Kawasaki disease: Current aspects on aetiopathogenesis and therapeutic management

University of Athens, Internal Medicine, 17 St. Thomas St., 11527, Athens.
Autoimmunity reviews (Impact Factor: 7.93). 07/2011; 10(9):544-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.autrev.2011.04.005
Source: PubMed


Kawasaki disease (KD) is a vasculitis that affects mainly children of 6 months to 4 years old. It is important to be early recognised so as to limit the inflammatory cascade that may lead to aneurysmatic dilatations of coronary arteries. The causative agent of KD has not been still indentified and the aetiopathogenetic theories are based on epidemiologic, laboratory and histological data. The management of the disease is divided according to the clinical stage and patients' follow up should be continued for years after the disease onset. The exact period is determined by the risk level of the KD.

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    • "Recent investigations also support the hypothesis of a pivotal role of the immune system, which seems to be involved in the disease development through an inflammatory pathway that leads to vascular cells damage (Alexoudi et al., 2011). The systemic inflammatory abnormalities may in fact be observed in many organs causing myocarditis, vasculitis, aseptic meningitis , pneumonia, hepatitis and lymphadenitis (Chung & Stein, 1998). "
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    ABSTRACT: Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute, multisystemic, febrile vasculitis of unknown aetiology, which affects young children mainly under 5 years of age. The clinical variability has until now prevented to decrypt KD aetiological factors. Recently, the importance of genetics and the pivotal role of the immune system have emerged. To investigate in this direction, genomic DNA from 74 Caucasian KD cases and 440 healthy controls has been analysed to characterize functional polymorphisms of relevant HLA class III genes: AGER -429 and -374, TNF -857, -308 and -238, HSPA1A +190, HSPA1B +1267 and HSPA1L +2437. Allele, genotype and haplotype frequencies were therefore compared with the chi-squared test and Fisher's exact test. Our data showed significant deviations between patients with Kawasaki disease and controls concerning the TNF -308 polymorphism genotype (GG: P = 0.0449) and allele (G,A: P = 0.0433) and -238 polymorphism genotype frequencies (AA: P = 0.0351). Moreover, we found differences concerning the HSPA1A +190 polymorphism (GC: P = 0.0317) and the HSPA1L +2437 polymorphism (TT: P = 0.0072; TC: P = 0.0250; T: P = 0.0037; C: P = 0.0037). The calculation of TNF -238 and HSPA1L haplotype frequencies also pointed out a statistically significant decrease in patients of CG haplotype (P = 0.0001), which could have a role in protecting from the inflammatory processes that characterize the disease progression. The results obtained point to a possible involvement of the entire HLA class III region in KD susceptibility.
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    ABSTRACT: Although autoimmunity phenotype is surprisingly common in patients with different types of primary antibody deficiency, it is much less frequent in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA). Herein, we report on a 15-month-old boy with XLA who also suffered from Kawasaki disease. The current case presentation is the first report of an association between Kawasaki disease and XLA. XLA could be considered as a special opportunity to understand autoimmunity in the near absence of immunoglobulins.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2012 · Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
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    ABSTRACT: Cutaneous vasculitides are a heterogeneous group of inflammatory disorders affecting skin blood vessels. They may be triggered by several factors, such as infection or drug, or may be related to underlying disease, notably connective tissue or malignancies. However, vasculitis occurs without any demonstrable triggering agents in a relevant number of patients. On the other hand, vasculitic skin lesions may manifest as a component of vasculitis affecting also internal organs; in someone of these patients, skin involvement occurs initially as the sole sign of disease, leading to consider cutaneous vasculitis a diagnosis of exclusion. In this review, we have focused on the most common variants of cutaneous vasculitis, including cutaneous small vessel vasculitis and urticarial vasculitis as well as Henoch-Schönlein purpura, a systemic form in which however skin involvement often predominates. We have also argued on livedoid vasculopathy, a cutaneous entity which, although nonfrankly vasculitic in origin, is frequently associated with connective tissue disease. Finally, we have analyzed the variety of cutaneous manifestations that may develop during the course of the main systemic vasculitides, such as Wegener's granulomatosis, Churg-Strauss syndrome and polyarteritis nodosa.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2012 · Autoimmunity reviews
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