversely, the improvement in sleep quality at 6-weeks following conservative treatment was not maintained during the follow-up, although the treatment outcome for LSS measured by ODI was continuously improved. After multivariate logistic regression analysis within propensity score matched cohorts, surgical treatment had a significantly greater chance to improve sleep quality compared to conservative treatment. The failure of sleep improvement in conservative group was significantly associated with depression presented by worse score in Hamilton depression rating scale, and more severe degree of foraminal-type stenosis, which should be carefully considered for conservative treatment of LSS patients with sleep disturbance.
... Additional data investigating sleep deprivation have demonstrated negative effects on multiple athletic performance variables and recovery capabilities (17,41,53). For example, Reilly and Piercy (53) observed significant reductions in strength-endurance performance and total volume load on compound exercises such as the bench press, deadlift, and leg press when subjects were in a sleep-restricted state. ...
Article
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Despite the lack of standardized terminology, building muscle and losing fat concomitantly has been referred to as body recomposition by practitioners. Although many suggest that this only occurs in untrained/novice and overweight/obese populations, there is a substantial amount of literature demonstrating this body recomposition phenomenon in resistance-trained individuals. Moreover, 2 key factors influencing these adaptations are progressive resistance training coupled with evidence-based nutritional strategies. This review examines some of the current literature demonstrating body recomposition in various trained populations, the aforementioned key factors, nontraining/nutrition variables (i.e., sleep, hormones), and potential limitations due to body composition assessments. In addition, this review points out the areas where more research is warranted.
... An objective measure of sleep is valuable for monitoring the impact of training and competition on the sleep/wake behaviours of athletes (Lastella et al., 2014;Miller et al., 2017;Sargent et al., 2014;. Due to the negative impacts of insufficient sleep (e.g., cognitive impairment; Dinges et al., 1997;Edwards & Waterhouse, 2009;Van Dongen et al., 2003;Vgontzas et al., 2004), and the importance of restorative processes that occur during sleep (e.g., muscle regeneration; Dattilo et al., 2011;Davenne, 2009), devices that can accurately measure sleep may provide a valuable objective indication of cognitive and physiological recovery in the demanding environments of elite sport. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to compare the WHOOP strap – a wearable device that estimates sleep based on measures of movement and heart rate derived from actigraphy and photoplethysmography, respectively. Twelve healthy adults (6 females, 6 males, aged 22.9 ± 3.4 years) participated in a 10-day, laboratory-based protocol. A total of 86 sleeps were independently assessed in 30-s epochs using polysomnography and WHOOP. For WHOOP, bed times were entered by researchers and sleeps were scored by the company based on proprietary algorithms. WHOOP overestimated total sleep time by 8.2 ± 32.9 minutes compared to polysomnography, but this difference was non-significant. WHOOP was compared to polysomnography for 2-stage (i.e., wake, sleep) and 4-stage categorisation (i.e., wake, light sleep [N1 or N2], slow-wave sleep [N3], REM) of sleep periods. For 2-stage categorisation, the agreement, sensitivity to sleep, specificity for wake, and Cohen’s kappa were 89%, 95%, 51%, and 0.49, respectively. For 4-stage categorisation, the agreement, sensitivity to light sleep, SWS, REM, and wake, and Cohen’s kappa were 64%, 62%, 68%, 70%, 51%, and 0.47, respectively. In situations where polysomnography is impractical (e.g., field settings), WHOOP is a reasonable method for estimating sleep, particularly for 2-stage categorisation, if accurate bedtimes are manually entered.
... En el Grafico 2, se presenta, el perfil analítico de los 7 componentes de calidad del sueño de PSQI; una comparación entre dos atletas masculino y femenino, quienes tienen puntajes sobre el promedio en PSQI: La perdida de sueño impide la acumulación de proteínas en el musculo, la habilidad del musculo esquelético para adaptarse y recuperarse se ve obstaculizada, lo cual llevaría a limitar las adaptaciones al entrenamiento, (Halson , 2008), (Samuel, 2008), (Dattilo, et al., 2011) considerando la necesidad de restauración neurológica del desarrollo y comportamiento de un individuo (Horne, 1993) (Carskadon, 1990 Basada en los principios del condicionamiento básico, tratar de asociar la cama con el sueño. El objetivo es volver a asociar el dormitorio con un comienzo rápido del sueño. ...
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RODRIGUEZ, T, A, I. Calidad del sueño, insomnio y somnolencia en preselección nacional de surf durante cuarentena Covid-19. 25-05-2020. 1 Calidad del sueño, insomnio y somnolencia en preselección nacional de surf durante cuarentena Covid-19. Álvaro I. Rodríguez T. Rodríguez, T. A. I. Calidad del sueño, insomnio y somnolencia en preselección nacional de surf durante cuarentena Covid-19. 25-05, 2020. Propósito: Describir y analizar la calidad del sueño, presencia de insomnio y de somnolencia en la preselección nacional de surf. Método: trabajo descriptivo de tipo mixto. Cuarenta y cuatro (N=44) surfistas adolescentes competitivos entre 18,5 años (± 8,1) promedio de peso y altura de 56,6 kg (± 13,1) y 163 cm (± 11,8). Se aplicaron tres encuestas de sueño (PSQI, ESS, ISI). Un 38,6% presenta mala calidad de sueño, un 29,5% presenta Insomnio clínico, mientras 18,2% presenta algún tipo de Somnolencia durante periodo covid19. un se encontró diferencia significativa en resultado de Somnolencia entre genero masculino y femenino (p<0.05). En relación a el uso de celular 20 min antes de acostarse (59,1%, SI), (40,9%, NO) y su correlación (r) entre las variables del sueño fue débil. La presencia de lesión fue de 11,4%, SI, 88,6%NO. El propósito fue levantar esta información para nutrir la red que cubre al deportista sobre la relevancia que cumple el sueño en el rendimiento y su planificación adecuada puede tener beneficios sobre la vida diaria, adaptación al entrenamiento, al cumplimiento de los principios del entrenamiento, aporta a la recuperación del estado de vigilia un sujeto y a su recuperación frente a lesiones.
... Sleep improves the immune system 34 and physiological recovery 35 . This could be observed in two ways: 1) sleep deprived/restricted subjects usually have a higher probability to develop diseases, including pneumonia 36 ; 2) a sick person has more somnolence and requires more sleep for quick recovery. ...
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In December 2019, Wuhan, in China, attracted international attention due to a pneumonia outbreak caused by the new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Infection by 2019-nCoV is more likely in elderly people with comorbidities or with associated chronic diseases. Due to the high transmission rate among humans, this disease is rapidly disseminated, which led to several events being canceled, including the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The aim of this article is to discuss the risk factors for Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as for spectators, that justify the decision to postpone the Tokyo Games 2020. Regular physical exercise is associated with health and the prevention of chronic diseases. Although athletes generally appear to be healthy and physically fit, this may not be true. The immune system, which protects the organism from invasive microorganisms, can be affected by the duration and quality of sleep, as well as by physical exercise which influences the quality of the immune response. High volumes of high-intensity physical exercise, as well as changes in sleep patterns during the pre-competition period and the impacts of jet lag on athletes traveling for the Tokyo Games in 2020 may lead to immune system suppression, making these groups more vulnerable to infection by 2019-nCoV. Moreover, during the period planned for the games in 2020 the pandemic may be subsiding in some countries and increasing in others, and this was also taken into consideration as a risk factor. Hence, the decision taken to postpone the Tokyo 2020 Olympic and Paralympic Games until 2021 due to the 2019-nCoV was the correct one, and was extremely important to protect the health of Olympic and Paralympic athletes, as well as spectators. Level of evidence V; expert opinion .
... Previous studies have suggested that a lack of sleep can affect an athlete's recovery by altering their post-exercise endocrine response and may promote muscle loss and prevent muscle recovery after injury or exercise-induced injury [32]. Although, these variables were not measured during our research we could argue that the lack of sleep and/or its decreased quality may have influenced these processes and affected the athletes' recovery. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine if sleep quality and psychological factors were associated with time to meet the discharge criteria to return to sport (RTS) following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL-R) among athletes. A cohort-study design included 89 athletes following ACL-R. Each participant completed a battery of questionnaires at 6 different time points: within 3 days of injury occurrence and at post-surgery (1.5 m, 3 m, 4.5 m, 6 m and when discharge criteria were met). Assessment included sleep quality and quantity, symptoms of depression, anxiety, stress, psychological readiness to RTS and fear of re-injury. The primary outcome was the time needed to meet all discharge criteria to RTS. Sleep parameters and psychological factors were not associated with time to meet the discharge criteria to RTS. However, athletes that had lower scores of anxiety (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.0, 1.3) and insomnia (OR 1.2 (95% CI 1.0, 1.3) at baseline were more likely to meet the RTS discharge criteria. Athletes with better sleep quality at 3m, 4.5m and 6m were more likely to meet the RTS discharge criteria OR 1.3 (95% CI 1.1, 1.7), 2.0 (95% CI 1.1-3.4) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0, 1.9) respectively. Sleep quality and psychological factors were not associated with time to meet the discharge criteria to RTS but impacted whether athletes adhered and completed their rehabilitation program or not. Monitoring sleep quality and psychological factors of athletes before and following ACL-R surgery is important to identify athletes who could have difficulties in adhering to and completing their rehabilitation program to RTS.
... One possible reason for this is that a decline in muscle strength occurs 2-5-fold faster than muscle mass loss, which can be linked to a decline in QOL, resulting in the elevation of the PSQI-J score (29). Another possible reason is that muscle strength decline is associated with hormonal changes, such as insulin-like growth factors 1 and testosterone, potentially leading to the exacerbation of sleep status (30). GS is representative of whole-body muscle strength and has been shown to be an independent marker of nutrition (31). ...
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The causal association between sarcopenia and sleep disorders in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs) is unclear. The present study aimed to examine the influence of sarcopenia-related factors [grip strength (GS) and muscle mass] on the progression of sleep disorders in patients with CLD (n=182, 46 cirrhotic cases; median age, 64 years). Sleep quality was evaluated by the Japanese version of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J). A PSQI-J score >5 points was defined as a sleep disorder. In all analyzed patients, evalua- tion using the PSQI-J questionnaire was performed >2 times during the observation period. The time interval from the date of baseline PSQI-J and the first confirmed date of the elevation of PSQI-J score was calculated. The primary endpoint was the elevation of the PSQI-J score compared to the baseline PSQI-J score. The decline in GS was diagnosed with a GS of <26 kg for males and <18 kg for females. The loss of muscle mass was diagnosed by a skeletal muscle index (SMI) of <7.0 kg/m² for males and <5.7 kg/m² for females on bioelectrical impedance analysis. The median PSQI-J score was 5. A PSQI-J score of >5 points at baseline was found in 83 patients (45.6%). In patients with a decline in GS (n=48), the 3-year cumulative elevation rate of the PSQI-J score was 82.4%, while in patients with no decline in GS, it was 36.2% (P<0.0001). In patients with a decline in SMI (n=64), the 3-year cumulative elevation rate of the PSQI-J score was 60.6%, while in patients with no decline in SMI, it was 43.4% (P=0.1822). On the multivariate analysis of factors associated with the elevation of the PSQI-J score, only the decline in GS (P=0.0002) was a significant factor. On the whole, the present study demonstrates that a reduced GS rather than the loss of muscle mass is indepen- dently associated with an elevated risk for the progression of sleep disorders in patients with CLD.
... The lack of good quantity and quality sleep as a result of shift work is concerning for nurses since sleep serves several functions. These include restoration (Adam & Oswald 1984;Dattilo et al. 2011), enhanced tissue growth and repair (Adam & Oswald 1977), energy conservation (Berger & Phillips 1995;Campbell & Murphy 2007;Jung et al. 2011;Shapiro & Flanigan 1993), information processing (Rechtschaffen 1998), and the consolidation of memory and learning (Hennevin et al. 1995;Stickgold 2005). ...
Article
Sleep plays a critical role in overall health, well‐being, and daytime functioning. Provision of 24‐hour care means that nurses undertake shift work and therefore have been found to commonly not get the recommended amount of sleep, resulting in sleep deprivation. Research to date has focused on how sleep deprivation impacts their cognitive performance (e.g., reaction time, memory consolidation); however, less considered is how nurses’ sleep impacts on their ability to understand and provide emotional care to consumers. In this paper, we examine how sleep may influence nurses’ ability to empathize and provide compassionate care, both of which are fundamental aspects of their work. We begin by considering the unique challenges nurses face as shift workers and the impact of sleep on physical and psychological functioning. We examine how empathy and compassion drive nurses’ attempts to understand consumers’ perspectives and experiences and motivate them to want to help those in their care. Work directly investigating the relationship between sleep and these processes indicates emotional recognition and experience are hampered by poor sleep, with greater compassion towards oneself for from others associated with better sleep. Much of this work has, however, been conducted outside of the nursing or health professional space. We discuss issues that need to be addressed in order to move understanding forward regarding how sleep impacts on mental health nurses’ empathy and compassion, as well as how an understanding of the sleep–empathy/compassion link should be an important priority for nurse education and well‐being.
... Sleep deprivation is associated with decreased testosterone and increased cortisol levels 56,57 . Testosterone triggers the protein kinase B (Akt)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and its downstream targets, S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4-E binding protein 1 (4EBP1) via activation of insulin growth-factor-1 (IGF-1) 58 64 . ...
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Shortened and fragmented sleeping patterns occupying modern industrialized societies may promote metabolic disturbances accompanied by an increased risk of weight gain and skeletal muscle degradation. Short-term sleep restriction may alter energy homeostasis by modifying dopamine brain receptor signaling, leading to hyperpalatable food consumption and risk of increased adiposity. Concomitantly, the metabolic damage caused by lower testosterone and higher cortisol levels may stimulate systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and suppress pathways involved in muscle protein synthesis. These changes may lead to dysregulated energy balance and skeletal muscle metabolism, increasing the risk of sarcopenic obesity, an additional public health burden. Future trials controlling for food intake and exploring further the influence of sleep deprivation on anabolic and catabolic signaling, and gut peptide interaction with energy balance are warranted.
... Sleep is essential for adequate recovery from exercise practice, especially at high intensity-levels. Insufficient sleep seems to impair the secretion of anabolic hormones such as testosterone and growth hormone and favor the secretion of catabolic hormones such as cortisol and myostatin, predisposing athletes to musculoskeletal injuries (Dattilo et al., 2011;Sousa et al., 2020). Therefore, sleep deficit has been associated with an increased risk of injury in abled-bodied athletes in different age groups (Milewski et al., 2014;Silva et al., 2019). ...
Article
Objectives To evaluate sleep characteristics and investigate the relationship of sleep with injuries and illnesses in Paralympic athletes. Design Cross-sectional. Setting Sports Training Center. Participants 20 Paralympic athletes of athletics, swimming, and powerlifting. Outcomes Injury and illnesses were recorded during the sports season through the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Center questionnaire (OSTRC-BR). Sleep-wake pattern was monitored for 2 weeks using actigraphy. Chronotype, sleep quality, sleep behavior, and sleep complaints were cross-sectionally collected. Results Poor sleep quality and poor sleep behavior were highly prevalent. The mean total sleep time was 6.57 ± 49.91. Duration of naps (r= −0.46; p=0.04) was associated with occurrence of health problems; frequency of insomnia (r= 0.51; p= 0.02), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score (r= 0.45; p=0.04), and frequency of awakenings at night (r= 0.58; p= 0.01) were associated with severity of health problems; frequency of movements during sleep was associated with OSTRC-BR cumulative score (r= 0.58; p=0.00); and frequency of nightmares was associated with OSTRC mean score. Conclusions Paralympic athletes tend to report poor sleep quality, have poor sleep behavior and sleep less than the recommended. Insomnia symptoms, awakenings at night, movements during sleep and poor sleep quality were associated with the occurrence and/or severity of health problems.
... This is largely due to the regenerative and repair processes that occur to both the body and the brain during rapid eye movement (REM) and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep 2 . Indeed, from a physical perspective, one of the important hormones responsible for muscle growth and repair, growth hormone, is mainly secreted at night, during NREM slow wave sleep 9,10 . Poor sleep also disrupts growth and repair of cells 10 and individuals who sleep less may have impaired physical performance when compared to individuals who obtain a greater amount of sleep 11,12 . ...
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Objectives: There is limited large-scale data on maladaptive sleep practices in elite adult athletes and their influence on sleep characteristics. This study aimed to identify differences in sleep behaviours between individual and team-sport athletes using two sleep questionnaires. Material and methods: 407 (237 male, 170 female) elite adult athletes across sixteen sports (9 individual-sports, 7 team-sports) completed the Athlete Sleep Behavior Questionnaire (ASBQ) and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Results: Individual-sport athletes reported greater total sleep time and higher sleep efficiency than team-sport athletes (p<0.05, d=0.28-0.29). There were no differences between global scores for the PSQI, however, there was a difference between global scores for the ASBQ as well as multiple individual items from both questionnaires (p<0.05), indicating poorer behaviours in team-sport athletes. Discussion: Team-sport athletes displayed more maladaptive pre-sleep behaviours and poorer sleep characteristics than individual-sport athletes.
... Sleep plays a fundamental role in physical adaptation (Vitale et al. 2019), cognition and the consolidation of new skills (Scott et al. 2006), mental health and wellbeing (Lentino et al. 2013); as well as injury and illness prevention (Halson 2014;Szivak and Kraemer 2015). Noting that changes to sleeping environment, sleep schedule, and periods of deliberate sleep restriction are inherent to basic military training (BMT) (Adrian et al. 2019;Crowley et al. 2012), insufficient sleep during BMT may compromise recruit training outcomes and health (Belenky et al. 2003;Dattilo et al. 2011). During focus group discussions U.S. recruits reported their sleep during BMT fell to < 6 h, with poorer quality, compared to ≥ 8 h of sleep at home (Crowley et al. 2012). ...
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Objective Studies in basic military training (BMT) examining sleep are largely cross-sectional, and do not investigate relationships between sleep, stress, recovery and fatigue. The aims of this study were to (1a) quantify changes in recruits’ sleep quantity and quality over 12 weeks of BMT; (1b) quantify changes in recruits’ perceptions of stress, fatigue and recovery over BMT; and (2) explore relationships between sleep, and perceptions of stress, fatigue and recovery. Methods 45 recruits (37 male; 8 female, age: 25.2 ± 7.2 years, height: 176.2 ± 10.0 cm, mass: 76.8 ± 15.0 kg) wore ActiGraph GT9X’s for 12 weeks of BMT, collecting sleep duration, efficiency and awakenings. Subjective sleep quality, fatigue were measured daily, with stress and recovery measured weekly. Multi-level models assessed relationships between sleep, and stress, recovery, and fatigue. Results Objective daily means for sleep duration were 6.3 h (± 1.2 h) and 85.6% (± 5.5%) for sleep efficiency. Main effects were detected for all mean weekly values ( p < 0.05). Sleep quality showed the strongest relationships with stress, recovery and fatigue. The best model to explain relationships between, stress, recovery and fatigue, included sleep quality, sleep duration, sleep efficiency and awakenings. Conclusions The reported mean sleep duration of 6.3 h per night may negatively impact training outcomes across BMT. Combining both subjective and objective measures of sleep best explained relationships between sleep metrics stress, fatigue and recovery. Perceived sleep quality was most strongly related to change in stress, recovery, or post-sleep fatigue.
... It is important to highlight that the onset of sleep problems has been found to be the transition point for short or long sleep duration [38]. First, sleep problems impact on testosterone and anabolic hormones such as insulin-like growth factor-1 that regulate protein synthesis and thus maintain skeletal muscle mass [39]. Second, insulin resistance associated with sleep problems can cause loss of muscle mass and function in older adults [40]. ...
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Background Sleep duration may influence risk for sarcopenia but studies on this topic are scarce, especially from low and- middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep duration and sarcopenia among adults aged ≥ 65 years from five LMICs (China, Ghana, India, Russia, South Africa). Methods Cross-sectional, community-based data from the WHO study on global ageing and adult health (SAGE) were analysed. Sarcopenia was defined as having low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) and weak handgrip strength, while severe sarcopenia was defined as having low SMM, weak handgrip strength, and slow gait speed. Self-reported sleep duration in the past two nights were averaged and classified as ≤ 6, > 6 to ≤ 9, and ≥ 9 h/day. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results Data on 13,210 adults aged ≥ 65 years [mean (SD) age 72.6 (11.3) years; 55.0% females] were analyzed. In the overall sample, compared to > 6 to ≤ 9 h/day of sleep duration, > 9 h/day was associated with 1.70 (95% CI 1.15–2.51) and 1.75 (95% CI 1.08–2.84) times higher odds for sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia, respectively. No significant associations were observed among males, but associations were particularly pronounced among females [i.e., OR = 2.19 (95% CI 1.26–3.81) for sarcopenia, and OR = 2.26 (95% CI 1.20–4.23) for severe sarcopenia]. Conclusions Long sleep duration was associated with an increased odds of sarcopenia and severe sarcopenia in LMICs, particularly in females. Future studies should investigate whether addressing long sleep duration among females can lead to lower risk for sarcopenia onset in LMICs.
... Stimulation of protein degradation is increased by sleep disturbance, which affects protein synthesis, and the impairment in protein synthesis causes muscular atrophy and decelerates the recovery of athletes (Dattilo et al., 2011), for this reason, sleep plays an important role regarding performance and recovery of athletes (Bonnar, Bartel, Kakoschke, Lang, 2018). The average nocturnal sleep duration is 6.7 hours during the weekdays and on weekends is 7.4 hours (Goel, Rao, Durmer, Dinges, 2009). ...
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Aim: The purpose of the current study was to analyse the effect of life stress, competitive trait anxiety and sleep disturbance on injury susceptibility in football players. Methods: Participants were 67 male football players from different teams in Cologne ranging in age from 18 to 25 years (M = 21.09 years; SD = 2.69). Participants filled out four questionnaires: The Holmes-Rahe life stress scale, the sport competition anxiety test (SCAT), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) questionnaire on health problems. Results: Results suggest that while life stress may increase the injury susceptibility, competitive trait anxiety, and sleep disturbance have no effect on injury susceptibility. Concerning this descriptive data, 53.7 % (36/67) of the players stayed away from the football field for at least one week, and about 23.8 % (16/67) of them did not have any injury during this four months’ period. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that high life stress levels caused athletic injury; for these reasons the psychological dimension should be considered and adapted in the training. Although we found no significant correlation between competitive trait anxiety, and sleep disturbance on injury susceptibility, longitudinal studies are required to assess the effect of life stress, anxiety, and sleep disturbance on injury susceptibility.
... Sleep is linked to anabolic pathways [34] so how sleep disturbance affects metabolic pathways in young athletes needs to be considered. Dattilo et al. hypothesize a shift towards catabolic hormones during sleep debt contributes to muscle mass loss and a decrease in muscle recovery after exercise or injury [58]. Relevant to the prepubertal female athlete are malnutrition [29] and sleep deprivation which affect the anabolic growth hormone (GH) [59]. ...
Article
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The effects of sleep on elite athletes in late adolescence and early adulthood have been well documented in a myriad of sports. However, there is underrepresentation of pre-pubertal and young female adolescent athlete research between the ages of 11–17, and specifically female gymnast and swimmers. Neglecting to understand how high energy demand at a young age relates to sleep and restoration may lead to developmental ramifications for this group, as they display physiological dysfunctions like delayed puberty, amenorrhea and are at risk for the female athlete triad or components of the triad. This review aims to summarize the contemporary variables of blue light emitting screens, social media, and caffeine on quality and quantity of sleep in young athletes while identifying gaps in the literature on how these factors impact the target group of young female swimmers and gymnasts. The implications of this work include sleep hygiene recommendations for increasing duration and quality of sleep, as well as future research with respect to electronic device usage, social media participation, caffeine consumption, and sport engagement in female early adolescent athletes.
... One possible reason is that muscle strength decline occurs 2-5 times faster than SMM loss, which can be linked to the physical QOL decline (25). Another possible reason is that muscle strength decline is associated with hormonal changes such as insulin-like growth factors 1 and testosterone, potentially resulting in exacerbation of physical condition (26). GS can be a representative marker for whole-body muscle strength and has been shown to be an independent marker of nutrition (27). ...
Article
Aim: To examine the relationship between longitudinal quality of life (QOL) change, as assessed by the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36), sarcopenia-related factors and body composition in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLDs). Patients and methods: Data from patients with CLDs (n=184) were retrospectively analyzed, focusing on factors associated with the difference of physical and mental component summary score (PCS and MCS) in SF-36 between the two visits (ΔPCS and ΔMCS). The difference of serum albumin level, body mass index (BMI), arm circumference, arm muscle circumference, grip strength (GS), skeletal muscle index, extracellular to total body water ratio between the two visits were included into the multiple regression analysis. Results: Δalbumin (p=0.0325) and ΔGS (p<0.0001) were independent factors linked to ΔPCS Δalbumin (p=0.0005) and ΔBMI (p=0.0232) were independent factors linked to ΔMCS Conclusion: Significance of serum albumin level, muscle strength and body composition on health-related QOL in CLD patients should be emphasized.
... Az (saat) uyku veya kötü uyku kalitesi sonucunda insülin benzeri büyüme faktörü-1 (IGF-1) (IGF-1 aracılı sinyal, kas protein sentezinin uyarılmasında merkezi bir unsur) ve testosteron konsantrasyonlarında (protein sentezini uyarır) azalma; katabolik hormon olan glukokortikoid seviyelerinde (kortizol) artışa neden olur. Yüksek kortizol/kortikosteron seviyeleri katabolizma artışına, katabolizma artışı da kas atrofisine ve kas proteinlerinin azalmasına neden olur, bir başka ifadeyle protein yıkımının artışı görülür (Dattilo et al., 2011). ...
... in relation to performance and recovery, it has been confirmed that sleep plays a fundamental role in both physiological and psychological aspects. 4,5 Moreover, the effects of sleep deprivation have been shown in some athletes to have adverse impacts on several factors associated with obtaining optimal performance such as metabolic and immune function; 3, 6 cognitive performance, 5 and psychological state. 7,8 it has also been associated with an increased incidence of fatigue-related injury; 9 hormonal and metabolic disturbances, 10 and increased sympathetic nervous system activity. ...
Article
The role of sleep is now recognised as an important component for success in athletic performance, and sleep is proposed to be one of the most effective recovery strategies available. Insufficient sleep is commonly reported among athletes, and several factors have been put forward to explain why elite athletes might experience poor sleep. However, Paralympic athletes may be predisposed to a greater risk of poor sleep due to the associated complexities of some impairment types. In fact, clinical research has previously shown that individuals with disabilities have a higher prevalence of sleep disturbances when compared to their able-bodied counterparts. However, research and evidence-based practices regarding the sleep of elite Paralympic athletes is limited. This narrative review aims firstly, to, identify challenges associated with the Paralympic games to obtain optimal sleep, secondly, identify the specific risk factors to sleep associated with particular impairment groups within the Paralympic population, and lastly to propose potential sleep-enhancing strategies that might be of relevance for Paralympic athletes. From this review, initial observations have identified that Paralympic athletes may have a heightened risk of sleep-related problems and highlighted the current lack of understanding within this population group, and where further research is warranted to better understand how their specific impairments impact on sleep and, consequently, athletic performance. Additionally, this review highlighted that the forthcoming Tokyo games may offer a unique challenge for athlete trying to obtain optimal sleep, due to the anticipated thermal demands and the consequent irregular scheduling of events.
... Furthermore, sleep fragmentation is responsible for the disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, elevating cortisol levels [40]. Steroid hormones (testosterone, cortisol/corticosterone) affect the nocturnal catabolic debt conditions and they appear to be associated with increased adipose body mass in humans, which in turn diminishes performance in exercise due to suboptimal body composition [41], besides cognitive decline because of sleep deprivation. Cortisol enhances the activity of catecholamines and, hence, the SNS activity. ...
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of sleep quality in cognitive domains of perceptual ability after exhausting exercise in adolescent and adult athletes. Eighty-six male professional soccer players were included in our study and divided into two groups: adolescents (age: 17.3 ± 0.2 yrs, body mass: 68.9 ± 7.9 kg, body fat: 9.9 ± 3.6 %) versus adults (age: 26.3 ± 5.2 yrs, body mass: 76.5 ± 7.2 kg, body fat: 10.3 ± 3.1 %). For each athlete, prior to cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET), anthropometric and morphological characteristics were recorded and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire was answered. Immediately after CPET, all athletes underwent the perceptual ability test (PATest) for 30 sec and the sum of hits (rep/30 sec) and the time between a visual stimulus and the following stimulus (mean reaction time; RT, sec) were recorded. Oxygen uptake in maximal effort and in anaerobic threshold showed differences between hits ( P = 0.037 ) and RT ( P = 0.025 ). The variable of PSQI questionnaire “had bad dreams” showed correlation with hits ( P = 0.021 ) and RT ( P = 0.011 ) and the RT showed correlation with variables “cannot breathe comfortably” ( P = 0.041 ) and “...enthusiasm to get things done” ( P = 0.041 ). Adolescents showed poorer sleep quality (PSQI score: 5.7 ± 3.6 vs. 2.4 ± 2.6) compared to adults and slower reaction time (0.9 ± 0.1 vs. 0.8 ± 0.1 sec, P = 0.029 ) compared to adolescent athletes with PSQI score ≥5.5. The variable of PSQI score in adolescents is related to HR in maximal effort (r = −0.364, P = 0.032 ) and in adults is related to speed (r = −0.335, P = 0.016 ). Perceptual ability, which requires sustained attention, vigilance, and motor coordination, is often negatively affected by restricted sleep, especially in adolescents.
... Sleep is a crucial biological function, strongly tied to physical and mental health outcomes. Optimal sleep is linked to tissue and muscle reparation and growth [1][2][3][4][5], release of growth hormones [6], and memory consolidation [7,8]. Conversely, disordered or shortened sleep is associated with increased risk for many health consequences including cardiovascular disease [9,10], inflammation [11], obesity [12], diabetes [13], cognitive impairment [14,15], injury [16,17], and mortality [18,19]. ...
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Background The 12-item Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Scale (MOS Sleep Scale) has been used to capture patient-reported sleep problems in hundreds of studies. A revised version of the MOS Sleep Scale (MOS Sleep-R) was developed that uses simplified response sets, provides interpretable norm-based scoring, and has two recall versions (one-week or four-week). The objective of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties (reliability and construct validity) of the MOS Sleep-R using data from a representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Standardization of raw scores into norm-based T -scores (mean = 50, standard deviation = 10) was based on data from a 2009 U.S. internet-based general population survey. The internal consistency reliability of multi-item subscales and global sleep problems indices for both one-week and four-week recall forms of the MOS Sleep-R were examined using Cronbach’s alphas and inter-item correlations. Construct validity was tested by comparing item-scale correlations between items within subscales with item-scale correlations across subscales. Scale-level convergent validity was tested using correlations with measures including generic health-related quality of life (i.e., SF-36v2) and other relevant outcomes (e.g., job performance, number of days in bed due to illness or injury, happiness/satisfaction with life, frequency of stress/pressure in daily life, the impact of stress/pressure on health, and overall health). Results The one-week and four-week recall forms of the MOS Sleep-R were completed by 2045 and 2033 respondents, respectively. The psychometric properties of the one-week and four-week forms were similar. All multi-item subscales and global index scores showed adequate internal consistency reliability (all Cronbach’s alpha > 0.75). Patterns of inter-item and item-scale correlations support the scaling assumptions of the MOS Sleep-R. Patterns of correlations between MOS Sleep-R scores with criterion measures of health-related quality of life and other outcomes indicated adequate construct validity. Conclusions The MOS Sleep-R introduces a number of revisions to the original survey, including simplified response sets, the introduction of a one-week recall form, and norm-based scoring that enhances interpretability of scores. Both the one-week and four-week recall period forms of the MOS Sleep-R demonstrated good internal consistency reliability and construct validity in a U.S. general population sample.
... There are natural brief arousals at the end of each sleep cycle, of which the individual is often not aware [5]. While the exact functions of sleep are not entirely known, both REM and NREM sleep are critical for the restoration of physiological and mental functions [6]. Regulation of sleep involves two physiological processes that work together to ensure optimal alertness during wake periods, and these processes play an important role in the timing, intensity and duration of sleep. ...
... In a physically demanding professional rugby environment, a ~1-hr sleep extension (from 6:52 to 7:35 hr:min) also showed improved reaction times in a 5-min psychomotor vigilance response test (Swinbourne et al., 2018). Although sleep architecture was not measured in the current study, the aerobic improvement seen in the OVERS group in the current study could potentially be related to an increase of growth hormone release and its relationship to physiological recovery (Dattilo et al., 2011). Growth hormone levels have been shown to effect physical performance, aerobic capacity and, specifically, VO 2 max; thus, it is plausible that these physiological processes have supported muscle recovery and growth, and the observed increase in press-ups and run times (O'Donnell et al., 2018;Widdowson et al., 2009). ...
Article
Sleep is vital in influencing effective training adaptations in the military. This study aimed to assess the relationship between sleep and changes in physical performance over 6 weeks of military training. A total of 22 officer‐trainees (age: 24 ± 5 years) from the New Zealand Defence Force were used for this prospective cohort study. Participants wore wrist‐actigraphs to monitor sleep, completed subjective wellbeing questionnaires weekly, and were tested for: 2.4‐km run time‐trial, maximum press‐up and curl‐ups before and after 6 weeks of training. Average sleep duration was calculated over 36 nights (6:10 ± 0:28 hr:min), and sleep duration at the mid‐point (6:15 hr:min) was used to stratify the trainees into two quantile groups (UNDERS: 5:51 ± 0:29 hr:min, n = 11) and (OVERS: 6:27 ± 0:09 hr:min, n = 11). There were no significant group × time interactions for 2.4‐km run, press‐ups or curl‐ups (p > .05); however, small effects were observed in favour of OVERS for 2.4‐km run (59.8 versus 44.9 s; d = 0.26) and press‐ups (4.7 versus 3.2 reps; d = 0.45). Subjective wellbeing scores resulted in a significant group × time interaction (p < .05), with large effect sizes in favour of the OVERS group for Fatigue in Week 1 (d = 0.90) and Week 3 (d = 0.87), and Soreness in Week 3 (d = 1.09) and Week 4 (d = 0.95). Sleeping more than 6:15 hr:min per night over 6 weeks was associated with small benefits to aspects of physical performance, and moderate to large benefits on subjective wellbeing measures when compared with sleeping < 6:15 hr:min.
Article
Professional sport belongs to those types of activities that are accompanied by high energy costs and requires more than a person needs on average, the amount of sleep. Sleep of professional athletes is important for restoring the brain’s energy expenditure, as well as for the normal functioning of memory and attention, and, consequently, for achieving high sports results. The article analyzes the literature devoted to the study of the role of sleep for athletes, scientific information about the representation, nature and consequences of its violations, summarizes and structures data related to the strategy for optimizing sleep in this population group.
Article
Background Daytime napping on match-day is a strategy used by athletes to alleviate sleep debt or to avoid boredom. However, the utilization of pre-match napping and its effect on self-rated performance has not been evaluated in professional Rugby athletes. Methods Over a 17-match season, 30 professional Rugby Union athletes (mean ± SD: 23 ± 3 y) completed a weekly questionnaire on their daytime napping practices on match day. Questions included whether they took a nap, the duration of nap, their mood state upon waking and, their perceived performance during the subsequent match. Additionally, three team coaches evaluated the match performance of each participant. Finally, each participant was asked a questionnaire focusing on their napping preferences and individual habits of match-day napping at the conclusion of the season. Results Pre-match naps were used by 86% of athletes, with an average nap duration of 32 ± 19 min. A significantly greater number of naps were taken during away matches compared to home matches (60% vs. 40%, p < 0.01). Of the athletes who napped, 86% chose to nap less than 4 h before kick-off. Furthermore, 87% of athletes who napped on match day reported believing naps helped their match performance. Additionally, the odds of an athlete rating their performance as “good” was increased 6.7 times if they napped and won the match. Conclusion This study highlights that match-day naps are commonly used amongst professional Rugby Union athletes. The results suggest that taking naps before away matches may support self-rated performance amongst Rugby Union athletes.
Article
Sleep is the most important but often neglected element of an individual’s overall health and well-being. Lack of sleep or poor sleep can adversely affect health in an individual and lead to various diseases. At the same time, sleep problems are not uncommon among students. The factors leading to poor sleep among management students who have a comparatively tight schedule are still unclear. The paper aims to understand the factors leading to poor sleep among management students. The study has been focused on the management students (MBA’s) studying in the different management colleges of the state of Maharashtra. A total of 297 management students were surveyed. Apart from factor analysis, the Kessler distress scale was used for Measuring Psychological distress.52% of the respondents fell in the category of likely to have a mental disorder. Managements can draw inference from this and implement strategies to make sure this number reduces.
Article
Temporal associations between moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) at four different multi-hour intervals during the day and the following indicators of sleep quality and sleep quantity in adolescents were examined. This research is a part of the CRO-PALS study, including 129 adolescents (48 boys, 81 girls; mean age ± SD = 15.6 ± 0.4 years) having complete data on sleep and MVPA measured by the SenseWear Pro3 Armband monitor. As data had a hierarchical structure, repeated measures multilevel modelling was used to assess the associations between PA and sleep. During school nights, in girls, morning MVPA was not related to following indicators of sleep quality and sleep quantity. At the same time, evening MVPA was linked with longer sleep onset latency (β=0.064;95%CI=0.025 to 0.103) and higher wake after sleep onset (β=0.156;95%CI=0.0482 to 0.2638). Moreover, during weekend nights, morning MVPA was not associated with sleep, while evening MVPA was accompanied by longer sleep onset latency (β=0.058;95%CI=0.023 to 0.093), higher wake after sleep onset (β=0.104;95%CI=0.012 to 0.20), and negatively with sleep efficiency (β=-0.019;95%CI=-0.037 to -0.001). In boys the specific multi-hour interval of performing physical activity was not associated with any of indicators of sleep quality. In conclusion, while no strong relations between MVPA and sleep were seen among boys, in girls morning hours MVPA resulted in better sleep patterns over school nights, while afternoon MVPA was followed with slight worsening of some indicators of sleep quality across the whole week.
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in understanding the relationship between sleep and suicide. Although sleep disturbances are commonly cited as critical risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviours, it is unclear to what degree sleep disturbances confer risk for suicide. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the extent to which sleep disturbances serve as risk factors (i.e., longitudinal correlates) for suicidal thoughts and behaviours. Our analyses included 156 total effects drawn from 42 studies published between 1982 and 2019. We used a random effects model to analyse the overall effects of sleep disturbances on suicidal ideation, attempts, and death. We additionally explored potential moderators of these associations. Our results indicated that sleep disturbances are statistically significant, yet weak, risk factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviours. The strongest associations were found for insomnia, which significantly predicted suicide ideation (OR 2.10 [95% CI 1.83–2.41]), and nightmares, which significantly predicted suicide attempt (OR 1.81 [95% CI 1.12–2.92]). Given the low base rate of suicidal behaviours, our findings raise questions about the practicality of relying on sleep disturbances as warning signs for imminent suicide risk. Future research is necessary to uncover the causal mechanisms underlying the relationship between sleep disturbances and suicide.
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Uykunun Egzersiz Performansı Üzerine Etkisi: Uyku, Beslenme ve Toparlanma İlişkisi Amaç: Bu araştırmanın amacı, uykunun egzersiz performansı üzerindeki atletik, fizyolojik ve bilişsel etkileri ile uyku kalitesinin artmasına yardımcı olabilecek beslenme önerilerini incelemektir. Yöntem: Araştırma, literatür taraması ve içerik analiz yöntemi kullanılarak yapılan derleme türü bir çalışmadır. Çalışmaya ait literatür verileri konuya ışık tutabilecek akademik yayınlar ve nitelikli kitaplardan elde edilmiştir. Bu doğrultuda PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect veritabanlarında ‘Sleep’, ‘Sleep and Performance’, ‘the importance of sleep’ ve ‘Uyku ve Egzersiz’ anahtar kelimeleri ile tarama yapılarak yayınlanan araştırmalar çalışmanın amacına uygun şekilde incelenmiş ve derlenmiştir. Bulgular: Çalışmaya dahil edilen literatür veriler, uykunun en temel fizyolojik ihtiyacın çok ötesinde, sporcuların antrenman performansı, toparlanma, bilişsel performans ve dengeli ruh hali gibi en önemli noktalar için kritik bir role sahip olduğunu göstermektedir. Yapılan çalışmalar sporcular için 6-8 saat uykunun yeterli olabileceğini, bir gecelik uyku eksikliğinin performans üzerine direkt olumsuz etkisinin olmayacağını belirtmektedir. Triptofan yönünden zengin besinlerin uyku kalitesini arttırdığı, alkol ve kafein gibi uyarıcıların uyku üzerine olumsuz etkilerinin olabileceği görülmektedir. Sonuç: Sonuç olarak sporcular için antrenman harici performans gelişimini destekleyen en önemli unsurlardan biri uyku olmaktadır. Hem fiziksel hem de ruhsal etkileri olan uyku, beslenme ve toparlanma ile de doğrudan ilişkisi olması sebebiyle yaşam boyu dikkat edilmesi gereken çok önemli bir fizyolojik ihtiyaçtır. Effect of Sleep on Exercise Performance: The Relationship Between Sleep, Nutrition and Recovery Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the athletic, physiological and cognitive effects of sleep on exercise performance and nutritional recommendations that can help increase sleep quality. Method: The research is a compilation style study using the literature review and content analysis method. The literature data of the study were obtained from academic publications and qualified books that can shed light on the subject. In this respect, the researches published by scanning the PubMed, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect databases with the keywords 'Sleep', 'Sleep and Performance', 'the importance of sleep' and 'Sleep and Exercise' were examined and compiled in accordance with the purpose of the study. Results: The literature data included in the study shows that sleep has a critical role in the most important aspects of athletes such as training performance, recovery, cognitive performance and balanced mood, far beyond the most basic physiological needs. Studies indicate that 6-8 hours of sleep may be sufficient for athletes, and lack of sleep for one night will not have a direct negative effect on performance. It is observed that foods rich in tryptophan increase sleep quality, and stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine may have negative effects on sleep. Conclusion: As a result, sleep is one of the most important factors supporting non-training performance development for athletes. It is a very important physiological need that should be considered throughout life, as it is directly related to sleep, nutrition and recovery, which have both physical and mental effects.
Article
Introduction: Although previous studies have reported the significant associations of sleep quality with gait speed and falls, the mechanisms underlying these associations are unclear. We aimed to examine the gender-specific associations of sleep quality with gait speed and falls among older adults and to explore the possible mediating effect of muscle strength on these relationships. Methods: Data were taken from wave 6 (2012-2013) of the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA), including 7,664 participants aged 60 years and older. Sleep quality and falls were assessed by self-report. Gait speed was measured by the "timed walking test" and then adjusted by height. As an indicator of overall muscle strength, grip strength was measured by using the Smedley dynamometer. Baron and Kenny's causal steps and the Karlson/Holm/Breen method were used to examine the mediating effect. Results: Higher sleep quality was associated with the higher level of gait speed (β = 0.008, p = 0.031 in men; β = 0.008, p = 0.017 in women) and with lower prevalence of falls (OR = 0.878, 95% CI: 0.773, 0.998 in men; OR = 0.874, 95% CI: 0.792, 0.965 in women). Grip strength mediated these associations in men but not in women, and the mediating effects of grip strength can explain 23.74 and 11.01% of the total effect of sleep quality on gait speed and falls, respectively. Conclusion: Our findings help explain the mechanism underlying the associations of sleep quality with gait speed and falls. Effort to maintain the mobility of the older men should focus on improving both sleep quality and muscle strength.
Chapter
To date, scientists have listed sleep as a fundamental behavior for the promotion and maintenance of health, while inadequate sleep is attributed to a series of significant organic changes, especially metabolic ones, hormonal, immunological, and cognitive. Collectively these changes can disrupt skeletal muscle homeostasis and compromise its normal functioning include alteration in protein turnover, morphology, and functionality. Skeletal muscle tissue is one of the most dynamic and plastic tissues of the human body, with the main function related to locomotion and support of the skeleton. In addition, currently has been seen as an important modulator of body metabolism, immune system activity, moreover to its endocrine function. Therefore, understanding the bilateral influence between sleep and skeletal muscle seems to be essential to the adoption of intervention strategies that are capable of promotion or maintenance of the population’s quality of life.
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Background context: Sleep disturbance is highly prevalent in patients with spinal cord injury and is one of the most important clinical issues affecting their quality of life. However, it has not been properly measured or treated in patients with cervical myelopathy (CM), although most typical or atypical symptoms of CM are known to be risk factors for sleep disturbance. In addition, previous studies identified that the presence of sleep disturbance is unintentionally missed under the current evaluation process for degenerative spinal disease without direct investigation using validated tools for sleep. Therefore, studies about sleep disturbances in patients with CM are essential. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sleep disturbance in patients with CM using validated tools and to understand its mechanism by identifying high-risk patients. Study design/setting: Cross-sectional study. Patient sample: Consecutive patients diagnosed with CM OUTCOME MEASURES: Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI). Methods: This study was performed on patients diagnosed with CM. Sleep disturbance was determined using the PSQI. Variables associated with sleep disturbance including demographics, lifestyle, medical history, and radiologic parameters were investigated. Independent risk factors related to sleep disturbance were identified using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results: A total of 203 patients with CM were included in our study. Among them, 126 patients (62.1%) were men, and the mean age was 63.0 years. Despite male predominance, sleep disturbance was identified in 71.4% of patients (145 out of 203). Multivariate analysis identified a worse depression scale score, a lower modified Japanese Orthopedic Association score, chronic shoulder joint pain, smaller spinal cord area, and decreased cervical range of motion as independent risk factors for sleep disturbance. Conclusions: In patients with CM, sleep disturbance was associated with a more severe type of myelopathy. Further studies including polysomnography and measurement of melatonin will be helpful to identify the mechanisms of the sleep disturbance in patients with CM and to improve their quality of life and clinical outcomes.
Article
Objectives This study aimed to examine the association between sleep quality and physical performance among a group of UK community-dwelling older adults, according to sex. Methods Sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Physical performance was assessed using a short physical performance battery (SPPB), a timed up-and-go, and a hand-grip strength test. Results Of 591 eligible study members, 401 completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. In regression analyses, men who reported poor sleep quality were significantly more likely to have a poor SPPB score, even after adjustment for confounding factors (OR = 2.54, 95% CI 1.10-5.89, P= .03). The direction of the relationship was reversed among women, where those who reported poor sleep were less likely to have a low SPPB score (OR = 0.36, 95% CI 0.15-0.85, P = .02). Poor sleep quality was associated with poorer hand-grip strength among women (regression coefficient = −0.34 z score, 95% CI −0.64, −0.04, P = .03), but this relationship was not observed among men (regression coefficient = 0.28 z score, 95% CI −0.01, 0.57, P = .06). Conclusion We found evidence of an association between poor sleep quality and poorer physical performance in older adults, though there appear to be important sex differences.
Article
Insufficient sleep is a serious public health problem in college students. Exercise is a widely prescribed behavioral treatment for sleep and mood issues; however, more focused and gender-specific prescriptions are needed. The present study examined relationships between exercise, sleep, and mood in undergraduate men and women. Students (N = 866, 19.6 ± 1.4 years, 38.7% women) were recruited from campus recreation facilities and completed demographic, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, mood (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System), and exercise questionnaires. The Department of Health and Human Services Physical Activity Guidelines were used to dichotomize those who did and did not meet weekly aerobic and strength training exercise recommendations. In men, greater exercise frequency associated with less daytime dysfunction (β = 0.147) and less depressive mood (β = -0.64, ps < .05). In women, greater exercise frequency associated with earlier bedtime (β = -12.6), improved sleep quality (β = 0.17), increased positive affect (β = 0.91), less depressive mood (β = -0.71), and less anger (β = -1.24, ps < .05). Compared to men, women reported earlier bedtime, poorer sleep efficiency, and more anxiety and depressive mood (ps < .05, η p 2 range: 0.01-0.04). Compared to individuals who met physical activity guidelines, those who did not meet the guidelines reported later bedtimes, less positive affect, more anxiety, and more anger (ps < .05 η p 2 s = 0.01). Among men, those who met physical activity guidelines reported falling asleep more quickly than those who did not meet guidelines ( η p 2 = 0.01, p = .007); however, no relationship between guideline adherence and sleep latency was observed in women. Adhering to physical activity guidelines may be important for optimal sleep and emotional health. Clinicians should consider gender when creating exercise prescriptions for sleep issues.
Article
Background Hospitalized older intensive care unit (ICU) survivors are often inactive and experience sleep disturbances. Objective We explored associations between post-ICU activity, sleep/rest, and motor function among hospitalized older ICU survivors. Methods We enrolled 30 older ICU survivors, ages 65 and older, within 24–48 h of ICU discharge. Actigraphy measured post-ICU activity and sleep/rest. Selected measures from the National Institutes of Health Toolbox Motor Battery assessed grip strength and dexterity. Multivariate regression examined associations between post-ICU activity, sleep/rest, and motor function, adjusting for covariates. Results Lower daytime activity (β = 0.258, p = .035) and greater daytime sleep/rest (β = −0.295, p = .022) were associated with worse grip strength. Lower daytime activity (β = −0.376, p = .037) and greater daytime sleep/rest (β = 0.409, p = .026) were associated with worse dexterity. Conclusion Post-ICU inactivity and prolonged rest periods are associated with worse motor function in hospitalized older ICU survivors.
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Sleep loss can modify energy intake and expenditure. To determine whether sleep restriction attenuates the effect of a reduced-calorie diet on excess adiposity. Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover study. University clinical research center and sleep laboratory. 10 overweight nonsmoking adults (3 women and 7 men) with a mean age of 41 years (SD, 5) and a mean body mass index of 27.4 kg/m² (SD, 2.0). 14 days of moderate caloric restriction with 8.5 or 5.5 hours of nighttime sleep opportunity. The primary measure was loss of fat and fat-free body mass. Secondary measures were changes in substrate utilization, energy expenditure, hunger, and 24-hour metabolic hormone concentrations. Sleep curtailment decreased the proportion of weight lost as fat by 55% (1.4 vs. 0.6 kg with 8.5 vs. 5.5 hours of sleep opportunity, respectively; P = 0.043) and increased the loss of fat-free body mass by 60% (1.5 vs. 2.4 kg; P = 0.002). This was accompanied by markers of enhanced neuroendocrine adaptation to caloric restriction, increased hunger, and a shift in relative substrate utilization toward oxidation of less fat. The nature of the study limited its duration and sample size. The amount of human sleep contributes to the maintenance of fat-free body mass at times of decreased energy intake. Lack of sufficient sleep may compromise the efficacy of typical dietary interventions for weight loss and related metabolic risk reduction. National Institutes of Health.
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The daily rhythm of cortisol secretion is relatively stable and primarily under the influence of the circadian clock. Nevertheless, several other factors affect hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. Sleep has modest but clearly detectable modulatory effects on HPA axis activity. Sleep onset exerts an inhibitory effect on cortisol secretion while awakenings and sleep offset are accompanied by cortisol stimulation. During waking, an association between cortisol secretory bursts and indices of central arousal has also been detected. Abrupt shifts of the sleep period induce a profound disruption in the daily cortisol rhythm, while sleep deprivation and/or reduced sleep quality seem to result in a modest but functionally important activation of the axis. HPA hyperactivity is clearly associated with metabolic, cognitive and psychiatric disorders and could be involved in the well-documented associations between sleep disturbances and the risk of obesity, diabetes and cognitive dysfunction. Several clinical syndromes, such as insomnia, depression, Cushing's syndrome, sleep disordered breathing (SDB) display HPA hyperactivity, disturbed sleep, psychiatric and metabolic impairments. Further research to delineate the functional links between sleep and HPA axis activity is needed to fully understand the pathophysiology of these syndromes and to develop adequate strategies of prevention and treatment.
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Glucocorticoids are a well-recognized and common cause of muscle atrophy that can be prevented by testosterone. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying such protection have not been described. Thus, the global effects of testosterone on dexamethasone-induced changes in gene expression were evaluated in rat gastrocnemius muscle using DNA microarrays. Gene expression was analyzed after 7-d administration of dexamethasone, dexamethasone plus testosterone, or vehicle. Dexamethasone changed expression of 876 probe sets by at least 2-fold. Among these, 474 probe sets were changed by at least 2-fold in the opposite direction in the dexamethasone plus testosterone group (genes in opposition). Major biological themes represented by genes in opposition included IGF-I signaling, myogenesis and muscle development, and cell cycle progression. Testosterone completely prevented the 22-fold increase in expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor regulated in development and DNA damage responses 1 (REDD1), and attenuated dexamethasone induced increased expression of eIF4E binding protein 1, Forkhead box O1, and the p85 regulatory subunit of the IGF-I receptor but prevented decreased expression of IRS-1. Testosterone attenuated increases in REDD1 protein in skeletal muscle and L6 myoblasts and prevented dephosphorylation of p70S6 kinase at the mTOR-dependent site Thr389 in L6 myoblast cells. Effects of testosterone on REDD1 mRNA levels occurred within 1 h, required the androgen receptor, were blocked by bicalutamide, and were due to inhibition of transcriptional activation of REDD1 by dexamethasone. These data suggest that testosterone blocks dexamethasone-induced changes in expression of REDD1 and other genes that collectively would otherwise down-regulate mTOR activity and hence also down-regulate protein synthesis.
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Compared to a few decades ago, adults, as well as children, sleep less. Sleeping as little as possible is often seen as an admirable behavior in contemporary society. However, sleep plays a major role in neuroendocrine function and glucose metabolism. Evidence that the curtailment of sleep duration may have adverse health effects has emerged in the past 10 years. Accumulating evidence from both epidemiologic studies and well-controlled laboratory studies indicates that chronic partial sleep loss may increase the risk of obesity and weight gain. The present chapter reviews epidemiologic studies in adults and children and laboratory studies in young adults indicating that sleep restriction results in metabolic and endocrine alterations, including decreased glucose tolerance, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased evening concentrations of cortisol, increased levels of ghrelin, decreased levels of leptin and increased hunger and appetite. Altogether, the evidence points to a possible role of decreased sleep duration in the current epidemic of obesity. Bedtime extension in short sleepers should be explored as a novel behavioral intervention that may prevent weight gain or facilitate weight loss. Avoiding sleep deprivation may help to prevent the development of obesity, particularly in children.
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Sleep deprivation is associated with considerable social, financial, and health-related costs, in large measure because it produces impaired cognitive performance due to increasing sleep propensity and instability of waking neurobehavioral functions. Cognitive functions particularly affected by sleep loss include psychomotor and cognitive speed, vigilant and executive attention, working memory, and higher cognitive abilities. Chronic sleep-restriction experiments--which model the kind of sleep loss experienced by many individuals with sleep fragmentation and premature sleep curtailment due to disorders and lifestyle--demonstrate that cognitive deficits accumulate to severe levels over time without full awareness by the affected individual. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that frequent and progressively longer cognitive lapses, which are a hallmark of sleep deprivation, involve distributed changes in brain regions including frontal and parietal control areas, secondary sensory processing areas, and thalamic areas. There are robust differences among individuals in the degree of their cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss that may involve differences in prefrontal and parietal cortices, and that may have a basis in genes regulating sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Thus, cognitive deficits believed to be a function of the severity of clinical sleep disturbance may be a product of genetic alleles associated with differential cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss.
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Sleep comprises approximately one-third of a person's lifetime, but its impact on health and medical conditions remains partially unrecognized. The prevalence of sleep disorders is increasing in modern societies, with significant repercussions on people's well-being. This article reviews past and current literature on the paradoxical sleep deprivation method as well as data on its consequences to animals, ranging from behavioral changes to alterations in the gene expression. More specifically, we highlight relevant experimental studies and our group's contribution over the last three decades.
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Cortisol, urea, glucose, electrolytes, and other compounds were measured in five consecutive 24 h urine collections during a 72 h sleep deprivation study in six young men. Urine was collected during a 24 h predeprivation day, 3 days of sleep deprivation, and a recovery day. Whereas urinary cortisol decreased only slightly, marked changes in other urinary constituents were observed. During sleep deprivation, urinary urea rose markedly, glucose decreased, and urinary electrolytes decreased. These data indicate that sleep deprivation under ad lib food and water conditions can cause disturbances in normal metabolism.
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Skeletal muscles adapt to changes in their workload by regulating fibre size by unknown mechanisms. The roles of two signalling pathways implicated in muscle hypertrophy on the basis of findings in vitro, Akt/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) and calcineurin/NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells), were investigated in several models of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy in vivo. The Akt/mTOR pathway was upregulated during hypertrophy and downregulated during muscle atrophy. Furthermore, rapamycin, a selective blocker of mTOR, blocked hypertrophy in all models tested, without causing atrophy in control muscles. In contrast, the calcineurin pathway was not activated during hypertrophy in vivo, and inhibitors of calcineurin, cyclosporin A and FK506 did not blunt hypertrophy. Finally, genetic activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway was sufficient to cause hypertrophy and prevent atrophy in vivo, whereas genetic blockade of this pathway blocked hypertrophy in vivo. We conclude that the activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway and its downstream targets, p70S6K and PHAS-1/4E-BP1, is requisitely involved in regulating skeletal muscle fibre size, and that activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway can oppose muscle atrophy induced by disuse.
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Myostatin (MSTN), a transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta superfamily member, has been shown to negatively regulate muscle growth by inhibiting muscle precursor cell proliferation. Here, we stably transfected C(2)C(12) cells with mouse MSTN cDNA to investigate its possible role in myoblast differentiation. We found that MSTN cDNA overexpression reversibly inhibits the myogenic process by downregulating mRNA levels of the muscle regulatory factors myoD and myogenin, as well as the activity of their downstream target creatine kinase. Taking into consideration that MSTN expression during development is restricted to muscle, our results suggest that MSTN probably regulates myogenic differentiation by an autocrine mechanism.
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Myostatin, a negative regulator of myogenesis, is shown to function by controlling the proliferation of myoblasts. In this study we show that myostatin is an inhibitor of myoblast differentiation and that this inhibition is mediated through Smad 3. In vitro, increasing concentrations of recombinant mature myostatin reversibly blocked the myogenic differentiation of myoblasts, cultured in low serum media. Western and Northern blot analysis indicated that addition of myostatin to the low serum culture media repressed the levels of MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and p21 leading to the inhibition of myogenic differentiation. The transient transfection of C(2)C(12) myoblasts with MyoD expressing constructs did not rescue myostatin-inhibited myogenic differentiation. Myostatin signaling specifically induced Smad 3 phosphorylation and increased Smad 3.MyoD association, suggesting that Smad 3 may mediate the myostatin signal by interfering with MyoD activity and expression. Consistent with this, the expression of dominant-negative Smad3 rescued the activity of a MyoD promoter-reporter in C(2)C(12) myoblasts treated with myostatin. Taken together, these results suggest that myostatin inhibits MyoD activity and expression via Smad 3 resulting in the failure of the myoblasts to differentiate into myotubes. Thus we propose that myostatin plays a critical role in myogenic differentiation and that the muscular hyperplasia and hypertrophy seen in animals that lack functional myostatin is because of deregulated proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.
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Muscle growth results from a set of complex processes including myogenic transcription factor's expression and activity, cell cycle withdrawal, myoblast fusion in myotubes, and acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype. Myostatin, a member of the TGFbeta family, described as a strong regulator of myogenesis in vivo Nature 387 (1997), 83; FEBS Lett. 474 (2000), 71 is upregulated during in vitro differentiation Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 280 (2001), 561. To improve characterization of myostatin's myogenic influence, we stably transfected vectors expressing myostatin and myostatin antisense in C2C12 myoblasts. Here, we found that myostatin inhibits cell proliferation and differentiation. Our results also indicate that myogenin is an important target of myostatin. In addition, overexpressed but not endogenous myostatin decreases MyoD protein levels and induces changes in its phosphorylation pattern. We also established that myostatin overexpression reduces the frequency of G0/G1-arrested cells during differentiation. Conversely, inhibition of myostatin synthesis leads to enhanced cell cycle withdrawal and consequently stimulates myoblast differentiation. We examined the expression patterns of the pRb, E2F1, p53, and p21 proteins involved in cell cycle withdrawal. We found that myostatin overexpression increases p21 and p53 expression, as it does accumulation of hypophosphorylated Rb. Interestingly, myostatin overexpression strongly reduced low-mitogen-induced apoptosis, whereas antisense expression induced contrary changes. In conclusion, these data show the influence of overexpressed myostatin on myoblast proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis is extended to endogenous myostatin. Though some differences in overexpression or inhibition of endogenous myostatin were observed, it appears that myogenin and p21 are essential targets of this growth factor.
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Skeletal muscle atrophy attributable to muscular inactivity has significant adverse functional consequences. While the initiating physiological event leading to atrophy seems to be the loss of muscle tension and a good deal of the physiology of muscle atrophy has been characterized, little is known about the triggers or the molecular signaling events underlying this process. Decreases in protein synthesis and increases in protein degradation both have been shown to contribute to muscle protein loss due to disuse, and recent work has delineated elements of both synthetic and proteolytic processes underlying muscle atrophy. It is also becoming evident that interactions among known proteolytic pathways (ubiquitin-proteasome, lysosomal, and calpain) are involved in muscle proteolysis during atrophy. Factors such as TNF-alpha, glucocorticoids, myostatin, and reactive oxygen species can induce muscle protein loss under specified conditions. Also, it is now apparent that the transcription factor NF-kappaB is a key intracellular signal transducer in disuse atrophy. Transcriptional profiles of atrophying muscle show both up- and downregulation of various genes over time, thus providing further evidence that there are multiple concurrent processes involved in muscle atrophy. The purpose of this review is to synthesize our current understanding of the molecular regulation of muscle atrophy. We also discuss how ongoing work should uncover more about the molecular underpinnings of muscle wasting, particularly that due to disuse.
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Total sleep deprivation in rodents and in humans has been associated with hyperphagia. Over the past 40 years, self-reported sleep duration in the United States has decreased by almost 2 hours. To determine whether partial sleep curtailment, an increasingly prevalent behavior, alters appetite regulation. Randomized, 2-period, 2-condition crossover clinical study. Clinical Research Center, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois. 12 healthy men (mean age [+/-SD], 22 +/- 2 years; mean body mass index [+/-SD], 23.6 +/- 2.0 kg/m2). Daytime profiles of plasma leptin and ghrelin levels and subjective ratings of hunger and appetite. 2 days of sleep restriction and 2 days of sleep extension under controlled conditions of caloric intake and physical activity. Sleep restriction was associated with average reductions in the anorexigenic hormone leptin (decrease, 18%; P = 0.04), elevations in the orexigenic factor ghrelin (increase, 28%; P < 0.04), and increased hunger (increase, 24%; P < 0.01) and appetite (increase, 23%; P = 0.01), especially for calorie-dense foods with high carbohydrate content (increase, 33% to 45%; P = 0.02). The study included only 12 young men and did not measure energy expenditure. Short sleep duration in young, healthy men is associated with decreased leptin levels, increased ghrelin levels, and increased hunger and appetite.
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